Spaceflight before 1951

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Spaceflight before 1951
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1978-Anh.026-01, Peenemunde, V2 beim Start.jpg
Launch of a V-2 from Peenemünde.
National firsts
SpaceflightFlag of Germany (1935-1945).svg  Germany (1944)
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg  United States (1946)
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg  Soviet Union (1948)

This is a list of known spaceflights launched before 1951.

Spaceflight essentially an extreme form of ballistic flight,use of space technology to achieve the flight of spacecraft into and through outer space, used in space exploration, and also in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications

Spaceflight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft with or without humans on board. Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union was the first human to conduct a spaceflight. Examples of human spaceflight include the U.S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites. These operate either by telerobotic control or are fully autonomous.

Contents

Launches

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC)Outcome
Remarks

1944

June Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg V-2 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Greifswalder Oie Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht Suborbital Missile testSame dayMixed
A number of vertical test launches were done to attempt to solve the airburst problem with the V-2. Rockets launched during these tests reached a peak apogee of 176 kilometres (109 mi). [1]
20 June Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg V-2 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Greifswalder Oie Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Wehrmacht
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg MW 18014 WehrmachtSuborbitalMissile test20 JuneSuccessful
First man-made object to cross what would later be defined as the Kármán line and hence first spaceflight.
Vertical test, apogee: 174.6 kilometres (108.5 mi)
14 September Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg V-2 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Peenemünde Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Wehrmacht
WehrmachtSuborbitalMissile test14 SeptemberSuccessful
First spaceflight with recorded date, vertical test, apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
7 December
17:00
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg V-2 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Peenemünde Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Wehrmacht
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Ma-333 WehrmachtSuborbitalMissile test7 DecemberSuccessful
Vertical test, apogee: 104 kilometres (65 mi)
9 December
17:10
Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg V-2 Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Peenemünde Flag of Germany (1935-1945).svg Wehrmacht
WehrmachtSuborbitalMissile test9 DecemberSuccessful
Vertical test, apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)

1946

16 April
21:47
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands - Launch Complex 33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg General Electric/US Army
WSPG [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation (Applied Physics Laboratory) [3] 16 AprilGuidance failure [2]
First launch of Project Hermes, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
10 May
21:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
WSPG [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation (APL), [3] Chemical Release?* [4] 10 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi), First US spaceflight
29 May
21:12
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation (APL), [3] Chemical Release?* [4] 29 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 112 kilometres (70 mi)
13 June
23:40
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] Suborbital Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory) [3] 13 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 117 kilometres (73 mi)
28 June
19:25
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Naval Radiation Laboratory [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature. Ionosphere [5] 28 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)
9 July
19:25
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (Naval Radiation Laboratory), Biological (Harvard University) [6] 9 JulySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi)
19 July
19:11
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] Suborbital Ionospheric (NRL) [3] 19 JulyExplosion at 28.5 seconds [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
30 July
19:36
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Applied Physics Laboratory [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL) [7] 30 JulySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
15 August
18:00
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Ionosphere [8] 15 AugustGuidance Failure at 13.9 seconds [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 3 kilometres (1.9 mi)
22 August
17:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
University of Michigan, [2] ARDC? [9] SuborbitalPressure, Density, Ionosphere Aeronomy, Sky Brightness [3] 22 AugustGuidance Failure immediately after lift [2]
Project Hermes launch
10 October
18:02
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Ray, Ionosphere, Pressure-Temperature, Solar Spectroscopy, Ejection of Cosmic Ray Recording Camera [10] Selected seeds (Harvard), Cross jet attenuation transmitter & receiver [11] 10 OctoberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 164 kilometres (102 mi)
24 October
19:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
APL [2] SuborbitalCosmic & Solar radiation, winds, photography, [3] 24 OctoberSuccessful, Short burning time (59 sec) [12]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi), First photo of Earth from space
7 November
20:31
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Princeton University [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, [3] 7 NovemberGuidance Failure at 2 seconds, missile turned sideways, flew horizontal and was destroyed [13]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 0.39 kilometres (0.24 mi)
21 November
16:55
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Watson Laboratories, University of Michigan, [14] ARDC? [9] SuborbitalPressure, Temperature, Ionosphere, Sky Brightness,Voltage breakdown [15] 21 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 102 kilometres (63 mi)
5 December
20:08
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalCosmic & Solar Radiation, Pressure, Temperature, Photography [3] 5 DecemberSuccessful, Guidance Problems
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
18 December
05:12
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg GRENADES APL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Meteor research, Biological (National Institute of Health), [3] Chemical release* [4] 18 DecemberSuccessful, extraordinary range due to guidance failure [16]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 187 kilometres (116 mi)

