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RD-0124 (14D23)
Rocket-motor-RD-0124-Salon-du-bourget-2013-DSC 0055.jpg
Country of origin Russia
First flight2006-12-27
Designer KBKhA (Chief designers: Valery Kozelkov, Viktor Gorokhov  [ ru ]) [1]
Manufacturer KBKhA in-house [2]
ApplicationUpper Stage
Associated L/V Soyuz-2, Soyuz-5
Predecessor RD-0110
StatusIn Production
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / RP-1
Cycle Staged Combustion
Thrust (vac.)294.3 kN (66,200 lbf)
Thrust-to-weight ratio 52.5
Chamber pressure 15.7 MPa (2,280 psi)
Isp (vac.)359 s (3.52 km/s)
Burn time300 s
Length1,575 mm (62.0 in)
Diameter2,400 mm (94 in)
Dry weight572 kg (1,261 lb)
Used in
Soyuz-2-1b and Soyuz-2-1v Block-I
References [3] [4] [5] [6]

The RD-0124 (GRAU Index 14D23) is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a staged combustion cycle. RD-0124 engines are used on the Soyuz-2.1b and Soyuz-2-1v. A slight variation of the engine, the RD-0124A, is used on the Angara rocket family URM-2 upper stage. RD-0124 is developed by Chemical Automatics Design Bureau in Voronezh. [3]



RD-0124 engines use a multi-stage turbopump powered by pre-combustion of the engine propellants in the preburner. The kerosene fuel is used for regenerative cooling of the engine. Vehicle attitude control during ascent is provided by gimbaling the engine in two planes. The propellant tanks are helium-pressurized. [7] Four combustion chambers are fed by a single turbopump system. [7] [8] The engine operates at a high chamber pressure and, for the type of propellants used, achieves a very high specific impulse of nearly 360 seconds in vacuum – a specific impulse that can only be exceeded by hydrolox rockets like the RS-25, and by the next-generation methalox rockets like the Raptor engine.


The inaugural flight of a launch vehicle using an RD-0124 engine took place on December 27, 2006. [7] Orbital Sciences considered using the RD-0124 in the High Energy Second Stage (HESS) for their Antares rocket. It would have replaced the Castor 30B second stage. [9]


This upper stage engine has been adapted to two different launch vehicles, the Soyuz-2-1b/v and the Angara family. As such, there are different versions:

See also

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Liquid-propellant rocket Rocket engine that uses liquid fuels and oxidizers

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RS-25 Space Shuttle main engine

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Angara (rocket family) Russian family of RP-1/LOX fueled space-launch vehicles

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Staged combustion cycle Rocket engine operation method

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RD-180 Russian rocket engine

The RD-180 is a rocket engine designed and built in Russia. It features a dual combustion chamber, dual-nozzle design and is fueled by a RP-1/LOX mixture. Currently, RD-180 engines are used for the first stage of the American Atlas V launch vehicle.

RD-170 Soviet (now Russian) rocket engine, the most powerful in the world

The RD-170 is the world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine and - regardless of the fuel type - second after Space Shuttle's SRB. It was designed and produced in the Soviet Union by NPO Energomash for use with the Energia launch vehicle. The engine burns the Russian equivalent of RP-1 fuel and LOX oxidizer in four combustion chambers, all supplied by one single-shaft, single-turbine turbopump rated at 170 MW (230,000 hp) in a staged combustion cycle.

NK-33 Soviet rocket engine

The NK-33 and NK-43 are rocket engines designed and built in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau. The NK designation is derived from the initials of chief designer Nikolay Kuznetsov. The NK-33 was among the most powerful LOX/RP-1 rocket engines when it was built, with a high specific impulse and low structural mass. They were intended for the ill-fated Soviet N-1 moon rocket. The NK-33A rocket engine is now used on the first stage of the Soyuz-2-1v launch vehicle.

The RD-8 is a Soviet / Ukrainian liquid propellant rocket engine burning LOX and RG-1 in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. It has a four combustion chambers that provide thrust vector control by gimbaling each of the nozzles in a single axis ±33°. It was designed in Dnipropetrovsk by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau as the vernier thruster of the Zenit second stage. As such, it has always been paired with the RD-120 engine for main propulsion.

NPO Energomash Russian rocket engine manufacturer

NPO Energomash “V. P. Glushko” is a major Russian rocket engine manufacturer. The company primarily develops and produces liquid propellant rocket engines. Energomash originates from the Soviet design bureau OKB-456, which was founded in 1946. NPO Energomash acquired its current name on May 15, 1991, in honor of its former chief designer Valentin Glushko.

RD-107 Russian rocket engine

The RD-107 and its sibling, the RD-108, are a type of rocket engine initially used to launch R-7 Semyorka missiles. RD-107 engines were later used on space launch vehicles based on the R-7. As of 2015, very similar RD-107A and RD-108A engines are used to launch the Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-2.1a, and Soyuz-2.1b, which are in active service.

