Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station

Last updated

Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station
Three Mile Island (color)-2.jpg
The Three Mile Island NPP on Three Mile Island, circa 1979
Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station
CountryUnited States
Location Londonderry Township, Dauphin County, Pennsylvania
Coordinates 40°9′14″N76°43′29″W / 40.15389°N 76.72472°W / 40.15389; -76.72472 Coordinates: 40°9′14″N76°43′29″W / 40.15389°N 76.72472°W / 40.15389; -76.72472
StatusBeing decommissioned
Construction beganUnit 1: May 18, 1968
Unit 2: November 1, 1969
Commission date Unit 1: September 2, 1974
Unit 2: December 30, 1978
Decommission dateUnit 1: September 20, 2019
Unit 2: March 28, 1979
Construction cost$1.557 billion (2007 USD) [1]
($2.00 billion in 2018 dollars [2] )
Owner(s)Unit 1: Exelon
Unit 2: FirstEnergy
Operator(s) Exelon Nuclear
Nuclear power station
Reactor type PWR
Reactor supplier Babcock & Wilcox
Cooling towers4 × Natural Draft
Cooling source Susquehanna River
Thermal capacity1 × 2568 MWth
Power generation
Units operational1 × 819 MW
Make and model B&W LLP (DRYAMB)
Units decommissioned1 × 880 MW
Nameplate capacity 819 MW
Capacity factor 95.65% (2017)
73.25% (lifetime)
Annual net output 6862 GWh (2017)
External links
Website Three Mile Island
Commons Related media on Commons

Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI) is a closed nuclear power plant on Three Mile Island in Londonderry Township, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River just south of Harrisburg. It had two separate units, TMI-1 (owned by Exelon Generation) and TMI-2 (owned by FirstEnergy Corp). [3] The plant was site of the most significant accident in United States commercial nuclear energy when, on March 28, 1979, TMI-2 suffered a partial meltdown. According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) report, the accident resulted in no deaths or injuries to plant workers or in nearby communities. [4] Follow-up epidemiology studies have linked no incidents of cancer to the accident. [5] [6] [7] [8]

Contents

The reactor core of TMI-2 has since been removed from the site, but the site has not been decommissioned. [9] In July 1998, Amergen Energy (now Exelon Generation) agreed to purchase TMI-1 from General Public Utilities for $100 million. [10]

Three Mile Island is so named because it is located three miles downriver from Middletown, Pennsylvania. [11] The plant was originally built by General Public Utilities Corporation, later renamed GPU Incorporated. [12] The plant was operated by Metropolitan Edison Company (Met-Ed), a subsidiary of the GPU Energy division. During 2001, GPU Inc. merged with FirstEnergy Corporation. [13]

Exelon was operating Unit 1 at Three Mile Island at a loss since 2015. [14] In 2017 the company said it would consider ceasing operations at Unit 1 because of high costs unless there was government action;[ further explanation needed ] [15] [16] it shut down in 2019. [17]

Unit 2, which has been dormant since the accident in 1979, is still owned by FirstEnergy, and it is estimated to close in 2036. [18]

Emergency zones and nearby population

The NRC defines two emergency planning zones around nuclear power plants: a plume exposure pathway zone with a radius of 10 miles (16 km), concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned primarily with ingestion of food and liquid contaminated by radioactivity. [19]

The 2010 U.S. population within 10 miles (16 km) of Three Mile Island was 211,261, an increase of 10.9 percent in a decade, according to an analysis of U.S. Census data for MSNBC. The 2010 U.S. population within 50 miles (80 km) was 2,803,322, an increase of 10.3 percent since 2000. Cities within 50 miles include Harrisburg (12 miles to city center), York (13 miles to city center), and Lancaster (24 miles to city center). [20]

Three Mile Island Unit 1

The Three Mile Island Unit 1 is a pressurized water reactor designed by Babcock & Wilcox with a net generating capacity of 819  MWe. The initial construction cost for TMI-1 was US$400 million, equal to $2.07 billion in 2018 dollars. [21] Unit 1 first came online on April 19, 1974, and began commercial operations on September 2, 1974. [22] TMI-1 is licensed to operate for 40 years from its first run, and in 2009, was extended 20 years, which means it could have operated until April 19, 2034. [23] [24]