1947

10 January
21:13
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, [3] "Daughter Canister Release (Air Material Command) [17] 10 JanuarySuccessful, Roll at 40 seconds [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 116 kilometres (72 mi)
24 January
00:22
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E. [2] SuborbitalTest Guidance System, [2] Hermes A-2 Telemetry System Test [18] 24 JanuarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 49.88 kilometres (30.99 mi).
20 February
18:16
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom I Air Materiel Command [2] SuborbitalPressure-temperature (University of Michigan), Ionosphere (Air Force Cambridge Research Center, UoM), Sky brightness, Voltage Breakdown measurements (AFCRC), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies, first animals in space, [19] Blossom parachute recovery of canister (Cambridge Field Station) [20] 20 FebruarySuccessful, Guidance disturbance at 27 sec, Roll at 37.5 sec [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi).
7 March
18:23
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Pressure-temperature, Solar Radiation, Ionosphere (NRL), Biological rye, cotton seeds and fruit flies (Harvard) [21] 7 MarchSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 161 kilometres (100 mi).
1 April
20:10
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
APL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (APL & Yerkes Observatory), High altitude photography (Gun Sight Aiming Point camera) [22] 1 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
9 April
00:10
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
APL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography. [23] 9 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 103 kilometres (64 mi)
17 April
23:22
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg GRENADESG.E. [2] SuborbitalPressure-Temperature: 9 Grenades (Signal Corps Engineering Laboratories) [24] 17 AprilSuccessful, Roll at 57.5 seconds [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
15 May
23:08
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalDensity-pressure-temperature grenades (SCEL), (Michigan University), Composition, Cosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation (NRL) [25] 15 MaySuccessful, Steering trouble from lift [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 122 kilometres (76 mi)
29 May [26] Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes B-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes II G.E.SuborbitalMissile test of ramjet diffusers called "Organ." [27] 29 MayMissile went South instead of North, landed in Mexico [28]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi), maiden flight of Hermes II, aka Hermes B-1
10 July
19:18
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRL [2] SuborbitalDensity-pressure-temperature, Cosmic Radiation, Ionosphere, Simulant agent experiment - Camp Detrick, Indiana, seed containers in control chamber (Harvard College Observatory) [29] 10 JulyLaunch failure, Steering trouble from lift [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 16 kilometres (9.9 mi)
29 July
12:55
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
APL [2] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation, Solar Radiation, High altitude photography (APL) [30] 29 JulySuccessful, Vane #4 ceased to operate at 27 sec [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 September Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg USS Midway, AO-10 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
US NavySuborbitalMissile test6 SeptemberLaunch failure
Operation Sandy, first shipboard missile launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
9 October
19:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] SuborbitalDensity-pressure-temperature, Skin temperature, Composition (University of Michigan), Solar radiation (NRL) [31] 9 OctoberSuccessful, Steering disturbance at 48.4 sec. Roll at 52 sec. [2]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 156 kilometres (97 mi)
20 November
23:47
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E. [2] SuborbitalTechnology development flight for GE. [32] 20 NovemberLaunch failure, Propulsion trouble at 36 sec. [2]
Apogee: 21 kilometres (13 mi)
24 November
17:20
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Applied Physics Laboratory [33] SuborbitalCosmic Radiation [34] 24 NovemberLaunch failure, off course, flight terminated. [35]
Apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
8 December
21:42
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom II AMC [2] SuborbitalDensity-pressure-temperature (Michigan University), Skin temperature (Boston University), Solar soft X-rays,Vertical incidence ionosphere propagation, Oblique incidence ionosphere propagation, Aspect project (cameras to be lowered by parachute) (Wright Air Development Center), Sky brightness (AFCRC) [36] 8 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)

