RD-58

Last updated
RD-58M
17D12.jpg
Country of origin USSR
First flight1967
Designer OKB-1, V. M. Melnikov
Manufacturer Voronezh Mechanical Plant
ApplicationUpper Stage
Associated L/V N-1, Proton-K, Proton-M, Zenit
Predecessor S1.5400
StatusIn Production
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / RP-1
Cycle Oxidizer Rich Staged Combustion
Configuration
Chamber1
Performance
Thrust (vac.)79.46 kilonewtons (17,860 lbf)
Isp (vac.)353 sec
Burn timeup to 600s
Dimensions
Dry weight300 kilograms (660 lb)
Used in
Block D
References
References [1] [2] [3] [4]

The RD-58 (manufacturer designation 11D58) is a rocket engine, developed in the 1960s by OKB-1, now RKK Energia. The project was managed by Mikhail Melnikov, and it was based on the previous S1.5400 which was the first staged combustion engine in the world. [1] The engine was initially created to power the Block D stage of the Soviet Union's abortive N-1 rocket. [5] Derivatives of this stage are now used as upper stages on some Proton and Zenit rockets. [6] An alternative version of the RD-58 chamber, featuring a shorter nozzle, was used as the N-1's roll-control engine.

The RD-58 uses LOX as the oxidizer and RG-1 as fuel in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. It features a single gimbaled chamber, radial centrifugal pumps with auxiliary booster pumps, and an oxygen-rich preburner. [7] Recent modifications include a lightweight carbon-composite nozzle extender developed by NPO Iskra. [8] [9] [10]

The Buran spacecraft used two of an evolution of the RD-58M, called 17D12, as its main orbital correction engines. Instead of RG-1, it burned Syntin, and could be ignited 15 times. [11] [12] It is assumed that it was the base for the RD-58S, which had practically the same specifications and powered the Blok DM-2M. [13] But the manufacturer states that the engine is compatible with both propellants. [1]

The current version of the engine is the RD-58M (manufacturer designation 11D58M), which has slightly reduced thrust, but increased isp. An even newer version is under development and is known as the RD-58MF (manufacturer designation 11D58MF). It will reduce thrust to 49.03 kilonewtons (11,020 lbf) to keep the same length but increase expansion ratio to 500:1. This will enable it to gain 20s of isp (to an expected 372s). It will eventually fly on the Blok DM-03. [14] This new version of the engine will be built in the Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant. [15] [16] During a November 2014 interview, Vladimir Kolmykov, the Deputy General Director of the Chemical Division of Krasnoyarsk Machine-Building Plant, stated that the production of Block-DM was suspended during that year, but work on the stage and development of the RD-58MF will resume during 2015. [17]

Versions

This engine has had many versions through the years:

RD-58 Family of Engines
NameRD-58RD-58MRD-58M
(Carbon Composite Nozzle)
RD-58SRD-58ZRD-58MF17D12
Index11D5811D58M11D58S11D58Z11D58MF
Development years1964-19681970-19742000-20041986-19951981-19902002-20091981-1987
Engine Type Oxidizer Rich Stage Combustion upper stage liquid rocket engine Orbital correction liquid rocket engine
Propellant RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX Syntin/LOX RG-1/LOX RG-1/LOX Syntin/LOX
O/F2.482.482.82 ?2.62.82 ?
Chamber Pressure7.8 MPa (1,130 psi)7.75 MPa (1,124 psi)7.9 MPa (1,150 psi)7.94 MPa (1,152 psi)7.8 MPa (1,130 psi)7.9 MPa (1,150 psi)7.94 MPa (1,152 psi)
Thrust (Vac)83.4 kN (18,700 lbf)83.4 kN (18,700 lbf)85 kN (19,000 lbf)86.3 kN (19,400 lbf)71 kN (16,000 lbf)49.03 kN (11,020 lbf)86.24 kN (19,390 lbf)
Isp (Vac)349 s (3.42 km/s)356 s (3.49 km/s)361 s (3.54 km/s)361 s (3.54 km/s)361 s (3.54 km/s)372 s (3.65 km/s)362 s (3.55 km/s)
Nozzle Expansion189189280189189500189
Ignitions44755 ?15
Burntime600 seconds720 seconds1200 seconds680 seconds660 seconds ? seconds680 seconds
Length2.27 m (89 in)2.27 m (89 in)2.72 m (107 in)2.27 m (89 in)2.27 m (89 in)2.27 m (89 in)
Diameter1.17 m (46 in)1.17 m (46 in)1.4 m (55 in)1.17 m (46 in)1.17 m (46 in)1.17 m (46 in)
Weight300 kg (660 lb)310 kg (680 lb)340 kg (750 lb)310 kg (680 lb)300 kg (660 lb)230 kg (510 lb)
Used on N-1 and Blok D Blok DM Blok DM-SL since 2003 and Blok DM-SLB Blok DM-2M Blok DM-SL 11S861-03 Buran
First Launch1967-03-101974-03-262003-06-101994-10-131999-03-28 ?1988-11-15
StatusRetiredRetiredIn ProductionRetiredRetiredIn ProductionRetired
References [2] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [11] [12] [13] [14] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [25]

