Thylamys

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Thylamys [1]
Temporal range: Mid Miocene (Colloncuran) to Recent
~14–0  Ma
Llaca.jpg
Elegant fat-tailed mouse opossum
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Didelphimorphia
Family: Didelphidae
Subfamily: Didelphinae
Tribe: Thylamyini
Genus: Thylamys
Gray, 1843
Type species
Didelphis elegans
Species

See text

Thylamys is a genus of opossums in the family Didelphidae. The premaxillae are rounded rather than pointed. The females lack a pouch. The females' nipples are arranged in two symmetrical rows on the abdomen. [2] All species but T. macrurus store fat in their tails., [3] although this is not necessarily true for all species in the genus. [4] Fossils belonging to the genus date back to the Miocene, with the oldest specimens being found in the Cerro Azul Formation of Argentina and the Honda Group of Colombia. [5] Genetic studies indicate that the genus may have originated around 14 million years ago. [6]

Taxonomy

Cladogram of living Thylamys species. [7] [8]

T. karimii (Petter 1968) Reig, Kirsch & Marshall 1987 (Karimi's fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. velutinus (Wagner 1842) Miranda-Ribeiro 1936 (Dwarf fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. tatei (Handley 1957) Reig, Kirsch & Marshall 1987 (Tate's fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. elegans (Waterhouse 1839) Gray 1843b (Elegant fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. pallidior (Thomas 1902) Gardner & Creighton 1989 (White-bellied fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. citellus (Thomas 1912c) [9]

T. pulchellus (Cabrera 1934) [10] (Argentine fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. pusillus (Desmarest 1804) Reig, Kirsch & Marshall 1987 (Common fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. macrurus (Olfers 1818) Gardner & Creighton 1989 (Paraguayan fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. venustus Thomas 1902 (Buff-bellied fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. cinderella (Thomas 1902) Flores, Díaz & Barquez 2000 (Cinderella fat-tailed mouse opossum)

T. sponsorius (Thomas 1921) Flores, Díaz & Barquez 2000 (Argentine fat-tailed mouse opossum)

Other species of Thylamys. [11]

Related Research Articles

Opossum Family of mammals

Opossums are members of the marsupial order Didelphimorphia endemic to the Americas. The largest order of marsupials in the Western Hemisphere, it comprises 120+ species in 19 genera. Opossums originated in South America and entered North America in the Great American Interchange following the connection of north and south america.

Chacoan pygmy opossum Species of marsupial

The Chacoan pygmy opossum is a recently described genus and species of didelphimorph marsupial. The only species in Chacodelphys, C. formosa, was known until 2004 from only one specimen collected in 1920 in the Chaco of Formosa Province, Argentina. The species is gaining popularity as a pocket pet.

<i>Didelphis</i> Genus of marsupials

Didelphis is a genus of New World marsupials. The six species in the genus Didelphis, commonly known as large American opossums, are members of the opossum order, Didelphimorphia.

Bushy-tailed opossum Species of marsupial

The bushy-tailed opossum is an opossum from South America. It was first described by English zoologist Oldfield Thomas in 1912. It is a medium-sized opossum characterized by a large, oval, dark ears, fawn to cinnamon coat with a buff to gray underside, grayish limbs, and a furry tail. Little is known of the behavior of the bushy-tailed opossum; less than 25 specimens are known. It appears to be arboreal (tree-living), nocturnal and solitary. The diet probably comprises insects, eggs and plant material. This opossum has been captured from heavy, humid, tropical forests; it has been reported from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru. The IUCN classifies it as least concern.

Brown-eared woolly opossum Species of marsupial

The brown-eared woolly opossum, also known as the western woolly opossum, is an opossum from South America. It was first described by German naturalist Ignaz von Olfers in 1818. The opossum is characterized by a brown to reddish brown coat and similarly colored limbs, yellow to orange underbelly, hairless, brown ears with a hint of pink, and a tail furred on the back for up to half of its length. The brown-eared woolly opossum is nocturnal, solitary and omnivorous. The IUCN lists it as least concern.

<i>Marmosa</i> Genus of marsupials

The 27 species in the genus Marmosa are relatively small Neotropical members of the family Didelphidae. This genus is one of three that are known as mouse opossums. The others are Thylamys and Tlacuatzin, the grayish mouse opossum. Members of the genus Marmosops used to be called "slender mouse opossums", but are now just called "slender opossums". The thirteen members of the Marmosa subgenus Micoureus, known as woolly mouse opossums, were formerly considered to be a separate genus, but were moved into Marmosa in 2009. Based on a comparison of sequences of one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, three new subgenera, Eomarmosa, Exulomarmosa and Stegomarmosa, were recognized by Voss et al. in 2014. Eomarmosa and Exulomarmosa, as well as Marmosa and Micoureus, are thought to be sister taxa, while Stegomarmosa is viewed as sister to Marmosa plus Micoureus. Exulomarmosa is a mostly trans-Andean clade.