TMI-1 had a closed-cycle cooling system for its main condenser using two natural draft cooling towers. Makeup water was drawn from the river to replace the water lost via evaporation in the towers. Once-through cooling with river water is used for the service water system which cools auxiliary components and removed decay heat when the reactor was shut down. When TMI-2 suffered its accident in 1979, TMI-1 was offline for refueling. It was brought back online in October 1985, after public opposition, several federal court injunctions, and some technical and regulatory complications. [25]

September 2019 photo of Three Mile Island and Goldsboro, PA Tmi1.jpg
September 2019 photo of Three Mile Island and Goldsboro, PA

Unit 1 was scheduled to be shut down by September 2019 after Exelon announced they did not receive any commitments for subsidies from the state, rendering Exelon unable to continue operating the reactor. [26] [27] TMI-1 was shut down on September 20, 2019. [28]

Incidents

In February 1993, a man drove his car past a checkpoint at the TMI nuclear plant, then broke through an entry gate. He eventually crashed the car through a secure door and entered the Unit 1 turbine building. The intruder, who had a history of mental illness, hid in the turbine building and was apprehended after four hours. [29]

Three Mile Island from Goldsboro, Pennsylvania in 2013 3 mile Island from Goldsboro PA.JPG
Three Mile Island from Goldsboro, Pennsylvania in 2013
Three Mile Island from Middletown, Pennsylvania in 2014 Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station.jpg
Three Mile Island from Middletown, Pennsylvania in 2014
September 2019 photo of Three Mile Island and the Exelon training center and simulator building (left). Tmi2.jpg
September 2019 photo of Three Mile Island and the Exelon training center and simulator building (left).

On November 21, 2009, a release of radioactivity occurred inside the containment building of TMI-1 while workers were cutting pipes. Exelon Corporation stated to the public that "A monitor at the temporary opening cut into the containment building wall to allow the new steam generators to be moved inside showed a slight increase in a reading and then returned to normal. Approximately 20 employees were treated for mild radiation exposure." [30] As of November 22,2009, it was believed that no radiation escaped the containment building and the public was not in any danger.[ citation needed ] The inside airborne contamination was caused by a change in air pressure inside the containment building that dislodged small irradiated particles in the reactor piping system. Some of the small particles became airborne inside the building and were detected by an array of monitors in place to detect such material. The air pressure change occurred when inside building ventilation fans were started to support outage activities. The site modified the ventilation system to prevent future air pressure changes. Work continued on the project the following day. On January 24, 2010, TMI-1 was brought back online. [31]

June 2010 Photo of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant with deactivated Unit 2 located on the left. Three mile island 062010.jpg
June 2010 Photo of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant with deactivated Unit 2 located on the left.

Three Mile Island Unit 2

A rare image of both units one and two in operation for the few months that they were. It is estimated that this photo was taken in February 1979. TMI Both Units in Operation.jpg
A rare image of both units one and two in operation for the few months that they were. It is estimated that this photo was taken in February 1979.
Unit 2 during its time in operation, viewed from the west Three Mile Island nuclear power plant.jpg
Unit 2 during its time in operation, viewed from the west

The Three Mile Island Unit 2 was also a pressurized water reactor constructed by B&W, similar to Unit 1. The only difference was that TMI-2 was slightly larger with a net generating capacity of 906 MWe, compared to TMI-1, which delivers 819 MWe. Unit 2 received its operating license on February 8, 1978, and began commercial operation on December 30, 1978. TMI Unit 2 has been permanently shut off after the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. [32]

Accident

Three Mile Island in background behind Harrisburg International Airport, a few weeks after the accident Harrisburg Int Airport with Pennsylvania ANG aircraft 1979.jpg
Three Mile Island in background behind Harrisburg International Airport, a few weeks after the accident

