The Notorious Byrd Brothers

Last updated
The Notorious Byrd Brothers
NotoriousByrdBrothers.jpg
Studio album by
ReleasedJanuary 15, 1968
RecordedJune 21 – December 6, 1967
Studio Columbia Studios, Hollywood, CA
Genre
Length28:28
Label Columbia
Producer Gary Usher
The Byrds chronology
The Byrds' Greatest Hits
(1967)
The Notorious Byrd Brothers
(1968)
Sweetheart of the Rodeo
(1968)
Singles from The Notorious Byrd Brothers
  1. "Goin' Back"
    Released: October 20, 1967

The Notorious Byrd Brothers is the fifth album by the American rock band the Byrds, and was released in January 1968, on Columbia Records. [1] [2] The album represents the pinnacle of the Byrds' late-60's musical experimentation, with the band blending together elements of psychedelia, folk rock, country, electronic music, baroque pop, and jazz. [3] [4] [5] With producer Gary Usher, they made extensive use of a number of studio effects and production techniques, including phasing, flanging, and spatial panning. [6] [7] [8] The Byrds also introduced the sound of the pedal steel guitar and the Moog modular synthesizer into their music, making it one of the first LP releases on which the Moog appears. [7] [9]

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, a style which drew heavily from the genres of blues, rhythm and blues, and from country music. Rock music also drew strongly from a number of other genres such as electric blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical styles. Musically, rock has centered on the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with electric bass, drums, and one or more singers. Usually, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature using a verse–chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse. Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political.

The Byrds American rock band

The Byrds were an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1964. The band underwent multiple lineup changes throughout its existence, with frontman Roger McGuinn remaining the sole consistent member. Although they only managed to attain the huge commercial success of contemporaries like the Beatles, the Beach Boys, and the Rolling Stones for a short period in the mid-1960s, the Byrds are today considered by critics to be nearly as influential as those bands. Their signature blend of clear harmony singing and McGuinn's jangly twelve-string Rickenbacker guitar was "absorbed into the vocabulary of rock" and has continued to be influential.

Columbia Records American record label; currently owned by Sony Music Entertainment

Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, and the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records.

Contents

Recording sessions for The Notorious Byrd Brothers took place throughout the latter half of 1967 and were fraught with tension, resulting in the loss of two members of the band. [9] Rhythm guitarist David Crosby was fired in October 1967 and drummer Michael Clarke left the band midway through recording, returning briefly before finally being dismissed after completion of the album. [10] [11] Additionally, original band member Gene Clark, who had left the group in early 1966, rejoined for three weeks during the making of the album, before leaving again. [12] Author Ric Menck has commented that in spite of these changes in personnel and the conflict surrounding its creation, The Notorious Byrd Brothers is the band's most cohesive and ethereal-sounding album statement. [13]

Rhythm guitar guitar technique; part of the rhythmic pulse in conjunction with other instruments from the rhythm section

In music performances, rhythm guitar is a technique and role that performs a combination of two functions: to provide all or part of the rhythmic pulse in conjunction with other instruments from the rhythm section ; and to provide all or part of the harmony, i.e. the chords from a song's chord progression, where a chord is a group of notes played together. Therefore, the basic technique of rhythm guitar is to hold down a series of chords with the fretting hand while strumming or fingerpicking rhythmically with the other hand. More developed rhythm techniques include arpeggios, damping, riffs, chord solos, and complex strums.

David Crosby guitarist, singer and songwriter from the United States

David Van Cortlandt Crosby is an American singer-songwriter and musician. In addition to his solo career, he was a founding member of both the Byrds and Crosby, Stills & Nash.

Drummer percussionist who creates and accompanies music using drums

A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drums.

The Notorious Byrd Brothers reached number 47 on the Billboard Top LPs chart and number 12 on the UK Album Chart. [14] [15] A cover of the Gerry Goffin and Carole King song "Goin' Back" was released in October 1967 as the lead single from the album to mild chart success. [7] Although The Notorious Byrd Brothers was critically praised at the time of its release, it was only moderately successful commercially, particularly in the United States. [16] The album later came to be widely regarded as one of the Byrds' best album releases, as well as their most experimental and progressive. [5] [6] [13] Byrds expert Tim Connors has commented that the album's title evokes the American Old West. [4]

The Billboard 200 is a record chart ranking the 200 most popular music albums and EPs in the United States. It is published weekly by Billboard magazine. It is frequently used to convey the popularity of an artist or groups of artists. Often, a recording act will be remembered by its "number ones", those of their albums that outperformed all others during at least one week. The chart grew from a weekly top 10 list in 1956 to become a top 200 in May 1967, and acquired its present title in March 1992. Its previous names include the Billboard Top LPs (1961–72), Billboard Top LPs & Tape (1972–84), Billboard Top 200 Albums (1984–85) and Billboard Top Pop Albums.

Cover version later version of a song already established with a different earlier performer

In popular music, a cover version, cover song, revival, or simply cover, is a new performance or recording by someone other than the original artist or composer of a previously recorded, commercially released song.

Gerald Goffin was an American lyricist. Collaborating initially with his first wife, Carole King, he co-wrote many international pop hits of the early and mid-1960s, including the US No.1 hits "Will You Love Me Tomorrow", "Take Good Care of My Baby", "The Loco-Motion", and "Go Away Little Girl". It was later said of Goffin that his gift was "to find words that expressed what many young people were feeling but were unable to articulate."