1948

22 January
20:12
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
NRLSuborbital22 JanuarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 159 kilometres (99 mi)
6 February
17:17
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
G.E.Suborbital6 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
5 March
22:51
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbitalChemical release5 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 118 kilometres (73 mi)
19 March
23:10
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IIA G.E.Suborbital19 MarchLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
2 April
13:47
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
US Army Signal Corps Suborbital2 AprilSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 144 kilometres (89 mi)
13 April
21:41
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbital13 AprilSuccessful
Apogee: 114 kilometres (71 mi)
19 April
19:54
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
NRLSuborbital19 AprilGuidance Failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
13 May
13:43
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 1 G.E.Suborbital13 MaySuccessful
Maiden flight of Bumper, apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
27 May
14:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
APLSuborbital27 MaySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 140 kilometres (87 mi)
11 June
10:22
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
AMCSuborbital11 JuneLaunch Failure, Premature Valve Closure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 63 kilometres (39 mi)
26 July
16:47
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbital26 JulySuccessful
Apogee: 113 kilometres (70 mi)
26 July
18:03
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
APLSuborbital26 JulySuccessful, Propulsion issues at 45.2s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 97 kilometres (60 mi)
5 August
12:07
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
NRLSuborbital UV Astronomy
Solar X-ray
5 AugustSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 167 kilometres (104 mi)
19 August
14:45
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 2 G.E.Suborbital19 AugustLaunch failure
Apogee: 13 kilometres (8.1 mi)
3 September
01:00
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg GRENADESUSASCSuborbital3 SeptemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
17 September Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test17 SeptemberLaunch failure
Maiden flight of R-1
30 September
15:30
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 3 G.E.Suborbital30 September2nd Stage Failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
10 October Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test10 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), first Soviet spaceflight
13 October Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
21 October Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test21 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test23 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
1 November
14:24
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 4 G.E.Suborbital1 NovemberTail explosion at 28.5s
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi)
1 November Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 November Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test3 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
4 November Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test4 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
5 November Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test5 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
22:35
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
G.E.Suborbital Ramjet research18 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 145 kilometres (90 mi)
9 December
16:08
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
USASCSuborbital9 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 108 kilometres (67 mi)

1949

14 January
20:26
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes B-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes IIUS ArmySuborbitalMissile test14 JanuaryLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 1 kilometre (0.62 mi)
28 January
17:20
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRLSuborbital28 JanuaryLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 60 kilometres (37 mi)
17 February
17:00
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
APLSuborbital17 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi)
24 February
22:14
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 5 G.E.Suborbital24 FebruarySuccessful
Apogee: 393 kilometres (244 mi). The new altitude record.
17 March
23:20
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbitalIonospheric17 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
22 March
06:43
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IVA AMCSuborbital22 MarchSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 129 kilometres (80 mi)
22 March
17:20
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbitalIonospheric22 MarchSuccessful
Apogee: 105 kilometres (65 mi)
24 March
15:14
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg USS Norton Sound, PO-22 LP-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbitalIonospheric24 MarchLaunch failure
Apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), pressure valve malfunction, booster separated on ignition
11 April
22:05
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
USASCSuborbital11 AprilSuccessful, Thrust issues starting at 43.4s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 85 kilometres (53 mi)
22 April
00:17
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Bumper 6 G.E.Suborbital22 AprilLaunch failure
Apogee: 50 kilometres (31 mi)
5 May
15:15
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
G.E.Suborbital5 MayLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 8 kilometres (5.0 mi)
7 May
03:12
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test7 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-1A
10 May
15:57
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test10 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 May
02:48
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test15 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 May
21:55
Flag of Germany (1946-1949).svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test16 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
24 May
01:40
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg FIAR-1 OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test24 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
28 May
01:50
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1A Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test28 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 June
22:35
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IVB AMCSuborbitalBiological
Atmospheric
14 JuneSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 134 kilometres (83 mi), carried Albert II, first monkey in space [19] [37]
15 June
02:03
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
NRL Suborbital Ozone research15 JuneSuccessful
Apogee: 109 kilometres (68 mi)
6 September
16:57
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands ALA-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking 2 NRL SuborbitalAeronomy
Imaging
6 SeptemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 57 kilometres (35 mi)
10 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test10 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test11 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test13 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
14 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test14 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
16 September
23:19
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IVC AMCSuborbitalBiological16 SeptemberLaunch Failure, Tail explosion at 10.7s
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 5 kilometres (3.1 mi), carried Albert III
17 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test17 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test19 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
20 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test20 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test23 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
25 September
11:16
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2E Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test25 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi), maiden flight of R-2E
28 September Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test28 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
29 September
16:58
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./U.S. Army
NRLSuborbital29 SeptemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 151 kilometres (94 mi)
30 September
11:49
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2E Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test30 SeptemberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
2 October
11:00
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2E Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test2 OctoberLaunch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
3 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test3 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
6 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes B-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes IIUS ArmySuborbitalMissile test6 OctoberLaunch failure
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 4 kilometres (2.5 mi)
8 October
06:05
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2E Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test8 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
8 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test8 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
10 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test10 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
11 October
12:45
Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2E Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test11 OctoberLaunch failure
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test12 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
13 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test13 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
15 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test15 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test18 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
19 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test19 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
22 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test22 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
23 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-1 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test23 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
18 November
16:03
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg GRENADES USASCSuborbital18 NovemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 124 kilometres (77 mi)
6 December Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee XASR-SC-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Army
US ArmySuborbitalAir sampling aironomy mission6 DecemberLaunch failure
Doesn't reach Karman line; Apogee: 64.9 kilometres (40.3 mi)
8 December
19:15
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IVD AMCSuborbitalBiological8 DecemberSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 127 kilometres (79 mi), carried Albert IV