On March 28, 1979, there was a cooling system malfunction that caused a partial meltdown of the reactor core. This loss-of-coolant accident resulted in the release of an amount of radioactivity, estimated at 43,000 curies (1.59  PBq) of radioactive krypton-85 gas (half life 10 yrs), but less than 20 curies (740 GBq) of the especially hazardous iodine-131 (half life 8 days), into the surrounding environment. [4]

Nearly 2 million people were exposed to a small amount of radiation from the accident. [33] A review by the World Nuclear Association concluded that no deaths, injuries or adverse health effects resulted from the accident, [34] and a report by Columbia University epidemiologist Maureen Hatch confirmed this finding. [5] [35] Because of the health concerns, the Pennsylvania Department of Health kept a registry of more than 30,000 people that lived within 5 miles of TMI at the time of the accident. The registry was kept for nearly 20 years until 1997, when no evidence was found of unusual health effects. [36] Further epidemiology studies have not shown any increase in cancer as a result of the accident. [6] [7] [8] However, almost $25 million was paid in insurance settlements to people who then agreed not to discuss their injuries in ongoing litigation. [37] [ better source needed ]

Unit 2 has not been operational since the accident occurred. [38]

The New York Times reported on August 14, 1993, 14 years after the accident, that the cleanup had been finished. According to the United States NRC, 2.3 million gallons of waste water had been removed. [39]

The incident was widely publicized internationally, and had far-reaching effects on public opinion, particularly in the United States. The China Syndrome , a movie about a nuclear disaster, which was released 12 days before the incident and received a tepid reception from the movie-going public, became a blockbuster hit. [40]

Unit 2 Generator

On January 22, 2010, officials at the NRC announced the electrical generator from the damaged Unit 2 reactor at TMI will be used at Shearon Harris Nuclear Plant in New Hill, North Carolina. The generator was transported in two parts, weighing a combined 670 tons. It was refurbished and installed during a refueling outage at Shearon Harris NPP in November 2010. TMI's Unit 2 reactor has been shut down since the partial meltdown in 1979. [41]

Post-accident

Exelon Corporation was created in October 2000 by the merger of PECO Energy Company and Unicom, of Philadelphia and Chicago respectively. [42] Unicom owned Commonwealth Edison. The PECO share in AmerGen was acquired by Exelon during late 2000. Exelon acquired British Energy's share in AmerGen in 2003, [43] and transferred Unit 1 under the direct ownership and operation of its Exelon Nuclear business unit. [44] [45] According to Exelon Corporation, "many people are surprised when they learn that Three Mile Island is still making electricity, enough to power 800,000 households" from its undamaged and fully functional reactor unit 1. [46] Exelon viewed the plant's economics of $44/MWh as challenging due to the low price of natural gas at $25/MWh. As of 2016, the average price of electricity in the area was $39/MWh. [47]

Closure

Aerial view Aerial of Three Mile Island - NARA - 540012.tif
Aerial view

On June 20, 2017, Exelon Generation, the owners of Three Mile Island's Unit 1 sent to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission a formal notice of its intention to shut down the plant on September 30, 2019, [48] unless the Pennsylvania legislature rescues the nuclear industry, which is currently[ when? ] struggling to compete as newfound natural gas resources have driven down electricity prices. [49] Exelon Generation's Senior Vice President Bryan Hanson noted that once Three Mile Island was closed, it could never be reopened for use again. [48] Hanson explicitly stated the reason for the shutdown is because of the unprofitability of Unit 1. Unit 1 has lost the company over 300 million dollars over the last half-decade despite it being one of Exelon's best-performing power plants. 

Shut down of Unit 1 can go in two possible directions, the first being the immediate dismantlement immediately after the radioactive fuel has been moved away from the plant. The dismantlement can proceed after the spent fuel is removed from the pool, put into storage casks, and the casks are transferred to the ISFSI pad for storage until the DOE takes them away to a DOE repository. Dismantling the plant this way will take anywhere from 8 to 10 years. [50] The second option Exelon could take is the long-term storage, which involves mothballing the plant and letting the radiation decay for up to 60 years on its own to a harmless level before completely dismantling the buildings. The advantage to the long-term storage is the lack of radiation when the dismantlement would begin but the disadvantage would be the possible lack of qualified workers at the time of dismantlement. Exelon would also have to pay for limited maintenance and security of the plant over the potential sixty years. [50] The entirety of the spent fuel will be moved to the Londonderry Township facility, which is another process that could take decades to complete. [48]

About 70 legislators signed the industry-inspired Nuclear Caucus but made no financial commitments. [49]

In April 2019, Exelon stated it would cost $1.2 billion over nearly 60 years to completely decommission Unit 1. [51] Unit 1 closed on September 20, 2019.

