Irbis-E

Last updated
Irbis-E radar
Electronically Scanned Array IRBIS E.jpg
Role X band Hybrid Passive electronically scanned array
National origin Russia
ManufacturerTikhomirov NIIP
DesignerTikhomirov NIIP
StatusOperational
Primary user Russian Air Force
Developed from Bars radar
Developed into Byelka

Irbis-E (Snow Leopard) is a Russian multi-mode, hybrid passive electronically scanned array radar system developed by Tikhomirov NIIP for the Su-35 multi-purpose fighter aircraft. NIIP developed the Irbis-E radar from the Bars radar system used on Sukoi SU-30MK aircraft.

Contents

Design

Irbis-E development started in 2004 and the first radar prototype entered flight tests on board an Su-30M2 aircraft acting as a test bed in early 2007. The resulting radar system provides air-to-air, air-to-sea and air-to-ground (ground mapping, Doppler beam sharpening and Synthetic Aperture Radar modes) modes with improved performance in intense clutter (radar) environments compared to its predecessor, the Bars system. In addition, Irbis has been designed to detect low and super-low observable/stealth airborne threats.

This is an X band multi-role radar with a passive phased antenna array (PAA) mounted on a two-step hydraulic drive unit (in azimuth and roll). The antenna device scans by an electronically controlled beam in azimuth and angle of elevation in sectors not smaller than 60°. The two-step electro-hydraulic drive unit additionally turns the antenna by mechanic means to 60° in azimuth and 120° in roll. Thus, in using the electronic control and mechanical additional turn of the antenna, the maximum deflection angle of the beam grows to 120°. [1] The Irbis-E is a direct evolution of the BARS design, but significantly more powerful. While the hybrid phased array antenna is retained, the noise figure is slightly worse at 3.5 dB, but the receiver has four rather than three discrete channels. The biggest change is in the EGSP-27 transmitter, where the single 7-kilowatt peak power rated Chelnok TWT is replaced with a pair of 10-kilowatt peak power rated Chelnok tubes, ganged to provide a total peak power rating of 20 kilowatts. The radar is cited at an average power rating of 5 kilowatts, with 2 kilowatts CW rating for illumination. NIIP claim twice the bandwidth and improved frequency agility over the BARS, and better ECCM capability. The Irbis-E has new Solo-35.01 digital signal processor hardware and Solo-35.02 data processor, but retains receiver hardware, the master oscillator and exciter of the BARS. A prototype has been in flight test since late 2005. [2]

Operational features

Irbis-E can detect and track up to 30 airborne targets at one time at ranges near 350~400 kilometers, and attack up to 8. In air-to-surface mode the Irbis-E provides mapping allowing to attack four surface targets with precision-guided weapons while scanning the horizon searching for airborne threats that can be engaged using active radar homing missiles.

It can detect a target with radar cross-section (RCS) 3m2 at up to 400 km, (towards each other, in an area of 100 square degrees) [3] [4] while a target with RCS 0.01m2 at up to 90 km. [5] (dead link)

It is one of the most powerful PESA radar used in an operational aircraft. [6]

Related Research Articles

Radar Object detection system using radio waves

Radar is a detection system that uses radio waves to determine the distance (range), angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. A radar system consists of a transmitter producing electromagnetic waves in the radio or microwaves domain, a transmitting antenna, a receiving antenna and a receiver and processor to determine properties of the object(s). Radio waves from the transmitter reflect off the object and return to the receiver, giving information about the object's location and speed.

Active electronically scanned array Type of phased array radar

An active electronically scanned array (AESA) is a type of phased array antenna, which is a computer-controlled array antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions without moving the antenna. In the AESA, each antenna element is connected to a small solid-state transmit/receive module (TRM) under the control of a computer, which performs the functions of a transmitter and/or receiver for the antenna. This contrasts with a passive electronically scanned array (PESA), in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter and/or receiver through phase shifters under the control of the computer. AESA's main use is in radar, and these are known as active phased array radar (APAR).

Erieye Airborne Early Warning and Control System used on a variety of aircraft platforms

The Erieye radar system is an Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) developed by Saab Electronic Defence Systems of Sweden. It uses active electronically scanned array (AESA) technology. The Erieye is used on a variety of aircraft platforms, such as the Saab 340 and Embraer R-99. It has recently been implemented on the Bombardier Global 6000 aircraft as the GlobalEye.

Sukhoi Su-30MKI Indian variant of the Su-30MK multirole fighter aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-30MKI is a twinjet multirole air superiority fighter developed by Russia's Sukhoi and built under licence by India's Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) for the Indian Air Force (IAF). A variant of the Sukhoi Su-30, it is a heavy, all-weather, long-range fighter.

EL/M-2075 Airborne early warning and control radar system

The IAI EL/M-2075 Phalcon is an airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) active electronically scanned array radar system developed by Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and Elta Electronics Industries of Israel. Its primary objective is to provide intelligence to maintain air superiority and conduct surveillance. It was surpassed by newer versions—the EL/W-2085 and the EL/W-2090.

Passive electronically scanned array

A passive electronically scanned array (PESA), also known as passive phased array, is an antenna in which the beam of radio waves can be electronically steered to point in different directions, in which all the antenna elements are connected to a single transmitter and/or receiver. The largest use of phased arrays is in radars. Most phased array radars in the world are PESA. The civilian microwave landing system uses PESA transmit-only arrays.

Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design

JSC V.V. Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design is a joint stock company, one of the major Russian enterprises in the development of weaponry control systems for fighter planes and mobile medium range anti-aircraft SAM defense vehicles.

AN/SPS-48

The AN/SPS-48 is a US naval electronically scanned array air search three-dimensional radar system manufactured by ITT Exelis and deployed in the 1960s as the primary air search sensor for anti-aircraft warships. The deployment of the AN/SPY-1 and the end of the Cold War led to the decommissioning of many such ships, and many of these vessels AN/SPS-48 sets were reused on aircraft carriers and amphibious ships, where it is used to direct targets for air defense systems such as the Sea Sparrow and RIM-116 SAM missiles. Existing sets are being modernized under the ROAR program to AN/SPS-48G standard for better reliability and usability.

Sukhoi Su-30MKK Variant version of the Su-30MK multirole fighter aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-30MKK is a modification of the Sukhoi Su-30, incorporating advanced technology from the Sukhoi Su-35 variant. The Su-30MKK was developed by Sukhoi in 1997, as a result of a direct Request for tender between the Russian Federation and China. It is a heavy class, all-weather, long-range strike fighter, and like the Sukhoi Su-30, comparable to the American McDonnell Douglas F-15E Strike Eagle. Su-30MK2 is a further improvement to Su-30MKK with upgraded avionics and maritime strike capabilities. The MKK and MK2 are currently operated by the People's Liberation Army Air Force, Indonesian Air Force, Vietnam People's Air Force, Venezuelan Air Force and the Ugandan Air Force.

Radar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers — determining an object's position or obstruction in the environment. This includes field of view in terms of solid angle and maximum unambiguous range and velocity, as well as angular, range and velocity resolution. Radar sensors are classified by application, architecture, radar mode, platform, and propagation window.

Zhuk (radar)

The Zhuk are a family of Russian all-weather multimode airborne radars developed by NIIR Phazotron for multi-role combat aircraft such as the MiG-29 and the Su-27. The PESA versions where also known as the Sokol.

Bars radar

The Bars (Leopard) is a family of Russian all-weather multimode airborne radars developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design for multi-role combat aircraft such as the Su-27 and the MiG-29.

The Airborne Surveillance Platform (ASP) is an Indian defence project initiated by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with the aim to produce an Airborne Early Warning System. Two prototypes were developed and flight tested for three years. The project was cancelled in 1999 after the prototype aircraft crashed, killing eight scientists and the aircrew. After four years of inactivity, the project was revived in 2004 with a new platform and radar.

Electronics and Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) is a laboratory of the Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO). Located in C.V. Raman Nagar, Bengaluru. Its primary function is research and development of Radars and related technologies.

Zaslon

The Russian BRLS-8B "Zaslon" (Barrier) is an all-weather multimode airborne radar developed between 1975 and 1980 by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design as part of the weapons control system of the MiG-31 supersonic interceptor. The NATO reporting name for the radar is Flash Dance with the designations "SBI-16", "RP-31", "N007" and "S-800" also being associated with the radar.

The KLJ-7, also referred to as the Type 1478, is an X band airborne fire-control radar (FCR) developed by Nanjing Research Institute of Electronic Technology (NRIET), also known as the China Electronics Technology Company's (CETC's) No. 14 Research Institute. In December 2010, Pakistan Air Force's Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman announced that KLJ-7 radar will be built at Pakistan Aeronautical Complex (PAC), in Kamra, north of Islamabad.

N001 Mech is a Russian all-weather multimode airborne radar developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design (NIIP) for the Su-27 multi-role combat aircraft.

The track while scan (TWS) is a mode of radar operation in which the radar allocates part of its power to tracking the target or targets while part of its power is allocated to scanning, unlike the straight tracking mode, when the radar directs all its power to tracking the acquired targets. In the TWS mode the radar has a possibility to acquire additional targets as well as providing an overall view of the airspace and helping maintain better situational awareness.

The RDM , also known as the Cyrano 5, is a French multimode pulse-Doppler radar developed by Thomson-CSF for export variants and early French models of the Mirage 2000 fighter aircraft. It is an evolution of the Cyrano IV installed on the Mirage F-1 and in turn was developed into the RDI, a specialist air-to-air radar for French Mirage 2000 interceptors, and the multimode RDY, which could track more targets at a time and added further air-to-ground modes.

Byelka (radar)

N036 Byelka is an advanced active electronically scanned array radar system developed by Tikhomirov NIIP for the fifth generation Sukhoi Su-57 fighter aircraft.

References

  1. "sukhoi 35s radar". sukhoi company. Archived from the original on 30 March 2016. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  2. Kopp, Carlo (3 April 2008). "Flanker Radars in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat". ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  3. "Радиолокационная система управления «ИРБИС-Э» для истребителя Су-35" [Radar control system "IRBIS-E" for the Su-35 fighter] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2011-12-30.
  4. "Niip official". tikhominov niip. Retrieved 22 April 2013.
  5. http://www.niip.ru/downloads/public_art/2006/2006_2.pdf%5B%5D
  6. http://www.ausairpower.net/APA-Flanker-Radars.html

See also