1950

9 February
21:44
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands ALA-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking 3 NRLSuborbitalSolar
Imaging
9 FebruaryLaunch failure
Veered off-course, failed to reach space, apogee: 80.5 kilometres (50.0 mi)
17 February
18:00
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
NRLSuborbital17 FebruarySuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 148 kilometres (92 mi)
26 April
01:11
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee XASR-SC-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
US ArmySuborbitalAtmospheric26 AprilSuccessful
Apogee: 100 kilometres (62 mi)
12 May
03:08
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg USS Norton Sound, PO-8 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking 4 US NavySuborbitalIonospheric
Aeronomy
12 MaySuccessful
Apogee: 171 kilometres (106 mi)
17 August
15:45
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-N-10 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-35 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
APLSuborbital Spectrometry 17 AugustSuccessful
Apogee: 101 kilometres (63 mi)
31 August
17:09
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Blossom IVG AMCSuborbitalBiological31 AugustSuccessful
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 137 kilometres (85 mi), carried a mouse
21 October Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test21 OctoberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi), maiden flight of R-2
26 October
23:02
Flag of Germany.svg V-2 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg G.E./US Army
Ballistic Research Laboratory Suborbital26 OctoberLaunch Failure
Project Hermes launch
1 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
9 November Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes B-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands LC-33 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Army
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Hermes IIUS ArmySuborbitalMissile test9 NovemberPartial Success [38]
Project Hermes launch, apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
21 November
17:18
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands ALA-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking 5 NRLSuborbitalSolar
Ionospheric
21 NovemberSuccessful
Apogee: 174 kilometres (108 mi)
1 December Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
1 December Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test1 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
12 December
07:04
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg White Sands ALA-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg US Navy
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Viking 6 US NavySuborbital12 DecemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 64 kilometres (40 mi)
12 December
18:26
Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Aerobee RTV-A-1 Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg Holloman LC-A Flag of the United States (1912-1959).svg ARDC
ARDCSuborbital12 DecemberSuccessful
Apogee: 106 kilometres (66 mi)
20 December Flag of Germany.svg Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg R-2 Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg Kapustin Yar Flag of the Soviet Union (1936-1955).svg OKB-1
OKB-1SuborbitalMissile test20 DecemberLaunch failure
Apogee: 150 kilometres (93 mi)

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The Upper Atmosphere Research Panel, also known as the V-2 Panel, was formed in 1946 to oversee experiments conducted using V-2 rockets brought to the United States after World War II. The experiments studied the upper atmosphere, solar radiation and X-ray astronomy, as well as the technology of the V-2 rocket.

V-2 sounding rocket

German V-2 rockets captured by the United States Army at the end of World War II were used as sounding rockets to carry scientific instruments into the earth's upper atmosphere at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) for a program of atmospheric and solar investigation through the late 1940s. Rocket trajectory was intended to carry the rocket about 100 miles (160 km) high and 30 miles (48 km) horizontally from WSMR Launch Complex 33. Impact velocity of returning rockets was reduced by inducing structural failure of the rocket airframe upon atmospheric re-entry. More durable recordings and instruments might be recovered from the rockets after ground impact, but telemetry was developed to transmit and record instrument readings during flight.