Background

The recording of The Notorious Byrd Brothers, during the latter half of 1967, was marked by severe internal dissolution and acrimony. [4] The Byrds began the recording sessions as a four-piece band, consisting of Roger McGuinn, David Crosby, Chris Hillman, and Michael Clarke—the same line-up that had recorded their two previous albums. [17] By the time of the album's release, however, only McGuinn and Hillman remained in the group. [5] The first line-up change occurred when drummer Michael Clarke quit the group over disputes with Crosby and the other band members over his playing ability and his apparent dissatisfaction with the material the three songwriting members of the band were providing. [18] [19] He was replaced temporarily by noted session drummers Jim Gordon and Hal Blaine. [18] [19]

Roger McGuinn American singer-songwriter and guitarist

Roger McGuinn is an American musician. He is best known for being the frontman of the Byrds. He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame for his work with the Byrds.

Chris Hillman American musician

Christopher "Chris" Hillman is an American musician. He was the original bassist and one of the original members of The Byrds, which in 1965 included Roger McGuinn, Gene Clark, David Crosby and Michael Clarke. With frequent collaborator Gram Parsons, Hillman was a key figure in the development of country rock, defining the genre through his work with The Byrds, The Flying Burrito Brothers, Manassas and the country-rock group Desert Rose Band.

Michael Clarke (musician) American drummer

Michael Clarke was an American musician, best known as the drummer for the 1960s rock group the Byrds from 1964 to 1967. He died in 1993, at age 47, from liver failure, a direct result of more than three decades of heavy alcohol consumption.

David Crosby was then fired by McGuinn and Hillman and replaced by a former member of the Byrds, Gene Clark, who stayed on board for just three weeks before leaving again. [10] [12] Prior to Gene Clark rejoining the band, Michael Clarke had also returned from his self-imposed exile, only to be informed by McGuinn and Hillman that he was once again an ex-Byrd after the album was completed. [11] Amid so many changes in band personnel, McGuinn and Hillman needed to rely upon outside musicians to complete the album. [11] Among these hired musicians was Clarence White, who had also played on the group's previous LP. [4] His contributions to this and the Byrds' Younger Than Yesterday and Sweetheart of the Rodeo albums, along with his friendship with Hillman, eventually led to his being hired as a full-time member of the band. [20]

Clarence White American musician

Clarence White, was an American bluegrass and country guitarist and singer. He is best known as a member of the bluegrass ensemble the Kentucky Colonels and the rock band the Byrds, as well as for being a pioneer of the musical genre of country rock during the late 1960s.

<i>Younger Than Yesterday</i> 1967 studio album by The Byrds

Younger Than Yesterday is the fourth album by the American rock band the Byrds and was released on February 6, 1967 on Columbia Records. It saw the band continuing to integrate elements of psychedelia and jazz into their music, a process they had begun on their previous album, Fifth Dimension. In addition, the album captured the band and record producer Gary Usher experimenting with new musical textures, including brass instruments, reverse tape effects and an electronic oscillator.

<i>Sweetheart of the Rodeo</i> 1968 studio album by The Byrds

Sweetheart of the Rodeo is the sixth album by American rock band the Byrds and was released on August 30, 1968, on Columbia Records. Recorded with the addition of country rock pioneer Gram Parsons, it became the first major album widely recognised as country rock, and represented a stylistic move away from the psychedelic rock of the band's previous LP, The Notorious Byrd Brothers. The Byrds had occasionally experimented with country music on their four previous albums, but Sweetheart of the Rodeo represented their fullest immersion into the genre thus far. The album was also responsible for bringing Parsons, who had joined the Byrds prior to the recording of the album, to the attention of a mainstream rock audience for the first time. Thus, the album can be seen as an important chapter in Parsons' personal and musical crusade to make country music fashionable for a young audience.

David Crosby's dismissal

David Crosby was fired from the Byrds midway through recording sessions for the album. CSNY 8-1974 (2).jpg
David Crosby was fired from the Byrds midway through recording sessions for the album.

David Crosby was fired by McGuinn and Hillman in October 1967, as a result of friction arising from, among other things, Crosby's displeasure at the band's wish to record the GoffinKing composition "Goin' Back". [10] Crosby felt that recording the song was a step backwards artistically, especially when the band contained three active songwriters. [13] Another factor that contributed to Crosby's dismissal was his controversial song "Triad", a risqué composition about a ménage à trois that was in direct competition with "Goin' Back" for a place on the album. [5] He eventually gave the tune to Jefferson Airplane, who included a version of the song on their 1968 album, Crown of Creation . [19] [21] Although the Byrds did record "Triad", the song's daring subject matter compelled McGuinn and Hillman to prevent it from being released at the time. [10] The track eventually surfaced on the band's 1987 archival compilation album, Never Before , and was later added to The Notorious Byrd Brothers as a bonus track on the 1997 Columbia/Legacy reissue. [22] [23]

Carole King American singer and songwriter

Carole King is an American singer-songwriter who has been active since 1958, initially as one of the staff songwriters at the Brill Building and later as a solo artist. She is the most successful female songwriter of the latter half of the 20th century in the US, having written or co-written 118 pop hits on the Billboard Hot 100. King also wrote 61 hits that charted in the UK, making her the most successful female songwriter on the UK singles charts between 1952 and 2005.

A songwriter is a professional that writes lyrics and composes musical compositions for songs. A songwriter can also be called a composer, although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre and film scoring, but is also associated writing and composing the original musical composition or musical bed. A songwriter that writes the lyrics/words are referred to as lyricist. The pressure from the music industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people. For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with the task of creating original melodies. Pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers – songwriters directly employed by music publishers. Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers.

"Triad" is a song written by singer-songwriter David Crosby in 1967 about a ménage à trois, a subject that Byrds biographer Johnny Rogan has noted was perfectly in keeping with the "free love" hippie philosophies of the day.