Seismic risk

The Nuclear Regulatory Commission's estimate of the risk each year of an earthquake intense enough to cause core damage to the reactor at Three Mile Island was 1 in 25,000, according to an NRC study published in August 2010. [52] [53]

See also

Related Research Articles

Three Mile Island accident Nuclear accident

The Three Mile Island accident was a partial meltdown of reactor number 2 of Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station (TMI-2) in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, near Harrisburg, and subsequent radiation leak that occurred on March 28, 1979. It is the most significant accident in U.S. commercial nuclear power plant history. On the seven-point International Nuclear Event Scale, the incident was rated a five as an "accident with wider consequences."

Limerick Generating Station Nuclear power plant in Limerick Township, Pennsylvania, United States

The Limerick Generating Station in Pennsylvania is located next to the Schuylkill River in Limerick Township, Montgomery County, northwest of Philadelphia. The facility has two General Electric boiling water reactor (BWR) units, cooled by natural draft cooling towers. The two units are capable of producing over 1,200 megawatts of power, which combined would provide electricity to over 2 million households. Exelon Corporation owns and operates this facility. With the exception of refueling outages, Limerick Generating Station always operates at 100% power. The plant is connected to the grid by several 500kv transmission lines.

Salem Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear power plant in Lower Alloways Creek Township, New Jersey, United States

The Salem Nuclear Power Plant is a two unit pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant located in Lower Alloways Creek Township, in Salem County, New Jersey, in the United States. It is owned by PSEG Nuclear LLC and Exelon Generation LLC.

Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station architectural structure

Oyster Creek Nuclear Power Station was a single unit 636 MWe boiling water reactor power plant in the United States. The plant is located on an 800-acre (3.2 km2) site adjacent to Oyster Creek in the Forked River section of Lacey Township in Ocean County, New Jersey. At the time of its closure, the facility was owned by Exelon Corporation and, along with unit 1 at Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, was the oldest operating commercial nuclear power plant in the United States. The plant first came online on December 1, 1969, and is licensed to operate until April 9, 2029, but Oyster Creek was permanently shut down in September 2018. The plant got its cooling water from Barnegat Bay, a brackish estuary that empties into the Atlantic Ocean through the Barnegat Inlet.

Braidwood Nuclear Generating Station Nuclear power station located in Will County, Illinois, United States

Braidwood Generating Station is located in Will County in northeastern Illinois, USA. The nuclear power plant serves Chicago and northern Illinois with electricity. The plant was originally built by Commonwealth Edison company, and subsequently transferred to Com Ed's parent company, Exelon Corporation.

Byron Nuclear Generating Station nuclear power plant in Ogle County, Illinois, United States

The Byron Nuclear Generating Station is a nuclear power plant located in Ogle County, Illinois, 2 miles (3.2 km) east of the Rock River. The reactor buildings were constructed by Commonwealth Edison and house two Westinghouse Four-Loop pressurized water reactors, Unit 1 and Unit 2, which first began operation in September 1985 and August 1987 respectively. The plant is currently owned and operated by Commonwealth Edison's parent company, Exelon Corporation.

R. E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear power plant in Wayne County, New York

The Robert Emmett Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, commonly known as Ginna, is a nuclear power plant located on the southern shore of Lake Ontario, in the town of Ontario, Wayne County, New York, approximately 20 miles (32 km) east of Rochester, New York. It is a single unit Westinghouse 2-Loop pressurized water reactor, similar to those at Point Beach, Kewaunee, and Prairie Island. Having gone into commercial operation in 1970, Ginna became the second oldest nuclear power reactor, after nine mile unit 1, still in operation in the United States when the Oyster Creek power plant was permanently shut down on September 17, 2018.