Related Research Articles

RD-170 Soviet (now Russian) rocket engine, the most powerful in the world

The RD-170 is the world's most powerful liquid-fuel rocket engine and - regardless of the fuel type - second after Space Shuttle's SRB. It was designed and produced in the Soviet Union by NPO Energomash for use with the Energia launch vehicle. The engine burns the Russian equivalent of RP-1 fuel and LOX oxidizer in four combustion chambers, all supplied by one single-shaft, single-turbine turbopump rated at 170 MW (230,000 hp) in a staged combustion cycle.

NK-33 Soviet rocket engine

The NK-33 and NK-43 are rocket engines designed and built in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the Kuznetsov Design Bureau. The NK designation is derived from the initials of chief designer Nikolay Kuznetsov. The NK-33 was among the most powerful LOX/RP-1 rocket engines when it was built, with a high specific impulse and low structural mass. They were intended for the ill-fated Soviet N-1 moon rocket. The NK-33A rocket engine is now used on the first stage of the Soyuz-2-1v launch vehicle.

Blok D Rocket stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems

Blok D is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.

The RD-8 is a Soviet / Ukrainian liquid propellant rocket engine burning LOX and RG-1 in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. It has a four combustion chambers that provide thrust vector control by gimbaling each of the nozzles in a single axis ±33°. It was designed in Dnipropetrovsk by the Yuzhnoye Design Bureau as the vernier thruster of the Zenit second stage. As such, it has always been paired with the RD-120 engine for main propulsion.

RD-0124

The RD-0124 is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a staged combustion cycle. RD-0124 engines are used on the Soyuz-2.1b and Soyuz-2-1v. A slight variation of the engine, the RD-0124A, is used on the Angara rocket family URM-2 upper stage. RD-0124 is developed by Chemical Automatics Design Bureau in Voronezh.

RD-253

The RD-253 ( Russian: Раке́тный дви́гатель 253, Rocket Engine 253) and its later variants, the RD-275and RD-275M, are liquid-propellant rocket engines developed in the Soviet Union by Energomash. The engines are used on the first stage of the Proton launch vehicle and use an oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle to power the turbopumps. The engine burns UDMH/N2O4, which are highly toxic but hypergolic and storable at room temperature, simplifying the engine's design.

The RD-120 is a liquid upper stage rocket engine burning RG-1 and LOX in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle with an O/F ratio of 2.6. It is used in the second stage of the Zenit family of launch vehicles. It has a single, fixed combustion chamber and thus on the Zenit it is paired with the RD-8 vernier engine. The engine has been developed from 1976 to 1985 by NPO Energomash with V.P. Radovsky leading the development. It is manufactured by, among others, Yuzhmash in Ukraine.

The Blok DM-03, GRAU index 11S861-03, is a Russian upper stage used as an optional fourth stage on the Proton-M carrier rocket. Three have been launched, the first in December 2010; the first two launches failed before fourth stage ignition, the first as a result of a problem with the Blok DM's fuel load.

RD-0210

The RD-0210 (GRAU Index: 8D411K) is also known as the RD-465. It and its twin, the RD-0211, are rocket engines burning N2O4 and UDMH in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. They have single nozzle, possess TVC and are the latest evolution in the RD-0203/4 lineage. They are the engines used on the Proton second stage. The RD-0213 is a fixed nozzle variation that is used on the RD-0212 module of the Proton third stage.

The RD-0216 and RD-0217 are liquid rocket engines, burning N2O4 and UDMH in the oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. The only difference between the RD-0216 and the RD-0217 is that the latter has a heat exchanger to heat the pressuring gasses for the tanks. Three RD-0216 and one RD-0217 were used on the first stage of the UR-100 ICBM. The engines were manufactured until 1974 and stayed in operational use until 1991. More than 1100 engines were produced.