Short-tailed opossum Genus of marsupials

Monodelphis is a genus of marsupials in the family Didelphidae, commonly referred to as short-tailed opossums. They are found throughout South America. As of January 2019, the most recently described species is M. vossi.

<i>Marmosops</i> Genus of marsupials

Marmosops is a genus of Neotropical opossums of the family Didelphidae. The genus was originally treated as a subgenus from the genus Marmosa rather than having their own classification. This was changed in 1989 by Gardner and Crieghton, who officially separated the group and made them their own genus. The mix-up between to genera Marmosa and Marmosops was common due to the similar appearances including size and other external features. However, the two groups differ significantly in their integument and in the arrangement of their skull and dentition. The dentition is similar in morphology between the two groups, with the exception of the deciduous lower third premolar varying from one genus to the next. The similarity between the two continues to cause the genus Marmosops to be frequently misidentified due to the lack of knowledge regarding the species along with the overlooked traits that help separate them from other opossums. The Marmosops are also commonly confused with the genus Gracilinanus, but this is quickly ruled out by a large number of differing characteristics. These differences include the arrangement of their digits, caudal scales, and the central hair on the scales changing from a three hairs per follicle to many more. This causes the hair of the Gracilinanus to be thicker and has also found to be heavily pigmented. The last group commonly confused with Marmosops is known as the genus Thylamys. These animals have a contrasting dorsal body pelage and the taxa are actually quite different.

Elegant fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The elegant fat-tailed mouse opossum, also known as the Chilean mouse opossum, is an opossum from central Chile. The type species of Thylamys, it was first described by English naturalist George Robert Waterhouse in 1839. This medium-sized opossum is characterized by black rings around the eyes, white limbs, gray to light brown coat, lighter flanks and underbelly and a thick 12.7–14.6 centimetres (5.0–5.7 in) long tail covered with hairs. It is crepuscular and lives in nests in tree hollows or under rocks and roots. This opossum feeds mainly on arthropods and larvae apart from fruits. Litter size is typically between 11 and 13. The elegant fat-tailed opossum can occur in a variety of habitats – from cloud forests to chaparrals. The IUCN classifies the opossum as least concern.

Paraguayan fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The Paraguayan fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is found in forested areas of Brazil and Paraguay. It is known only from a few specimens. For two listed specimens, one had a head-and-body length of about 135 mm and a tail length of about 140 mm, while the other had a head-and-body length of about 120 mm and a tail length of about 155 mm. Most of its fur is gray, but the shoulder areas are reddish gray, and the ventral fur is pure white or creamy white. There is also a ring of black fur surrounding each eye. The ventral surface of the tail is white. The dorsal surface of the tail is gray for the first one third to one half of its length ; the remainder of the dorsal surface of the tail is white. The tail is hairless except for about its first ten mm. Although the genus Thylamys is characterized by fat storage in the tail, there is no evidence that this species stores fat in its tail.

White-bellied fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The white-bellied fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru.

Common fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The common fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It occurs in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, and Paraguay in chaco and Andean foothill habitats. Its head-and-body length is about 75 to 120 mm, and its tail length is about 90 to 134 mm. Its dorsal fur is brownish gray, and its ventral fur is yellowish to white. The legs and cheeks are the same color as the ventral surface. Its tail is sharply bicolored. A ring of faintly darker fur surrounds each eye. Its tail often lacks fat deposits, but does not always.

<i>Gracilinanus</i> Genus of marsupials

Gracilinanus is a genus of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It was separated from the genus Marmosa in 1989, and has since had the genera Cryptonanus, Chacodelphys, and Hyladelphys removed from it.

Bishops slender opossum Species of marsupial

Bishop's slender opossum is a small, arboreal marsupial opossum native to Brazil, Peru, and Bolivia. It somewhat resembles a placental rat or shrew.

Cinderella fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The Cinderella fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is found in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia, in the eastern foothills of the Andes. Its dorsal fur is gray brown to dark brown. Its ventral fur is gray-based, except for the white to yellowish chest hairs. It has been distinguished from T. sponsorius by the well-developed postorbital ridges of the latter, but mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis does not support separate species status for sponsorius.

