|Country of origin||Soviet Union|
|Type||Early Warning Ground Control|
|Precision||1.5 km range, 4-degree azimuth and 1.5-degree elevation|
The "Pegmantit 3" or P-3 (also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Dumbo" in the west) was an early VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The "Pegmantit 3" which is abbreviated to P-3 was one of the first 2D early warning and ground control radars to be developed by the former Soviet Union. The development of the radar was initiated in 1943 as a replacement for the previous RUS stations used during the second world warand by the end of 1947 the radar was completed and in operational service. The P-3 was the first radar to be developed by the SKB Design Bureau, a division of State Plant No.197 named after V. I. Lenin, the predecessor of the current Nizhniy Novgorod Research Institute of Radio Engineering (NNIIRT). The radar had to be able to detect an aircraft to a range of no less than 130 kilometers, cover 360 degrees in azimuth and 4-18 degrees in elevation. A response time of no more than 25 seconds was stipulated and the radar had to be accurate to within 650 meters in range and within 700 meters in altitude, as well as operate in the VHF band. SKB managed to meet these performance requirements with the P-3 radar and this was confirmed during testing in 1945 before entry into service with the PVO.
The P-3 was produced in two variants the P-3A (fixed) and the P-3M (mobile) with a transmitter and receiver mounted on separate trucks. kW and a pulse duration of 10-15 microseconds.Both variants operate in a similar fashion using two mast mounted antennas (transmitter and receiver) composed of Yagi antennas mounted one above the other in the case of the receiver, the radar also used an A-scope display. Azimuth was scanned mechanically by the receiver antenna with elevation determined using a Goniometer, the phase difference between the upper and lower Yagi antenna was used to calculate the elevation angle which could then be used to determine the height of the target once the range was known. The P-3 had a maximum power output of up to 100
The P-3 was operated by the Soviet Union from 1947but has long since become obsolete and retired from service, replaced by more advanced models entering into service after the P-3 such as the P-8 radar.
The history of radar started with experiments by Heinrich Hertz in the late 19th century that showed that radio waves were reflected by metallic objects. This possibility was suggested in James Clerk Maxwell's seminal work on electromagnetism. However, it was not until the early 20th century that systems able to use these principles were becoming widely available, and it was German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer who first used them to build a simple ship detection device intended to help avoid collisions in fog. True radar, such as the British ‘Chain Home’ early warning system provided directional information to objects over short ranges, were developed over the next two decades.
The AN/SPS-48 is a US naval electronically scanned array air search three-dimensional radar system manufactured by ITT Exelis and deployed in the 1960s as the primary air search sensor for anti-aircraft warships. The deployment of the AN/SPY-1 and the end of the Cold War led to the decommissioning of many such ships, and many of these vessels AN/SPS-48 sets were reused on aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, where it is used to direct targets for air defense systems such as the Sea Sparrow and RIM-116 SAM missiles. Existing sets are being modernized under the ROAR program to AN/SPS-48G standard for better reliability and usability.
During World War II, the German Luftwaffe relied on an increasingly diverse array of electronic communications, IFF and RDF equipment as avionics in its aircraft and also on the ground. Most of this equipment received the generic prefix FuG for Funkgerät, meaning "radio equipment". Most of the aircraft-mounted Radar equipment also used the FuG prefix. This article is a list and a description of the radio, IFF and RDF equipment.
The "Pegmantit 8" or P-8 was an early 2D VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The "Pegmantit 10" or P-10 was an early 2D VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-12 "Yenisei" was an early VHF developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-18 or 1RL131Terek is a 2D VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-14 is a 2D VHF radar that was developed and operated by the Soviet Union.
The P-40"Armour" or 1S12 is a 3-D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-15"Tropa" or 1RL13 is a 2D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-70 or "Lena-M" was a static 2D VHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-19"Danube"1RL134 is a 2D UHF radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union. The radar was also known by the name "Renata" in Poland and "Dunai" in the former German Democratic Republic.
The P-30"Khrustal" also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Big Mesh" in the west is a 2D E band/F band radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The P-20"Periskop" also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Bar Lock" in the west is a 2D E band/F band radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
The AN/MPN is a mobile Ground-controlled approach radar first used during World War II. "MPN" is Joint Electronics Type Designation System nomenclature for (Ground) Mobile (M), Pulsed (P), Navigation aid (N).
The P-35 also referred to by the NATO reporting name "Bar Lock" in the west is a 2D E band/F band radar developed and operated by the former Soviet Union.
Irbis-E is a Russian multi-mode, hybrid passive electronically scanned array radar system developed by Tikhomirov NIIP for the Su-35 multi-purpose fighter aircraft. NIIP developed the Irbis-E radar from the N011M Bars radar system used on Sukoi SU-30MKI aircraft.
Radar in World War II greatly influenced many important aspects of the conflict. This revolutionary new technology of radio-based detection and tracking was used by both the Allies and Axis powers in World War II, which had evolved independently in a number of nations during the mid 1930s. At the outbreak of war in September 1939, both Great Britain and Germany had functioning radar systems. In Great Britain, it was called RDF, Range and Direction Finding, while in Germany the name Funkmeß (radio-measuring) was used, with apparatuses called Funkmessgerät . By the time of the Battle of Britain in mid-1940, the Royal Air Force (RAF) had fully integrated RDF as part of the national air defence.
The Nizhny Novgorod Research Institute of Radio Engineering (NNIIRT) is a Russian electronics company specializing in the development and manufacturing of radar equipment. It is a subsidiary of the Almaz-Antey group.
Searchlight Control, SLC for short but nicknamed "Elsie", was a British Army VHF-band radar system that provided aiming guidance to an attached searchlight. By combining a searchlight with a radar, the radar did not have to be particularly accurate, it only had to be good enough to get the searchlight beam on the target. Once the target was lit, normal optical instruments could be used to guide the associated anti-aircraft artillery. This allowed the radar to be much smaller, simpler and less expensive than a system with enough accuracy to directly aim the guns, like the large and complex GL Mk. II radar. In 1943 the system was officially designated Radar, AA, No. 2, although this name is rarely used.