Last updated
Model of RD-0146
Country of origin Russia
Designer KBKhA Design Bureau
Manufacturer TsSKB Progress
Applicationupper stage
Associated L/V KVTK
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / LH2
Cycle Expander cycle
Thrust (vac.)68.6 kN (15,400 lbf)
Chamber pressure 5.9 megapascals (860 psi)
Isp (vac.)470 seconds (4.6 km/s)
Length3.558 metres (11.67 ft)
Diameter1.95 metres (6 ft 5 in)

The RD-0146 is a Russian cryogenic rocket engine. The RD-0146 engine was developed by KBKhA design bureau in Voronezh, Russia, in cooperation with the American Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne company. In 2009, it came into prominence, as Russian space agency chose it for the second-stage of the proposed Rus-M launch vehicle designed to carry the future Russian PPTS crewed spacecraft. [1] [ full citation needed ] After the cancellation of Rus-M rocket, the RD-0146D variant was selected as the powerplant for the KVTK upper stage.



In 1999, Khrunichev requested KBKhA to develop RD-0146U version of the engine for Proton and Angara rockets. The development of the engine was partially financed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Pratt & Whitney signed a preliminary marketing agreement on April 7, 2000 with Russia's Chemical Automatics Design Bureau giving Pratt & Whitney exclusive international marketing rights to the RD-0146. [1]


The RD-0146 is the first Russian rocket engine not to feature a gas generator and to be equipped with extendable nozzle extension without a cooling system. The engine is capable of five firings and thrust control in two planes. According to the developer, the lack of a gas generator system ensures higher reliability of the engine for multiple firings, by removing the potential of an ignition failure in the engine power cycle.[ citation needed ]

LM10-MIRA is a Liquid oxygen-Liquid methane demonstrator engine developed by Avio and KBKhA from RD-0146 under an agreement signed between Italian and Russian governments in Moscow on November 28, 2000. The 7.5t engine was successful tested in June 2014 in Voronezh, Russia. [2] After the end of the collaboration with KHBhA, Avio continued the development of the M10 engine under the Vega-Evolution program with a target thrust of 10t. [3] As of March 2021 the engine ground qualification is foreseen for 2024. [3]

See also

Comparable engines

Related Research Articles

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RL10 Liquid fuel cryogenic rocket engine, typically used on rocket upper stages

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Staged combustion cycle Rocket engine operation method

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RD-180 Russian rocket engine

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The J-2X is a liquid-fueled cryogenic rocket engine that was planned for use on the Ares rockets of NASA's Constellation program, and later the Space Launch System. Built in the United States by Aerojet Rocketdyne, the J-2X burns cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants, with each engine producing 1,307 kN (294,000 lbf) of thrust in vacuum at a specific impulse (Isp) of 448 seconds (4.39 km/s). The engine's mass is approximately 2,470 kg, significantly heavier than its predecessors.

Atlas (rocket family) Family of American missiles and space launch vehicles

Atlas is a family of US missiles and space launch vehicles that originated with the SM-65 Atlas. The Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) program was initiated in the late 1950s under the Convair Division of General Dynamics. Atlas was a liquid propellant rocket burning RP-1 fuel with liquid oxygen in three engines configured in an unusual "stage-and-a-half" or "parallel staging" design: two outboard booster engines were jettisoned along with supporting structures during ascent, while the center sustainer engine, propellant tanks and other structural elements remained connected through propellant depletion and engine shutdown.

Chemical Automatics Design Bureau

Chemical Automatics Design Bureau (CADB), also KB Khimavtomatika, is a Russian design bureau founded by the NKAP in 1941 and led by Semyon Kosberg until his death in 1965. Its origin dates back to a 1940 Moscow carburetor factory, evacuated to Berdsk in 1941, and then relocated to Voronezh city in 1945, where it now operates. Originally designated OKB-296 and tasked to develop fuel equipment for aviation engines, it was redesignated OKB-154 in 1946.

RD-0410 was a Soviet nuclear thermal rocket engine developed from 1965 through the 1980s using liquid hydrogen propellant. The engine was ground-tested at the Semipalatinsk Test Site, and its use was incorporated in the Kurchatov Mars 1994 crewed mission proposal.