The RD-263 (GRAU Index 15D117) is a liquid rocket engine, burning N2O4 and UDMH in the oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. Four RD-263 engines form a propulsion module RD-264 (GRAU Index 15D119). For the R-36M KB Yuzhnoye only ordered the first stage propulsion to Energomash, instead of both stages, arguing that they were overworked with the RD-270 development. By April 1970 Yuzhnoye was getting the engine documentation. By the end of 1972 Energomash started to test fire the engines in its own test stand. And by September 1973 the engine was certified for flight. While the engine is out of production, the ICBM as well as the Dnepr remain operational as of 2015.

RD-119

The RD-119 was a liquid rocket engine, burning liquid oxygen and UDMH in the gas-generator cycle. It has a huge expansion ratio on the nozzle and uses a unique propellant combination to achieve an extremely high isp of 352 s for a semi-cryogenic gas-generator engine. It also has a unique steering mechanism. The engine main nozzle is fixed, and the output of the gas generator is fed into four nozzles on the side of the engine. Instead of using gimbaled verniers to supply vector control, the combustion gases are distributed by an electrically driven system that can control the thrust among the nozzles.

RD-214

The RD-214 (GRAU Index 8D59) was a liquid rocket engine, burning AK-27I (a mixture of 73% nitric acid and 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant and TM-185 (a kerosene and gasoline mix) in the gas generator cycle. As was the case with many V-2 influenced engines, the single turbine was driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2. It also had four combustion chambers and vector control was achieved by refractory vanes protruding into the nozzle's exhaust.

The KTDU-35 was a Soviet spacecraft propulsion system composed of two liquid rocket engines, the primary, S5.60 (SKD) and the secondary S5.35 (DKD), fed from the same propellant tanks. Both engines burn UDMH and AK27I in the gas generator cycle. It was designed by OKB-2, the famous Isaev Design Bureau, for the original Soyuz programme.

The 11D428A-16 (manufacturer's name RDMT-135M) is a liquid pressure-fed rocket engine burning N2O4/UDMH with an O/F of 1.85. It is used for crew-rated spacecraft propulsion applications. It is currently used in the KTDU-80 spacecraft propulsion module. The previous version, the 11D428A (manufacturer's name RDMT-135) is still used as the reaction control system thrusters of the Zvezda ISS module. The 11D428A-16 generates 129.16 N (29.04 lbf) of thrust with a chamber pressure of 0.88 MPa (128 psi) and achieves a specific impulse of 291 s (2.85 km/s). It is rated for 500,000 starts with a certified ignition time of 0.03 seconds to 2000 seconds. Each unit weights 1.5 kg (3.3 lb).

RD-250

The RD-250 (GRAU Index 8D518) is the base version of a dual-nozzle family of liquid rocket engines, burning N2O4 and UDMH in the oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. The RD-250 was developed by OKB-456 for Yangel's PA Yuzhmash ICBM, the R-36 (8K67). Its variations were also used on the Tsyklon-2 and Tsyklon-3 launch vehicles. It was supposed to be used on the Tsyklon-4, but since the cancellation of the project it should be considered as out of production.

RD-215

The RD-215 (GRAU Index 8D513) was a dual nozzle liquid rocket engine, burning AK-27 (a mixture of 73% nitric acid and 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant) and UDMH. It was used in a module of two engines (four nozzles) known as the RD-216 (GRAU Index 8D514). The RD-215 was developed by OKB-456 for Yangel's Yuzhmash R-14 (8K65) ballistic missile. Its variations were also used on the Kosmos-1, Kosmos-3 and Kosmos-3M launch vehicles.

The RD-861 is a Soviet liquid propellant rocket engine burning UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has a main combustion chamber, with four vernier nozzles fed by the gas generator output. It can be reignited a single time.

The RD-864 is a Soviet liquid propellant rocket engine burning UDMH and nitrogen tetroxide in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has a four combustion chambers that provide thrust vector control by gimbaling each nozzle in a single axis +/- 55°. It is used on the third stage of the R-36M UTTKh and Dnepr. For the R-36M2, an improved version, the RD-869 was developed.

Irtysh, also named Soyuz-5, formerly codenamed Fenix in Russian and Sunkar in Kazakh, is a planned Russian rocket that is being developed by JSC SRC Progress within the "Project Feniks". Initially it will replace the capability of Zenit-2 and Proton Medium, and in the future will serve as the base of a super heavy-lift launch vehicle rocket (Yenisei) to match the Energia/Buran capabilities. As of February 2021, Irtysh is expected to launch from the Baikonur Baiterek, the ex Zenit-2 launch site, in a partnership with the government of Kazakhstan, with a planned debut in late 2023.

References

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