Chemical Automatics Design Bureau

Chemical Automatics Design Bureau (CADB), also KB Khimavtomatika, is a Russian design bureau founded by the NKAP in 1941 and led by Semyon Kosberg until his death in 1965. Its origin dates back to a 1940 Moscow carburetor factory, evacuated to Berdsk in 1941, and then relocated to Voronezh city in 1945, where it now operates. Originally designated OKB-296 and tasked to develop fuel equipment for aviation engines, it was redesignated OKB-154 in 1946.

RD-191 Russian rocket engine

The RD-191 is a high-performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia. It is derived from the RD-180 dual-combustion chamber engine, which itself was derived in turn from the four-chamber RD-170 originally used in the Energia launcher.

Universal Rocket Module (URM) is the name of the modular liquid fuelled first and second stage of the Angara expendable launch system. The first stage and booster variant is referred to as URM-1, while the second stage is referred to as URM-2. The URM-2 is derived from the Soyuz-2 Block I second stage.

The RD-120 is a liquid upper stage rocket engine burning RG-1 and LOX in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle with an O/F ratio of 2.6. It is used in the second stage of the Zenit family of launch vehicles. It has a single, fixed combustion chamber and thus on the Zenit it is paired with the RD-8 vernier engine. The engine has been developed from 1976 to 1985 by NPO Energomash with V.P. Radovsky leading the development. It is manufactured by, among others, Yuzhmash in Ukraine.

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The RD-193 is a high performance single-combustion chamber rocket engine, developed in Russia from 2011 to 2013. It is derived from the RD-170 originally used in the Energia launcher.

The flight of Angara-1.2pp was the maiden flight of Russia's Angara series of rockets. This flight was conducted successfully on 9 July 2014. A unique configuration with parts taken from the Angara-1 and Angara-A5 rockets, the suborbital mission served to flight test each of the new stages developed for the rocket ahead of its operational use.

RD-0110 Soviet (later Russian) rocket engine

The RD-0110 is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has four fixed nozzles and the output of the gas generator is directed to four secondary vernier nozzles to supply vector control of the stage. It has an extensive flight history with its initial versions having flown more than 57 years ago.

The Soyuz-7 is a proposed family of new Russian rockets proposed by JSC SRC Progress in the mid-2010s, to replace the legacy Soyuz for launch after the early 2020s. JSC SRC Progress had been the manufacturer and custodian of the Soyuz family design for many decades. The new design concept was a part of Project Feniks. While all previous iterations of the Soyuz family had their roots firmly set on the R-7 ICBM legacy, the new rocket, designated Soyuz-7 in 2013, was to be a completely new design from the ground up. The proposed new design was to be based on a new propellant: LOX and liquid methane, use a new tank structure, new propulsion, and would do away with the famous R-7 tulip, and have thrust vector control in the main engine rather than using vernier engines. It was conceived in 2013 to be a scalable family with three versions covering the medium to heavy payload ranges.

The RD-801 is a Ukrainian liquid propellant rocket engine burning LOX and Kerosene (RG-1) in a staged combustion cycle. It has a single combustion chamber that provides thrust vector control by gimbaling of the nozzle in two axis by +/- 6°. It is being designed in Ukraine by Yuzhnoye Design Bureau for the prospective first stage propulsion of the Mayak rocket family.


  1. ru:Горохов, Виктор Дмитриевич Viktor Gorokhov / ru.wikipedia.org
  2. Люди и ракетные двигатели[People and Rocket Engines: Official History of KBKhA] (in Russian). p. 262.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "RD0124 (14D23). Launch vehicle "Soyuz-2-1б". RD0124A. "Angara" launch vehicle". KBKhA. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  4. "Turbopumps for Gas Generator and Staged Combustion Cycle Rocket Engines" (PDF). AIAA. July 2005. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  5. "Жидкостный ракетный двигатель РД-0124А" [Liquid rocket engine RD-0124A] (in Russian). Khrunichev . Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  6. Zak, Anatoly. "RD-0110". russianspaceweb.com. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  7. 1 2 3 "The Modernized Soyuz". Starsem.
  8. "Soyuz Overview". Arianespace . Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  9. Bergin, Chris (2013-03-05). "CASTOR 30XL prepares for static fire ahead of providing Antares boost". NASA Spaceflight. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  10. "Двигатель РД0124ДР (дросселированный)" [Engine RD0124DR (throttled)] (in Russian). KBKhA. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  11. "Двигатель РД0125А" [Engine RD0125A] (in Russian). KBKhA. Retrieved 2015-07-22.
  12. "Russian designers have started creating an engine for the Sunkar rocket (In Russian)". TASS. 7 April 2017.