Crosby had also annoyed the other members of the Byrds during their performance at the Monterey Pop Festival when he gave lengthy in-between-song speeches on a number of controversial subjects, including the JFK assassination and the benefits of giving LSD to "all the statesmen and politicians in the world." [24] He further irritated his bandmates at Monterey by performing with rival group Buffalo Springfield, filling in for ex-member Neil Young. [25]

His stock within the band deteriorated still further following the commercial failure of his song "Lady Friend", when it was released as the A-side of a Byrds' single in July 1967. [26] His absence from many of the recording sessions for The Notorious Byrd Brothers represented the final straw for McGuinn and Hillman, and Crosby would soon find himself an ex-Byrd, with a handsome severance package and time to associate with his new musical partner, Stephen Stills. [10] It has been suggested that the horse on the cover of the album was unkindly intended to represent Crosby, although this has been denied by both McGuinn and Hillman. [27]

Much to Crosby's chagrin, McGuinn and Hillman reworked his unfinished song "Draft Morning" following his departure and included it in the final running order for the album, awarding themselves a co-writing credit in the process. [3] In the end, Crosby ended up playing on about half of The Notorious Byrd Brothers, appearing on his own three songs, plus "Change Is Now" and "Old John Robertson". [16] Crosby also appears on several of the bonus tracks included on the 1997 reissue, including "Triad", "Universal Mind Decoder" and an early version of "Goin' Back". [28]

Gene Clark's return

Following Crosby's departure, Gene Clark was asked to rejoin the band. [13] Clark had originally left the Byrds in early 1966 due to his fear of flying and his tendency towards anxiety and paranoia. [29] His debut solo album (co-produced by the Byrds' then current producer, Gary Usher, with both Clarke and Hillman playing on it) had been a critical success, but a commercial failure and Clark was currently inactive. [30] Clark rejoined the Byrds in October 1967 for three weeks, during which time he and the band performed on The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour television program, lip-syncing "Goin' Back" and "Mr. Spaceman". [12] The Byrds also played several live dates with Clark during a tour of the Midwest. [12] Following the final concert of the tour, Clark's fear of flying again became a problem when it prevented him from taking a flight to New York with his bandmates and as a result, he left the band soon after. [12]

It has been debated by biographers and band historians just how involved Clark was in the recording of The Notorious Byrd Brothers. [13] Clark himself claimed during a 1988 interview for radio station KBSG 97 that he was involved in the recording of "Goin' Back" and some other songs from the same period, although he didn't specify what his contributions might have been. [31] There is also studio documentation and eyewitness accounts to suggest that Clark contributed backing vocals to "Goin' Back" and "Space Odyssey". [12] [13] One of those eyewitnesses, John Noreen of the L.A. folk rock band the Rose Garden, has stated in an interview that he clearly remembers being at Columbia Recording Studios during sessions for the album and seeing Clark record his backing vocals. [12] This has been corroborated by the Rose Garden's drummer, Bruce Bowdin, who has claimed that Clark's voice can be heard most clearly on the mono mix of "Goin' Back" that was released as a single. [12] However, if Clark is present on either "Space Odyssey" or "Goin' Back", his contributions are not obvious and must have been buried very low in the mix by producer Gary Usher. [13] The Byrds' lead guitarist, Roger McGuinn, cannot remember whether Clark contributed to the album or not, but he has admitted that it is possible. [12] McGuinn has, however, gone on record as stating that he wrote the song "Get to You" with Clark, and that the writing credits on the album are mistaken; they should have read McGuinn/Clark, rather than McGuinn/Hillman. [12]

Music

Production

Despite its troubled genesis, the album contains some of the band's most gentle and ethereal music, as well as some of its most progressive and experimental. [13] In a 2002 interview, McGuinn said it was "kind of Beatles-inspired" and cited their album Revolver as an influence. [32] Lyrically, it attempted to deal with many contemporary themes such as peace, ecology, freedom, drug use, alienation and mankind's place in the universe. [3] The album, as a whole, represented the apex of the McGuinn–Crosby–Hillman songwriting partnership, and took the musical experimentation of the original Byrds to its farthest logical extreme, mixing folk rock, country, psychedelia and jazz, often within a single song. [4] [5] [3] The band and producer Gary Usher also used a number of innovative studio-based production techniques on the album, in particular making heavy use of phasing, spatial panning, and rotary speaker effects. [6] [8] [33]

A Moog modular synthesizer similar to the one used during the recording of The Notorious Byrd Brothers. Moog Modular 55 img2.jpg
A Moog modular synthesizer similar to the one used during the recording of The Notorious Byrd Brothers.

The band also began experimenting with the Moog modular synthesizer on a number of tracks, making The Notorious Byrd Brothers one of the very first rock albums to feature the instrument. [7] McGuinn had first discovered the Moog during the Monterey Pop Festival, where the instrument's inventor, Robert Moog, had set up a booth to demonstrate his new creation to the musicians who were performing at the festival. [34] Being something of an electronics buff, McGuinn was eager to experiment with the synthesizer in the recording studio, although reportedly, Hillman failed to share his enthusiasm for the instrument. [34] Although McGuinn and Usher played the Moog parts on the song "Space Odyssey" themselves, they ceded the instrument's other appearances on the album to electronic music pioneer and session musician Paul Beaver. [7] [34]

The album also featured the pedal steel guitar playing of session musician Red Rhodes, which represented the first use of the instrument on a Byrds' recording. [9] [35] This use of pedal steel, along with Clarence White's countrified guitar playing, foreshadowed the country rock direction that the band would explore on their next album, Sweetheart of the Rodeo . [4] [36]