Peach Bottom Nuclear Generating Station Nuclear power plant in York County, Pennsylvania

Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, a nuclear power plant, is located 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Harrisburg in Peach Bottom Township, York County, Pennsylvania, on the Susquehanna River three miles north of the Maryland border.

Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Nuclear power station located in Hamilton County, Tennessee, United States

The Sequoyah Nuclear Plant is a nuclear power plant located on 525 acres (212 ha) located 7 miles (11 km) east of Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee, and 20 miles (32 km) north of Chattanooga, abutting Chickamauga Lake, on the Tennessee River. The facility is owned and operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

Prairie Island Nuclear Power Plant Nuclear power plant in Goodhue County, Minnesota

The Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Plant is an electricity-generating facility located in Red Wing, Minnesota along the Mississippi River, and adjacent to the Prairie Island Indian Community reservation.

Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station nuclear power plant in Oswego County, New York

Nine Mile Point Nuclear Station is a nuclear power plant with two nuclear reactors located in the town of Scriba, approximately five miles northeast of Oswego, New York, on the shore of Lake Ontario. The 900-acre (360 ha) site is also occupied by the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant.

Zion Nuclear Power Station Decommissioned nuclear power plant in Lake County, Illinois

Zion Nuclear Power Station was the third dual-reactor nuclear power plant in the Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) network and served Chicago and the northern quarter of Illinois. The plant was built in 1973, and the first unit started producing power in December 1973. The second unit came online in September 1974. This power generating station is located on 257 acres (104 ha) of Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Lake County, Illinois. It is approximately 40 direct-line miles north of Chicago, Illinois and 42 miles (68 km) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Clinton Power Station Nuclear power plant in DeWitt County, Illinois

The Clinton Power Station is a nuclear power plant located near Clinton, Illinois, USA. The power station began commercial operation on November 24, 1987 and has a nominal net electric output of 1062 MWe. Due to inflation and cost overruns, Clinton's final construction cost was $4.25 billion, nearly 1,000% over the original budget of $430 million and seven years behind schedule.

LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station Nuclear power plant in LaSalle County, Illinois, United States

LaSalle County Nuclear Generating Station, located 11 miles (18 km) southeast of Ottawa, Illinois serves Chicago and northern Illinois with electricity. The plant is owned and operated by the Exelon Corporation. Its Units 1 and 2 began commercial operation in August 1982 and April 1984, respectively.

Quad Cities Nuclear Generating Station Nuclear power plant in Rock Island County, Illinois

Quad Cities Generating Station is a two-unit nuclear power plant located near Cordova, Illinois, USA on the Mississippi River. The two General Electric boiling water reactors give the plant a total gross electric capacity of approximately 1,880 MW. It was named for the nearby cities of Moline, Illinois, Rock Island, Illinois, Davenport, Iowa, East Moline, Illinois, and Bettendorf, Iowa — known as the Quad Cities.

Nuclear power in the United States Power source providing 20% of US electricity and 60% of US emission-free power

Nuclear power in the United States is provided by 95 commercial reactors with a net capacity of 98 gigawatts (GW), 64 pressurized water reactors and 32 boiling water reactors. In 2019 they produced a total of 809.41 terawatt hours of electricity, which accounted for 20% of the nation's total electric energy generation. In 2018, nuclear energy comprised nearly 50 percent of U.S. emission-free generation.

Nuclear decommissioning process whereby a nuclear power plant site is dismantled

Nuclear decommissioning is the process whereby a nuclear facility is dismantled to the point that it no longer requires measures for radiation protection. The presence of radioactive material necessitates processes that are potentially occupationally hazardous, expensive, time-intensive, and present environmental risks that must be addressed to ensure radioactive materials are either transported elsewhere for storage or stored on-site in a safe manner. The challenge in nuclear decommissioning is not just technical, but also economical and social.