Robert E. Bourdeau

Robert Eugene Bourdeau was an American physicist known for major contributions to the study of the ionosphere, plasma physics and radio science using space vehicles including satellites and rockets. Among his many achievements was the launch on November 3, 1960 of Explorer 8 from Cape Canaveral, Florida. This occurred during his 16-year career at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). He was both Project Manager and Project Scientist for Explorer 8 which added significant knowledge to the understanding of these fields.

References

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  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).
NASA space-related agency of the United States government

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

Goddard Space Flight Center major NASA space research laboratory established on May 1, 1959 as NASAs first space flight center

The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately 6.5 miles (10.5 km) northeast of Washington, D.C. in unincorporated Prince George's County, Maryland, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC employs approximately 10,000 civil servants and contractors. It is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard. GSFC is partially within the former Goddard census-designated place; it has a Greenbelt mailing address.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Research and development center and NASA field center in California, US

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Cañada Flintridge, California, United States, though it is often referred to as residing in Pasadena, California, because it has a Pasadena ZIP Code.

Generic references:

Footnotes

  1. Neufeld, Michael J (1995). The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemünde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era. New York: The Free Press. p. 221.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 White,, L. D. (September 1952). Final Report,Project Hermes V-2 Missile Program. Schnectady, New York: Guided Missile Department, Aeronautic and Ordnance Systems Division, Defense Products Group, General Electric. p. Table I.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 159. ISBN   978-0-7643-3251-7.
  4. 1 2 3 I have found no evidence that a chemical release experiment was flown. Chemical release is usually done to conduct aeronomy or wind studies.
  5. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 336-337 (V-2 NO. 6). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  6. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 338-339 (V-2 NO. 7). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  7. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 342-343 (V-2 NO. 9). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  8. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 344 (V-2 NO. 10). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  9. 1 2 Kennedy list the Agency for this flight as ARDC while White does not as the Air Research and Development Command did not exist until 1950 kennedy may have confused ARDC with the AAF Technical Service Command, the Air Technical Service Command, or the Air Materiel Command.
  10. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 11, 91.
  11. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 346-347 (V-2 NO. 12). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  12. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. p. Table I.
  13. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 350 (V-2 NO. 14). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  14. Newell,, H. E. Jr.; Siry,, J. W. (30 December 1946). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. R-3030 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number II (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  15. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 351-352 (V-2 NO. 15). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  16. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Loboratory. pp. 354 (V-2 NO. 16). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  17. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 357–358 (V-2 NO. 18). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  18. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 359–360 (V-2 NO. 19). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  19. 1 2 "Part 1: 1900 - 1950". Chronology of Human Space Exploration. I-Spy Space.
  20. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 361–362 (V-2 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  21. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–365 (V-2 NO. 21). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  22. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 366–367 (V-2 NO. 22). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  23. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 368–369 (V-23 NO. 20). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  24. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 370–371 (V-2 NO. 24). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  25. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 374–375 (V-2 NO. 26). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  26. Newell & Siry, Neufeld, and Kennedy agree that the launch was on 29 May.
  27. Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 239. ISBN   978-0-307-38937-4.
  28. Kennedy, Gregory P. (2009). The Rockets and Missiles of White Sands Proving Ground. Atglen, PA.: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd. p. 57. ISBN   978-0-7643-3251-7.
  29. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 363–364 (V-2 NO. 29). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  30. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 386–387 (V-2 NO. 30). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  31. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 376–378 (V-2 NO. 27). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  32. Wade, Mark. "1947". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
  33. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table I. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  34. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. Table 7.3. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  35. Van Allen, James A. & Townsend, Jr. (1959). "Chapter 4:The Aerobee Rocket". In Newell,, Homer E. (ed.). Sounding Rockets. McGraw-Hill Book Company. pp. 61–62.
  36. Smith, Charles P. Jr. (February 1958). Naval Research Laboratory Report No. 4276 Upper Atmospheric Research Report Number XXI, Summary of Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research Firings (pdf). Washington D.C.: Naval Research Laboratory. pp. 379–382 (V-2 NO. 28). Retrieved 9 March 2016.
  37. Wade, Mark. "V-2 Chronology". Encyclopedia Astronautica.
  38. Neufeld, Michael J. (2007). Von Braun, Dreamer of Space, Engineer of War. New York: Vintage Books. p. 249. ISBN   978-0-307-38937-4.

See also