The songs

The album's opening track, "Artificial Energy", features a prominent horn section and as such, can be seen as a stylistic relative of "Lady Friend" and "So You Want to Be a Rock 'n' Roll Star", two earlier Byrds' songs that made use of brass. [33] The song deals with the dark side of amphetamine use and it was Chris Hillman who initially suggested that the band should "write a song about speed". [4] [28] The title was suggested by drummer Michael Clarke, and his input in the creation of the song was sufficient to afford him a rare writing credit. [33] Although the song's lyrics initially seem to be extolling the virtues of amphetamines, the tale turns darker in the final verse when it becomes apparent that the drug taker has been imprisoned for murdering a homosexual man, as evidenced by the song's final couplet: "I'm coming down off amphetamine/And I'm in jail 'cause I killed a queen." [3] [37] Although the press had accused the Byrds of writing songs about drugs in the past, specifically with "Eight Miles High" and "5D (Fifth Dimension)", when the band finally did record a song unequivocally dealing with drugs it was largely ignored by journalists. [3]

"Artificial Energy" is followed on the album by the poignant and nostalgic Goffin–King song "Goin' Back". [2] With its chiming 12-string Rickenbacker guitar and polished harmony singing, band biographer Johnny Rogan has described the song as providing a sharp contrast to the negativity and violence of the opening track. [36] [3] The song's lyrics describe an attempt on the part of the singer to reject the cynicism that comes with being an adult in favor of the innocence of childhood. [36] Thematically, the song recalled the title of the Byrds' previous album, Younger Than Yesterday , and the understated pedal steel guitar playing of Red Rhodes gives the track a subtle country flavor. [28] [38]

A second Goffin–King composition, "Wasn't Born to Follow", also displays country and western influences, albeit filtered through the band's psychedelic and garage rock tendencies. [39] The song's country leanings are underscored by the criss-crossing musical dialogue between the electric guitar and pedal steel. [39] The rural ambiance is further heightened by the striking imagery of the lyrics which outline the need for escape and independence: a subject perfectly in keeping with the hippie ethos of the day. [39] [40]

Another song on the album that deals with the need to escape the confines of society is David Crosby's "Dolphin's Smile". [41] The song was an early example of Crosby's penchant for using nautical imagery in his songs, a thematic trait he would utilize in future compositions, including "Wooden Ships" and "The Lee Shore". [28] The theme of unfettered idyllic bliss is further explored in the Hillman-penned "Natural Harmony". [28] Like "Goin' Back", "Natural Harmony" conveys a sense of longing for the innocence of youth, albeit filtered through the awareness-raising properties of psychedelic drugs. [3] It has been suggested by some commentators that the song exhibits the strong influence of Crosby's writing style, with its laid-back, jazzy feel and dreamy, high tenor vocal part. [4] [42]

The McGuinn and Hillman composition "Change Is Now", with its lyrics advising the listener to live life to the full, represents a celebration of the philosophy of carpe diem (popularly translated as "seize the day"). [3] Within this context, the song's lyrics explored a number of other themes, including epiphenomenalism, communalism and human ecology. [3] The quasi-philosophical nature of the song prompted McGuinn to flippantly describe it in a 1969 interview as "another one of those guru-spiritual-mystic songs that no-one understood." [3] An early instrumental recording of the song, listed under its original working title of "Universal Mind Decoder", was included as a bonus track on the 1997 reissue of The Notorious Byrd Brothers. [23] "Change Is Now" is notable for being the only song on the album to feature both Crosby and future Byrd Clarence White together on the same track. [28]

"Draft Morning" is a song about the horrors of the Vietnam War, as well as a protest against the conscription of men into the military during the conflict. [2] [43] The song was initially written by Crosby, but he was fired from the Byrds shortly after he had introduced it to the rest of the band. [43] However, work had already begun on the song's instrumental backing track by the time of Crosby's departure. [43] Controversially, McGuinn and Hillman decided to continue working on the song, despite its author no longer being a member of the band. [3] Having only heard the song's lyrics in their original incarnation a few times, McGuinn and Hillman couldn't remember all of the words when they came to record the vocals and so decided to rewrite the song with their own lyrical additions, giving themselves a co-writing credit in the process. [4] This angered Crosby considerably, since he felt, with some justification, that McGuinn and Hillman had stolen his song. [43] Despite its troubled evolution, "Draft Morning" is often considered one of Crosby's best songs from his tenure with the Byrds. [4] [13] Lyrically, it follows a newly recruited soldier from the morning of his induction into the military through to his experiences of combat and as such, illustrates the predicament faced by many young American men during the 1960s. [4] [3] The song also makes extensive use of battlefield sound effects, provided for the band by the Los Angeles comedy troupe the Firesign Theatre. [28]

Another of Crosby's songwriting contributions to the album, "Tribal Gathering", was, for many years, assumed to have been inspired by the Human Be-In: A Gathering Of Tribes, a counter-culture happening held in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park on January 12, 1967. [4] [28] However, in recent years, Crosby has revealed that the song was actually inspired by another hippie gathering held at Elysian Park near Los Angeles on March 26, 1967. [44] [45] Played in a jazzy, 5/4 time signature, the song's vocal arrangement was greatly influenced by the music of the Four Freshmen, a vocal group that Crosby had admired as a youngster. [44]

Another song on the album that uses a 5/4 time signature, albeit with occasional shifts into 3/4 time, is the McGuinn and Clark composition "Get to You". [3] The song recounts a plane trip to London, England, just prior to the advent of autumn, but the identity of the enigmatic "you" mentioned in the song's title is not specified in the lyrics and thus, can be interpreted as either a waiting lover or as the city of London itself. [3] Although Clark helped to co-write the song, he had left the Byrds by the time it was recorded and therefore does not appear on the track. [7]

