|Specialty|| Immunology, hematology |
Thrombocytopenic purpura are purpura associated with a reduction in circulating blood platelets which can result from a variety of causes,such as kaposi sarcoma.
By tradition, the term idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is used when the cause is idiopathic. However, most cases are now considered to be immune-mediated.[ citation needed ]
Another form is thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.[ citation needed ]
Diagnosis is done by the help of symptoms and only blood count abnormality is thrombocytopenia.
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Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood. It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation. Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots (thrombus), other bleeding disorders, and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma. The laboratory work that goes into the study of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist.
Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), also known as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is a type of thrombocytopenic purpura defined as an isolated low platelet count with a normal bone marrow in the absence of other causes of low platelets. It causes a characteristic red or purple bruise-like rash and an increased tendency to bleed. Two distinct clinical syndromes manifest as an acute condition in children and a chronic condition in adults. The acute form often follows an infection and spontaneously resolves within two months. Chronic immune thrombocytopenia persists longer than six months with a specific cause being unknown.
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a blood disorder that results in blood clots forming in small blood vessels throughout the body. This results in a low platelet count, low red blood cells due to their breakdown, and often kidneys, heart, and brain dysfunction. Symptoms may include large bruises, fever, weakness, shortness of breath, confusion, and headache. Repeated episodes may occur.
Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.
Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP), also known as IgA vasculitis, is a disease of the skin, mucous membranes, and sometimes other organs that most commonly affects children. In the skin, the disease causes palpable purpura, often with joint pain and abdominal pain. With kidney involvement, there may be a loss of small amounts of blood and protein in the urine, but this usually goes unnoticed; in a small proportion of cases, the kidney involvement proceeds to chronic kidney disease. HSP is often preceded by an infection, such as a throat infection.
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure. The spots are caused by bleeding underneath the skin secondary to platelet disorders, vascular disorders, coagulation disorders, or other causes. They measure 3–10 mm, whereas petechiae measure less than 3 mm, and ecchymoses greater than 1 cm.
A petechia is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin or conjunctiva, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels. The word is derived from Latin 'petigo', meaning ‘scab' or 'eruption’.
Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer. It is used for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, pemphigus vulgaris, myasthenia gravis and Epstein–Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcers. It is given by slow injection into a vein.
Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an individual's immune system attacks their own red blood cells and platelets, the syndrome can include immune neutropenia. These immune cytopenias may occur simultaneously or sequentially.
ADAMTS13 —also known as von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease (VWFCP)—is a zinc-containing metalloprotease enzyme that cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWf), a large protein involved in blood clotting. It is secreted into the blood and degrades large vWf multimers, decreasing their activity.
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a pathology that results in thrombosis in capillaries and arterioles, due to an endothelial injury. It may be seen in association with thrombocytopenia, anemia, purpura and kidney failure.
John W. Semple is a Canadian Scientist at St. Michael's Hospital and a Professor of Pharmacology at the University of Toronto. He was born in Windsor, Ontario in 1959 and received his PhD in Immunology at Queen's University at Kingston, Ontario. In 1991, Semple, along with John Freedman, discovered a T helper cell defect in patients with the bleeding disorder called immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). ITP is the condition of having a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) and most causes appear to be related to antibodies against platelets. Very low platelet counts can lead to a bleeding diathesis and purpura. The T cell defect was initially shown to be an exaggerated interleukin-2 response when T cells were cultured with platelets in vitro. Subsequently, this cytokine abnormality was shown by others to be responsible for many of the autoimmune mechanisms causing the disorder.). The importance of understanding the T cell defects in ITP is that novel therapies aimed at these cells may significantly benefit patients with ITP.
Eltrombopag is a medication that has been developed for certain conditions that lead to thrombocytopenia. It is a small molecule agonist of the c-mpl (TpoR) receptor, which is the physiological target of the hormone thrombopoietin. Eltrombopag was discovered as a result of research collaboration between GlaxoSmithKline and Ligand Pharmaceuticals. Designated an orphan drug in the United States and European Union, it is being manufactured and marketed by Novartis under the trade name Promacta in the US and is marketed as Revolade in the EU. Novartis acquired the drug as a part of its asset swap deal with GlaxoSmithKline.
The Harrington–Hollingsworth experiment was an experiment that established the autoimmune nature of the blood disorder immune thrombocytopenic purpura. It was performed in 1950 by the academic staff of Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.
Hematologic diseases are disorders which primarily affect the blood & blood-forming organs. Hematologic diseases include rare genetic disorders, anemia, HIV, sickle cell disease & complications from chemotherapy or transfusions.
Romiplostim is a fusion protein analog of thrombopoietin, a hormone that regulates platelet production.
Drug-induced thrombocytopenic purpura is a skin condition result from a low platelet count due to drug-induced anti-platelet antibodies caused by drugs such as heparin, sulfonamines, digoxin, quinine, and quinidine.
Upshaw–Schulman syndrome (USS) is the recessively inherited form of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), a rare and complex blood coagulation disease. USS is caused by the absence of the ADAMTS13 protease resulting in the persistence of ultra large von Willebrand factor multimers (ULVWF), causing episodes of acute thrombotic microangiopathy with disseminated multiple small vessel obstructions. These obstructions deprive downstream tissues from blood and oxygen, which can result in tissue damage and death. The presentation of an acute USS episode is variable but usually associated with thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) with schistocytes on the peripheral blood smear, fever and signs of ischemic organ damage in the brain, kidney and heart.
Excessive menstruation between puberty and 19 years of age is called puberty menorrhagia. Excessive menstruation is defined as bleeding over 80 ml per menstrual period or lasting more than 7 days. The most common cause for puberty menorrhagia is dysfunctional uterine bleeding. The other reasons are idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, hypothyroidism, genital tuberculosis, polycystic ovarian disease, leukemia and coagulation disorders. The most common physiological reason for puberty menorrhagia is the immaturity of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, leading to inadequate positive feedback and sustained high estrogen levels. Most patients present with anemia due to excessive blood loss.
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