<i>Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective</i> book by J. Samuel Walker

Three Mile Island: A Nuclear Crisis in Historical Perspective is a scholarly history of the Three Mile Island accident, written by J. Samuel Walker and published in 2004. Walker is the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's historian and his book is the first detailed historical analysis since the accident.

Nuclear reactor accidents in the United States

The United States Government Accountability Office reported more than 150 incidents from 2001 to 2006 of nuclear plants not performing within acceptable safety guidelines. According to a 2010 survey of energy accidents, there have been at least 56 accidents at nuclear reactors in the United States. The most serious of these was the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Plant has been the source of two of the top five most dangerous nuclear incidents in the United States since 1979. Relatively few accidents have involved fatalities.

Nuclear emergency level classification responses classification system

Nuclear power plants pose high risk if chemicals are exposed to those in surrounding communities and areas. This nuclear emergency level classificationresponse system was firstly developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to allow effective and urgent responses to ultimately control and minimise any detrimental effects that nuclear chemicals can have.These classifications come in four different categories – Unusual Event, Alert, Site Area Emergency (SAE), as well as General Emergency. Thus, each classification has differing characteristics and purposes, depending on the situation at hand. Every nuclear power plant has a different emergency response action plan, also depending on its structure, location and nature. They were developed by thorough discussion and planning with numerous authoritative parties such as local, state, federal agencies as well as other private and non-profit groups that are in association with emergency services. Today, nuclear emergency plans are continuously being developed over time to be improved for future serious events to keep communities and nuclear power plant working members safe. There is a high emphasis for the need of these emergency responses in case of future events. Thus, nuclear plants can, and have paid up to approximately $78 million to ensure that are required measurements are readily available, and that equipment is sufficient and safe. This is applicable for all nuclear power plants in the United States of America.