"Old John Robertson", which had already been issued some six months earlier as the B-side of the "Lady Friend" single, was another country-tinged song that looked forward to the band's future country rock experimentation. [1] [2] The song was inspired by a retired film director who lived in the small town near San Diego where Hillman grew up. [28] John S. Robertson was something of an eccentric figure around the town, regularly wearing a Stetson hat and sporting a white handlebar moustache, which gave him the appearance of a character out of the old American West. [28] In the song, Hillman recalls the children of the town and their cruel laughter at this colorful figure, as well as the combination of awe and fear that he elicited in the townsfolk. [28] During the recording of the song, Crosby switched instruments with Hillman to play bass instead of his usual rhythm guitar. [8] The track also makes liberal use of the studio effects known as phasing and flanging, particularly during the song's orchestral middle section and subsequent verse. [7] The version of "Old John Robertson" found on the B-side of the "Lady Friend" single is a substantially different mix from the version that appears on The Notorious Byrd Brothers album. [4]

The final track on the album, "Space Odyssey", is a musical retelling of Arthur C. Clarke's short story "The Sentinel", which was also the inspiration for Stanley Kubrick's 1968 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey . [28] The song makes extensive use of the Moog modular synthesizer and features a droning, dirge-like melody reminiscent of a sea shanty. [27] [34] Since "Space Odyssey" predates the release of 2001: A Space Odyssey, McGuinn and his co-writer, Robert J. Hippard, composed lyrics that referred to a pyramid being found on the Moon, as was the case in "The Sentinel". [46] However, the pyramid was replaced by a rectangular monolith in both the film and the accompanying novelization. [47]

Release and reception

Professional ratings
Review scores
SourceRating
AllMusic Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [2]
Rolling Stone Star full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar full.svgStar half.svg [48]

The Notorious Byrd Brothers was released on January 15, 1968, in the United States (catalogue item CL 2775 in mono, CS 9575 in stereo) and on April 12, 1968, in the UK (catalogue item 63169 in mono, S 63169 in stereo). [1] [16] However, there is some evidence to suggest that the U.S. release date may have been brought forward to January 3, 1968. [5] Regardless, the album's appearance during the first month of 1968 surprised many fans of the band, who had been led to believe by contemporary press reports that the album was still in the planning stages. [3] It peaked at number 47 on the Billboard Top LPs chart, during a chart stay of 19 weeks, but fared better in the United Kingdom where it reached number 12, spending a total of 11 weeks on the UK chart. [14] [15] The album's front cover photograph was taken by Guy Webster, who had also been responsible for the cover of the Byrds' Turn! Turn! Turn! album. [16] The "Goin' Back" single was released ahead of the album on October 20, 1967, and reached number 89 on the Billboard Hot 100 but failed to chart in the UK. [7] The album is notable for being the last Byrds LP to be commercially issued in mono in the United States, although subsequent albums continued to be released in both mono and stereo variations overseas. [1]

The album was almost universally well received by the music press upon release, with Jon Landau in the newly launched Rolling Stone magazine noting that "When the Byrds get it together on record they are consistently brilliant." [16] [3] Landau went on to praise the Byrds' musical eclecticism, before stating: "Their music is possessed by a never-ending circularity and a rich, child-like quality. It has a timelessness to it, not in the sense that you think their music will always be valid, but in the sense that it is capable of forcing you to suspend consciousness of time altogether." [16] Crawdaddy! magazine was also enthusiastic in its praise of the album, with Sandy Pearlman describing it as "enchantingly beautiful". [16] Pete Johnson, in his review for the Los Angeles Times , summed up the album as "11 good songs spiked with electronic music, strings, brass, natural and supernatural voices, and the familiar thick texture of McGuinn's guitar playing". [16]

In a contemporary review published in Esquire , music critic Robert Christgau described The Notorious Byrd Brothers as "simply the best album the Byrds have ever recorded". [49] Christgau grouped it with contemporary releases by Love ( Forever Changes ) and The Beach Boys ( Wild Honey ), remarking: "[i]t's hard to believe that so much good can come out of one place [i.e. Los Angeles]." [49] In the UK, Record Mirror gave the album a rare five-star rating, commenting "Hard though it was for the Byrds to follow-up their near-perfect Younger Than Yesterday album, they've done it with this fantastic disc." [50] Melody Maker was also complimentary about the album, describing it as "A beautiful selection, representing US pop at its finest." [50] Beat Instrumental concluded their review by stating "It's true to say that the Byrds are one of the two best groups in the world. Nobody can say any different with the proof of this album." [50]

In 1997, Rolling Stone senior editor David Fricke described the album as the Byrds' "finest hour" and "the work of a great rock & roll band, in every special sense of the word". [5] On his official website, Robert Christgau again commented on the album, declaring that The Notorious Byrd Brothers (along with its follow-up, Sweetheart of the Rodeo) is "[one] of the most convincing arguments for artistic freedom ever to come out of American rock". [51] Parke Puterbaugh, writing for the Rolling Stone website in 1999, remarked on the presence of "burbling Moog synthesizers and purring steel guitars" on the album, which he ultimately described as "a brilliant window onto an unforgettable place and time". [48]

Legacy

Over the years, The Notorious Byrd Brothers has gained in reputation and is often considered the group's best work, while the contentious incidents surrounding its making have been largely forgotten. [5] [6] [16] The album managed to capture the band at the height of their creative powers, as they pushed ahead lyrically, musically and technically into new sonic territory. [3] Band biographer Johnny Rogan has written that the Byrds' greatest accomplishment on the album was in creating a seamless mood piece from a variety of different sources, bound together by innovative studio experimentation. [3] Although the album is widely regarded as the band's most experimental, its running time of a little under 29 minutes also makes it their briefest.