Karimis fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

Karimi's fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is endemic to central and northeast Brazil, where it is found in the cerrado and caatinga at elevations from 300 to 1100 m. This opossum is crepuscular and mostly terrestrial; its omnivorous diet includes leaves, insects and small vertebrates. Its head-and-body length is about 95 millimeters, and its tail length is about 72 millimeters. It is very similar to T. pallidor. Its tail may be nonprehensile. The species is named after Iranian epidemiologist Y. Karimi. It is threatened by habitat destruction and fragmentation due to agriculture and ranching.

Argentine fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

The Argentine fat-tailed mouse opossum was formerly considered a species opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is found in the eastern foothills of the Andes in northern Argentina and southern Bolivia. Its dorsal fur is gray brown to dark brown. Its ventral fur is gray-based except for the white to yellowish chest hairs. It has been distinguished from T. cinderella by its postorbital ridges. T. cinderella has well-developed postorbital ridges in both juveniles and adults that extend laterally behind the eye sockets. Only adults of T. sponsorius have fully developed postorbital ridges, and these do not extend laterally behind the eye sockets. However, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis does not support the population being distinct from T. cinderella.

Tates fat-tailed mouse opossum Species of marsupial

Tate's fat-tailed mouse opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae, named after American zoologist George Henry Hamilton Tate. It is found at elevations of 300 to 3,000 m along the coast of central Peru. The species has the northernmost range of any member of its genus. It has white ventral fur and short condylobasal and zygomatic lengths. T. pallidior is very similar.

Chacoan gracile opossum Species of marsupial

The chacoan gracile opossum is a species of opossum in the family Didelphidae. It is native to Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. Its habitat is seasonally flooded grasslands and forests in and near the Gran Chaco.

<i>Cryptonanus</i> Genus of marsupials

Cryptonanus is a genus of opossums from South America. It includes five species found from Bolivia to Uruguay and eastern Brazil, one of which is now extinct. Although the first species were discovered in 1931, the genus was not recognized as distinct from Gracilinanus until 2005. It includes small opossums with generally grayish, sometimes reddish, fur that are mainly distinguished from other opossums by characters of the skull.

References

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  2. Eisenberg, John Frederick; Redford, Kent Hubbard (1999). Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics: Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil. University of Chicago Press. p. 624. ISBN   978-0-226-19542-1.
  3. Gardner, Alfred L. (2008). Mammals of South America: Marsupials, xenarthrans, shrews, and bats. University of Chicago Press. p. 669. ISBN   978-0-226-28240-4.
  4. Voss, R.S. & Jansa, S.A. (2003). "Nonmolecular data and new IRBP sequences: separate and combined analyses of didelphine relationships with denser taxon sampling". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 276: 1–82. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2003)276<0001:PSODMI>2.0.CO;2. hdl:2246/444.
  5. Braun, J.K.; et al. (2005). "Phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of mouse opossums Thylamys (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) in southern South America". Journal of Mammalogy. 86 (1): 147–159. doi: 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)086<0147:PABROM>2.0.CO;2 .
  6. Steiner, C.; et al. (2005). "New DNA data from transthyretin nuclear intron suggest an Oligocene to Miocene diversification of living South American opossums (Marsupialia: Didelphidae)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 35 (2): 363–379. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2004.12.013. PMID   15804409.
  7. Upham, Nathan S.; Esselstyn, Jacob A.; Jetz, Walter (2019). "Inferring the mammal tree: Species-level sets of phylogenies for questions in ecology, evolution and conservation". PLOS Biol. 17 (12): e3000494. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000494 . PMC   6892540 . PMID   31800571.
  8. Amador, Lucila I.; Giannini, Norberto P. (2016). "Phylogeny and evolution of body mass in didelphid marsupials (Marsupialia: Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae)". Organisms Diversity & Evolution. 16 (3): 641–657. doi:10.1007/s13127-015-0259-x. S2CID   17393886.
  9. Flores, D.; Teta, P. (2016). "Thylamys citellus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T199835A22172943. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T199835A22172943.en . Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  10. Flores, D.; Teta, P. (2016). "Thylamys pulchellus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T199834A22172571. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T199834A22172571.en . Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  11. Thylamys at Fossilworks.org
  12. Martin, G.M.; Flores, D. (2016). "Thylamys fenestrae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species . 2016: e.T199836A22172852. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-2.RLTS.T199836A22172852.en . Retrieved 9 January 2020.