References

  1. "EIA - State Nuclear Profiles". www.eia.gov. United States Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved October 3, 2017.
  2. Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2019). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 6, 2019. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  3. Maykuth, Andrew (February 28, 2019). "Peach Bottom, other U.S. nuclear power plants could be running until 2054. Is it safe?". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  4. 1 2 "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident". US Nuclear Regulatory Commission . Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  5. 1 2 Maureen C. Hatch; et al. (1990). "Cancer near the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant: Radiation Emissions". American Journal of Epidemiology. Oxford Journals. 132 (3): 397–412. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a115673. PMID   2389745.
  6. 1 2 Levin RJ (2008). "Incidence of thyroid cancer in residents surrounding the three mile island nuclear facility". Laryngoscope. 118 (4): 618–628. doi:10.1097/MLG.0b013e3181613ad2. PMID   18300710. Thyroid cancer incidence has not increased in Dauphin County, the county in which TMI is located. York County demonstrated a trend toward increasing thyroid cancer incidence beginning in 1995, approximately 15 years after the TMI accident. Lancaster County showed a significant increase in thyroid cancer incidence beginning in 1990. These findings, however, do not provide a causal link to the TMI accident.
  7. 1 2 Hatch MC, Wallenstein S, Beyea J, Nieves JW, Susser M (June 1991). "Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant". American Journal of Public Health. 81 (6): 719–724. doi:10.2105/AJPH.81.6.719. PMC   1405170 . PMID   2029040.
  8. 1 2 http://www.uvm.edu/~vlrs/Energy/NuclearPower.pdf
  9. "Accident at Three Mile Island". Policy Almanac. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  10. STAFF, CBS21 WEB. "History of Three Mile Island". WHP. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  11. "Middletown – Three mile Island" . Retrieved May 15, 2012.
  12. "GPU, Inc. – Company History" . Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  13. "FirstEnergy — Company history" . Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  14. Thompson, Charles (March 19, 2019). "Save Three Mile Island? What a difference 40 years makes". pennlive.com. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  15. Bade, Gavin (May 30, 2017). "After failing to clear PJM auction, Exelon says Three Mile Island nuke will close in 2019". Utility Dive. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
  16. "Middletown – Three mile Island" . Retrieved February 3, 2019.
  17. Sholtis, Brett. "Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Shuts Down" . Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  18. "NRC: Three Mile Island - Unit 2". www.nrc.gov. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  19. "NRC: Emergency Planning Zones". United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved December 22, 2019.
  20. Bill Dedman, Nuclear neighbors: Population rises near US reactors, NBC News , April 14, 2011 http://www.nbcnews.com/id/42555888 Accessed May 1, 2011.
  21. "A Corporate History of Three Mile Island | Three Mile Island Alert". www.tmia.com. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  22. "Three Mile Island". Amerigen — Exelon Corporation. Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  23. "Three Mile Island 1 – Pressurized Water Reactor". Nuclear Regulatory Commission . Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  24. DiSavino, Scott (October 22, 2009). "NRC renews Exelon Pa. Three Mile Isl reactor license". Thomson Reuters. Retrieved October 23, 2009.
  25. Stephanie Cooke (2009). In Mortal Hands: A Cautionary History of the Nuclear Age , Black Inc., p. 299.
  26. Fortin, Jacey (May 8, 2019). "Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Is Shutting Down". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved May 13, 2019 via NYTimes.com.
  27. Geuss, Megan (May 9, 2019). "The last reactor at Three Mile Island is shutting down". Ars Technica. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
  28. Sholtis, Brett. "Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Shuts Down" . Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  29. "Man Crashes Car Through Gates at Three Mile Island". Los Angeles Times. Associated Press. February 8, 1993. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  30. "Three Mile Island radiation leak investigated - CNN.com". CNN. November 22, 2009. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  31. "Radiation leak at Three Mile Island". ABC News — WPVI Philadelphia. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
  32. "Three Mile Island — Unit 2". Nuclear Regulatory Commission . Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  33. "Three Mile Island - Facts & Summary - HISTORY.com". HISTORY.com. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  34. "Three Mile Island: 1979". World Nuclear Association. Retrieved December 18, 2008.
  35. "No Evidence Reactor Leak Caused Cancer". The Washington Post. March 30, 1999. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  36. "Three Mile Island | TMI 2 |Three Mile Island Accident. - World Nuclear Association". www.world-nuclear.org. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  37. "Settlement of Medical Claims". Scribd. Retrieved April 23, 2019.
  38. "Three Mile Island - Unit 2". www.nrc.gov. Archived from the original on October 4, 2006.
  39. "A history of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant". ABC News. May 31, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  40. "FAQ for the China Syndrome". IMDb . Retrieved December 29, 2008.
  41. "Three Mile Island generator moving to Shearon Harris". WRAL-TV. January 22, 2010. Retrieved January 22, 2010.
  42. "Exelon — Merger Filing". Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  43. "A Corporate History of Three Mile Island — Three Mile Island Alert" . Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  44. "Exelon — Three Mile Island Unit – 1" . Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  45. "Three Mile Island: About TMI — About Us" . Retrieved April 1, 2009.
  46. Allen Abel, Life after a meltdown: Locals near Three Mile Island may be wary, but they aren't moving, The National Post, Saturday, March 19, 2011, p.A5
  47. Barrett, Paul (December 22, 2016). "States Are the Nuclear Industry's Best Hope". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved January 12, 2017. unless the government intervenes to keep the plant running, the notorious facility's "long-term future past 2019" is in doubt.
  48. 1 2 3 "Three Mile Island operator takes another step toward closing nuclear plant". PennLive.com. June 23, 2017. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  49. 1 2 "Three Mile Island fights once again for its nuclear survival". Philly.com. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  50. 1 2 Writer, AD CRABLE | Staff. "After announcement of closure, what's next for Three Mile Island nuclear plant?". LancasterOnline. Retrieved December 7, 2017.
  51. Maykuth, Andrew (April 5, 2019). "Three Mile Island nuclear reactor dismantling could take six decades, more than $1 billion". The Inquirer. Philadelphia. Retrieved April 6, 2019.
  52. Bill Dedman (March 17, 2011). "What are the odds? US nuke plants ranked by quake risk". NBC News. Retrieved April 19, 2011.
  53. "Hotmail, Outlook en Skype inloggen - Laatste nieuws - MSN Nederland" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 5, 2017.