The album was voted the fourth-best album ever in a 1971 ZigZag magazine readers' poll and the 1977 edition of the Critic's Choice: Top 200 Albums book ranked it at number 154 in a list of the "Greatest Rock Albums of All-Time". [52] [53] A subsequent edition of the book, published in 1988, ranked the album at number 75. [53] The album was included in Robert Christgau's "Basic Record Library" of 1950s and 1960s recordings, published in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies (1981). [54] In 1995, Mojo magazine placed the album at number 36 in their list of "The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made". [55] In 2003, the album was ranked at number 171 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time" and number 32 on the NME 's list of the "100 Best Albums". [56] [57] In 2004, Q magazine included the album in its list of "The Music that Changed the World". [58]

The Notorious Byrd Brothers was remastered at 20-bit resolution as part of the Columbia/Legacy Byrds series. [59] It was reissued in an expanded form on March 25, 1997, with six bonus tracks, including Crosby's controversial ballad "Triad", the Indian-influenced "Moog Raga", and an instrumental backing track for the outtake "Bound to Fall". [28] The final track on the CD extends to include a hidden track featuring a radio advertisement by producer Gary Usher for the album, as well as a recording of an in-studio altercation between the band members. [60]

Following the release of the album, the Byrds' recording of "Wasn't Born to Follow" was used in the 1969 film Easy Rider and included on the accompanying Easy Rider soundtrack album. [61] [62] In addition, the song "Change Is Now" has been covered by the progressive bluegrass band The Dixie Bee-Liners, on the tribute album Timeless Flyte: A Tribute to The Byrds — Full Circle, and by rock band Giant Sand, on Time Between – A Tribute to The Byrds . [63] [64] Ric Menck, best known for being a member of the band Velvet Crush, has written a book about the album for Continuum Publishing's 33⅓ series. [65]

Track listing

Side one

No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Artificial Energy" Roger McGuinn, Chris Hillman, Michael Clarke 2:18
2."Goin' Back" Carole King, Gerry Goffin 3:26
3."Natural Harmony"Chris Hillman2:11
4."Draft Morning" David Crosby, Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn2:42
5."Wasn't Born to Follow"Carole King, Gerry Goffin2:04
6."Get to You" Gene Clark, Roger McGuinn (credited on the album to Hillman and McGuinn [12] )2:39

Side two

No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Change Is Now"Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn3:21
2."Old John Robertson"Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn1:49
3."Tribal Gathering"David Crosby, Chris Hillman2:03
4."Dolphin's Smile"David Crosby, Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn2:00
5."Space Odyssey"Roger McGuinn, Robert J. Hippard3:52

1997 CD reissue bonus tracks

No.TitleWriter(s)Length
12."Moog Raga" (instrumental)Roger McGuinn3:24
13."Bound to Fall" (instrumental) Mike Brewer, Tom Mastin2:08
14."Triad"David Crosby3:29
15."Goin' Back" (alternate - version one)Carole King, Gerry Goffin3:55
16."Draft Morning" (alternate ending)David Crosby, Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn2:55
17."Universal Mind Decoder" (instrumental; song ends at 3:32; 4:32 begins radio advert which ends at 5:41; 6:42 begins "Dolphin's Smile" [in-studio argument])Chris Hillman, Roger McGuinn13:45

Personnel

Adapted from So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973), The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series), and the compact disc liner notes. [7] [19] [28] [35]

Additional personnel

Release history

DateLabelFormatCountryCatalogNotes
January 15, 1968 Columbia LP USCL 2775Original mono release.
CS 9575Original stereo release.
April 12, 1968 CBS LPUK63169Original mono release.
S 63169Original stereo release.
1973 Embassy LPUKEMB 31202Stereo reissue with the subtitle Space Odyssey.
1976CBSLPUKS 22040Double album stereo reissue with Sweetheart of the Rodeo .
1987 Edsel LPUKED 262
1987Edsel CD UKEDCD 262Original CD release.
1990ColumbiaCDUSCK 9575
March 25, 1997 Columbia/Legacy CDUSCK 65151Reissue containing six bonus tracks and the remastered stereo album.
UKCOL 4867512
1999Simply VinylLPUKSVLP 0006Reissue of the remastered stereo album.
2003 Sony CDJapanMHCP-70Reissue containing six bonus tracks and the remastered album in a replica LP sleeve.
2006SundazedLPUSLP 5201Reissue of the original mono release.
2006Columbia/Mobile Fidelity Sound Lab SACD (Hybrid)USUDSACD 2015Mono album plus stereo bonus tracks.

Single release

  1. "Goin' Back" b/w "Change Is Now" (Columbia 44362) October 20, 1967 (Billboard chart number 89)

Related Research Articles

<i>Fifth Dimension</i> (album) 1966 studio album by The Byrds

Fifth Dimension is the third album by the American folk rock band the Byrds and was released in July 1966 on Columbia Records. Most of the album was recorded following the February 1966 departure of the band's principal songwriter Gene Clark. In an attempt to compensate for Clark's absence, guitarists Jim McGuinn and David Crosby stepped into the breach and increased their songwriting output. In spite of this, the loss of Clark resulted in an uneven album that included a total of four cover versions and an instrumental. However, the album is notable for being the first by the Byrds not to include any songs written by Bob Dylan, whose material had previously been a mainstay of the band's repertoire.