The RL60 was a planned liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine designed in the United States by Pratt & Whitney, burning cryogenic liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen propellants. The engine runs on an expander cycle, running the turbopumps with waste heat absorbed from the main combustion process. This high-efficiency, waste heat based combustion cycle combined with the high-performance liquid hydrogen fuel enables the engine to reach a very high specific impulse of up to 465 seconds in a vacuum. The engine was planned to be a more capable successor to the Aerojet Rocketdyne RL10, providing improved performance and efficiency while maintaining the installation envelope of the RL10.

The RD-120 is a liquid upper stage rocket engine burning RG-1 and LOX in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle with an O/F ratio of 2.6. It is used in the second stage of the Zenit family of launch vehicles. It has a single, fixed combustion chamber and thus on the Zenit it is paired with the RD-8 vernier engine. The engine has been developed from 1976 to 1985 by NPO Energomash with V.P. Radovsky leading the development. It is manufactured by, among others, Yuzhmash in Ukraine.

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

The RS-18 is a reconfigured version of the Rocketdyne Lunar Module Ascent Engine (LMAE), modified to burn liquid oxygen (LOX) and liquid methane (CH4) for NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) engine testing in 2008.

RD-0110 Soviet (later Russian) rocket engine

The RD-0110 is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has four fixed nozzles and the output of the gas generator is directed to four secondary vernier nozzles to supply vector control of the stage. It has an extensive flight history with its initial versions having flown more than 57 years ago.

The RD-0110R is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has four nozzles that can gimbal up to 45 degrees in a single axis and is used as the vernier thruster on the Soyuz-2-1v first stage. It also has heat exchangers that heat oxygen and helium to pressurize the LOX and RG-1 tanks of the Soyuz-2.1v first stage, respectively. The oxygen is supplied from the same LOX tank in liquid form, while the helium is supplied from separate high pressure bottles.


The RD-0109 is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has single nozzle and is an evolution of the RD-0105. It was the engine used on the Vostok Block-E that launched Yuri Gagarin to orbit.

Voronezh Mechanical Plant is a Russian engine and heavy machinery manufacturing plant. It is located in the city of Voronezh, in the Voronezh Oblast.

The Soyuz-7 is a proposed family of new Russian rockets proposed by JSC SRC Progress in the mid-2010s, to replace the legacy Soyuz for launch after the early 2020s. JSC SRC Progress had been the manufacturer and custodian of the Soyuz family design for many decades. The new design concept was a part of Project Feniks. While all previous iterations of the Soyuz family had their roots firmly set on the R-7 ICBM legacy, the new rocket, designated Soyuz-7 in 2013, was to be a completely new design from the ground up. The proposed new design was to be based on a new propellant: LOX and liquid methane, use a new tank structure, new propulsion, and would do away with the famous Korolev cross, and have thrust vector control in the main engine rather than using vernier engines. It was conceived in 2013 to be a scalable family with three versions covering the medium to heavy payload ranges.

M10 (rocket engine)

M10 is a liquid-fuel upper-stage rocket engine in development by Avio on behalf of European Space Agency for use on Vega E. The engine, initially known as LM10-MIRA, is a derivation of the existing Russian RD-0146 engine and result of a collaboration between Avio and Chemical Automatics Design Bureau (KBKhA) ended in 2014. As of March 2021 the engine ground qualification is foreseen for 2024 with consequent maiden flight on a Vega-E launcher by 2025.


  1. 1 2 "RD-0146 rocket engine".
  2. P. Bellomi; M. Rudnykh; S. Carapellese; D. Liuzzi; G. Caggiano; L. Arione; A.A. Gurtovoy; S.D. Lobov; V. S. Rachuk (2019-02-08). "Development of LM10-MIRA liquid oxygen – liquid natural gas expander cycle demonstrator engine". Progress in Propulsion Physics – Volume 11. pp. 447–466. doi:10.1051/eucass/201911447. ISBN   978-5-94588-228-7 . Retrieved 2021-03-23.
  3. 1 2 D. Kajon; D.Liuzzi; C. Boffa; M. Rudnykh; D. Drigo; L. Arione; N. Ierardo; A. Sirbi (2019-08-01). "Development of the liquid oxygen and methane M10 rocket engine for the Vega-E upper stage" (PDF). doi:10.13009/EUCASS2019-315 . Retrieved 2021-03-24.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)