<i>Byrds</i> (album) 1973 studio album by The Byrds

Byrds is the twelfth and final studio album by the American rock band the Byrds and was released in March 1973 on Asylum Records. It was recorded as the centerpiece of a reunion between the five original band members: Roger McGuinn, Gene Clark, David Crosby, Chris Hillman, and Michael Clarke. The last time that all five members had worked together as the Byrds was in 1966, prior to Clark's departure from the band. During the reunion, the current, latter-day lineup of the band continued to make live appearances until February 1973, with McGuinn being the only member common to both versions of the group.

<i>The Byrds</i> (box set) 1990 box set by The Byrds

The Byrds is a four-CD box set by the American rock band the Byrds. It features music that had previously been released between the mid-1960s and early 1970s, along with a number of previously unreleased tracks and some new recordings from 1990. The box set was issued on October 19, 1990 by Columbia/Legacy and reached number 151 on the Billboard albums chart.

<i>The Original Singles: 1967–1969, Volume 2</i> 1982 compilation album by The Byrds

The Original Singles: 1967–1969, Volume 2 is a compilation album by American rock 'n' roll band The Byrds. Originally released in 1982, it offered, for the first time, all of the mono single versions of the Byrds' singles released between 1967 and early 1969. The tracks on the album are laid out chronologically by release date of the single, and features the A-side first, then the B-side. For example, the album opens with the "My Back Pages" single, which had that on the A-side and "Renaissance Fair" on the B-side. The next single was "Have You Seen Her Face" with "Don't Make Waves" on the B-side, and so forth.

Have You Seen Her Face 1967 single by The Byrds

"Have You Seen Her Face" is a song by the American rock band the Byrds, written by the group's bass player Chris Hillman and included on their 1967 album Younger Than Yesterday.

Lady Friend 1967 single by The Byrds

"Lady Friend" is a song by the American rock band the Byrds, written by band member David Crosby and released as a single on July 13, 1967. The single reached number 82 on the Billboard Hot 100, but failed to chart in the United Kingdom. "Lady Friend" is the only song penned solely by David Crosby to appear on the A-side of a Byrds' single.

Goin Back 1966 single by Dusty Springfield

"Goin' Back" is a song written by Gerry Goffin and Carole King in 1966. It describes the loss of innocence that comes with adulthood, along with an attempt, on the part of the singer, to recapture that youthful innocence. The song has been recorded by many artists, including Dusty Springfield, Goldie Zelkowitz, the Byrds, Elkie Brooks, Blerta, Deacon Blue, Marianne Faithfull, Bill Drummond, Nils Lofgren, Freddie Mercury, the Move, the New Seekers, the Pretenders, Diana Ross, Richard Thompson, Phil Collins, and Bon Jovi, as well as by Carole King herself.

<i>Preflyte</i> 1969 compilation album by The Byrds

Preflyte is a compilation album by the American folk rock band the Byrds and was released in July 1969 on Together Records. The album is a collection of demos recorded by the Byrds at World Pacific Studios in Los Angeles during 1964, before the band had signed to Columbia Records and become famous. It includes early demo versions of the songs "Here Without You", "You Won't Have to Cry", "I Knew I'd Want You", and "Mr. Tambourine Man", all of which appeared in re-recorded form on the band's 1965 debut album.

<i>The Byrds Greatest Hits Volume II</i> 1971 greatest hits album by The Byrds

The Byrds' Greatest Hits Volume II is the second greatest hits album by the American rock band The Byrds. It was released in the United Kingdom on October 29, 1971 by CBS Records as a follow-up to the band's first compilation album, The Byrds' Greatest Hits. The album appeared following the band's successful appearance at the Lincoln Folk Festival on July 24, 1971 and may have been issued by CBS as a reaction to the band's previous studio album, Byrdmaniax, having failed to chart in the UK.

Why (The Byrds song) song by The Byrds

"Why" is a song by the American rock band the Byrds, written by Jim McGuinn and David Crosby and first released as the B-side of the band's "Eight Miles High" single in March 1966. The song was re-recorded in December 1966 and released for a second time as part of the band's Younger Than Yesterday album.

<i>History of The Byrds</i> 1973 greatest hits album by The Byrds

History of The Byrds is a double album compilation by the American rock band the Byrds and was released on May 18, 1973 by CBS Records. The compilation was released exclusively in Europe and the UK, peaking at number 47 on the UK Albums Chart, but it was also available in the United States as an import.

<i>Never Before</i> (album) 1987 compilation album by The Byrds

Never Before is a compilation album by the American rock band the Byrds, consisting of previously unreleased outtakes, alternate versions, and rarities. It was initially released by Re-Flyte Records in December 1987 and was subsequently reissued on CD in 1989, with an additional seven bonus tracks.

<i>In the Beginning</i> (The Byrds album) 1988 compilation album by The Byrds

In the Beginning is a compilation album by the American folk rock band the Byrds and was released in August 1988 by Rhino Records. It features demo recordings made during 1964, before the band became famous.

She Dont Care About Time single by The Byrds

"She Don't Care About Time" is a song by American folk rock band The Byrds released on October 29, 1965 as the B-side of Turn! Turn! Turn!. The song was written by The Byrds' main songwriter between 1964 and early 1966, Gene Clark. "She Don't Care About Time" was recorded during sessions for the group's second album Turn! Turn! Turn!. The song is on most of the band's hits compilations.

Old John Robertson song performed by The Byrds

"Old John Robertson" is a song by the American rock band the Byrds, written by band members Chris Hillman and Roger McGuinn, and first released in July 1967, as the B-side to the non-album single "Lady Friend". It was also later included on the band's 1968 album, The Notorious Byrd Brothers. The version of "Old John Robertson" featured on the single is a substantially different mix from the version that appeared on The Notorious Byrd Brothers.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Rogan, Johnny (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 544–546. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 "The Notorious Byrd Brothers review". AllMusic . Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 240–247. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "The Notorious Byrd Brothers". ByrdWatcher: A Field Guide to the Byrds of Los Angeles. Archived from the original on May 22, 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Fricke, David. (1997). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (1997 CD liner notes/rear cover).
  6. 1 2 3 4 Bob Olsen. "The Byrds – The Notorious Byrd Brothers review". Music Tap. Retrieved February 21, 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 148–153. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  8. 1 2 3 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 113–116. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  9. 1 2 3 Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. p. 117. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 228–234. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  11. 1 2 3 Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 237–238. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Einarson, John. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of the Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 126–127. ISBN   0-87930-793-5.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 79–83. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  14. 1 2 Whitburn, Joel. (2002). Top Pop Albums 1955–2001. Hal Leonard Corp. p. 121. ISBN   0-634-03948-2.
  15. 1 2 Brown, Tony. (2000). The Complete Book of the British Charts. Omnibus Press. p. 130. ISBN   0-7119-7670-8.
  16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 157–158. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  17. "The Byrds Biography". AllMusic . Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  18. 1 2 "Michael Clarke Biography". AllMusic . Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  19. 1 2 3 4 Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 143–146. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  20. Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 266–267. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  21. "Crown Of Creation review". AllMusic . Retrieved January 10, 2010.
  22. "Never Before review". AllMusic . Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  23. 1 2 "The Notorious Byrd Brothers (Bonus Tracks) review". AllMusic . Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  24. Selvin, Joel. (1992). Monterey Pop. Chronicle Books. p. 54. ISBN   0-8118-0153-5.
  25. Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 74–75. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  26. Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. p. 223. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  27. 1 2 Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 247–248. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Rogan, Johnny. (1997). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (1997 CD liner notes).
  29. Einarson, John. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of The Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 87–88. ISBN   0-87930-793-5.
  30. Einarson, John. (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of the Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 112–117. ISBN   0-87930-793-5.
  31. Larry Wagner (1988). Byrds Gene Clark home video of a great interview(online video)|format= requires |url= (help) (Videotape). KBSG 97: YouTube. Event occurs at 16:30.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  32. Black, Johnny (September 2002). "Roger McGuinn: Twelve-string Driven Thing". Mojo . Available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required).
  33. 1 2 3 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 85–87. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  34. 1 2 3 4 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 124–126. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  35. 1 2 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 84–136. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  36. 1 2 3 "Goin' Back by The Byrds review". AllMusic . Retrieved January 5, 2010.
  37. "Artificial Energy lyrics". The Byrds Lyrics Page. Retrieved August 23, 2009.
  38. Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. p. 91. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  39. 1 2 3 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 103–104. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  40. "Wasn't Born to Follow by The Byrds review". AllMusic . Retrieved January 11, 2010.
  41. Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. p. 123. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  42. Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. p. 93. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  43. 1 2 3 4 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 97–100. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  44. 1 2 Menck, Ric. (2007). The Notorious Byrd Brothers (33⅓ series). Continuum Books. pp. 117–120. ISBN   978-0-8264-1717-6.
  45. Hjort, Christopher (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965-1973). Jawbone Press. p. 127. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  46. "Space Odyssey lyrics". The Byrds Lyrics Page. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  47. "2001: A Space Odyssey". The Worlds of David Darling: Encyclopedia of Science. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  48. 1 2 Puterbaugh, Parke. "The Notorious Byrd Brothers review". Rolling Stone . Retrieved November 7, 2010.
  49. 1 2 "Robert Christgau: June 1968 column". Robert Christgau: Dean of American Rock Critics. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  50. 1 2 3 Hjort, Christopher. (2008). So You Want To Be A Rock 'n' Roll Star: The Byrds Day-By-Day (1965–1973). Jawbone Press. pp. 167–168. ISBN   978-1-906002-15-2.
  51. "The Byrds: Consumer Guide Reviews". Robert Christgau: Dean of American Rock Critics. Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  52. "1971 Reader's Poll: Best Album Ever", ZigZag , London, December 1971
  53. 1 2 "The World Critics Lists – 1977 & 1988". Rocklist.net. Retrieved March 29, 2010.
  54. Christgau, Robert (1981). "A Basic Record Library: The Fifties and Sixties". Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies. Ticknor & Fields. ISBN   0899190251 . Retrieved March 16, 2019 via robertchristgau.com.
  55. "Mojo: The 100 Greatest Albums Ever Made". Rocklist.net. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  56. "RS 500 Albums: #171 – The Notorious Byrd Brothers". Rolling Stone . Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  57. "NME's 100 Best Albums – 2003". Rocklist.net. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  58. "The Music that Changed the World". Rocklist.net. Retrieved January 12, 2010.
  59. Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. pp. 665–666. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  60. Rogan, Johnny. (1998). The Byrds: Timeless Flight Revisited (2nd ed.). Rogan House. p. 470. ISBN   0-9529540-1-X.
  61. "Easy Rider Soundtrack". Internet Movie Database . Retrieved August 22, 2009.
  62. "Easy Rider Soundtrack review". AllMusic . Retrieved February 21, 2010.
  63. "Timeless Flyte: A Tribute to The Byrds". AllMusic . Retrieved October 23, 2009.
  64. "Time Between – A Tribute to The Byrds review". AllMusic . Retrieved 2010-04-28.
  65. "The Notorious Byrd Brothers by Ric Menck". Continuum Books. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved August 22, 2009.

Bibliography