Thyrocervical trunk

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Thyrocervical trunk
Thyrocervical trunk.png
Superficial dissection of the right side of the neck, showing the carotid and subclavian arteries.
Details
Source Subclavian
Branches Inferior thyroid
Suprascapular
Transverse cervical
Ascending cervical artery
Identifiers
Latin Truncus thyreocervicalis
TA A12.2.08.042
FMA 3990
Anatomical terminology

The thyrocervical trunk is a branch of the subclavian artery arising from the first portion of this vessel, i.e. between the origin of the subclavian artery and the inner border of the scalenus anterior muscle. It is located distally to the vertebral artery and proximally to the costocervical trunk.

Subclavian artery major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle

In human anatomy, the subclavian arteries are paired major arteries of the upper thorax, below the clavicle. They receive blood from the aortic arch. The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with some branches supplying the head and thorax. On the left side of the body, the subclavian comes directly off the aortic arch, while on the right side it arises from the relatively short brachiocephalic artery when it bifurcates into the subclavian and the right common carotid artery.

The vertebral arteries are major arteries of the neck. Typically, the vertebral arteries originate from the subclavian arteries. Each vessel courses superiorly along each side of the neck, merging within the skull to form the single, midline basilar artery. As the supplying component of the vertebrobasilar vascular system, the vertebral arteries provide supply blood to the upper spinal cord, brainstem, cerebellum, and posterior part of brain.

Costocervical trunk Upper back artery

The costocervical trunk arises from the upper and back part of the second part of subclavian artery, behind the scalenus anterior on the right side, and medial to that muscle on the left side.

Contents

Branches

It is a short and thick vessel and it divides soon after its origin into four branches:

Inferior thyroid artery Artery of the neck

The inferior thyroid artery is an artery in the neck. It arises from the thyrocervical trunk and passes upward, in front of the vertebral artery and longus colli muscle. It then turns medially behind the carotid sheath and its contents, and also behind the sympathetic trunk, the middle cervical ganglion resting upon the vessel.

Suprascapular artery Artery of the neck

The suprascapular artery is a branch of the thyrocervical trunk on the neck.

Transverse cervical artery Artery of the neck

The transverse cervical artery is an artery in the neck and a branch of the thyrocervical trunk, running at a higher level than the suprascapular artery.

The transverse cervical artery is present in about 1/3rd of cases. In the rest, the dorsal scapular and superficial cervical arteries arise separately. [1]

The suprascapular artery and transverse cervical artery both head laterally and cross in front of (anterior to) the scalenus anterior muscle and the phrenic nerve. The inferior thyroid artery runs superiorly from the thyrocervical trunk to the inferior portion of the thyroid gland.

Phrenic nerve

The phrenic nerve is a nerve that originates in the neck (C3-C5) and passes down between the lung and heart to reach the diaphragm. It is important for breathing, as it passes motor information to the diaphragm and receives sensory information from it. There are two phrenic nerves, a left and a right one.

These branches explain the alternative name for this blood vessel: the "truncus thyrobicervicoscapularis".

Additional images

Related Research Articles

Dorsal scapular nerve Upper back nerve

The dorsal scapular nerve arises from the brachial plexus, usually from the plexus root of the cervical nerve C5. Once the nerve leaves C5 it commonly pierces the middle scalene muscle, and continues deep to levator scapulae and the rhomboids.

Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy. They arise from the common carotid arteries where these bifurcate into the internal and external carotid arteries at cervical vertebral level 3 or 4; the internal carotid artery supplies the brain, while the external carotid nourishes other portions of the head, such as face, scalp, skull, and meninges.

Levator scapulae muscle

The levator scapulae is a skeletal muscle situated at the back and side of the neck. As the Latin name suggests, its main function is to lift the scapula.

Axillary artery Large blood vessel bringing oxygenated blood to the thorax

In human anatomy, the axillary artery is a large blood vessel that conveys oxygenated blood to the lateral aspect of the thorax, the axilla (armpit) and the upper limb. Its origin is at the lateral margin of the first rib, before which it is called the subclavian artery.

Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

Scalene muscles Muscles on the sides of the neck

The scalene muscles are a group of three pairs of muscles in the lateral neck, namely the anterior scalene, middle scalene, and posterior scalene. They are innervated by the fourth, fifth, and sixth cervical spinal nerves (C4-C6).

Posterior triangle of the neck

The posterior triangle is a region of the neck.

Scapular anastomosis circulatory system around the shoulder blade

The scapular anastomosis is a system connecting certain subclavian artery and their corresponding axillary artery, forming a circulatory anastomosis around the scapula. It allows blood to flow past the joint in case of occlusion, damage, or pinching of the following scapular arteries:

In anatomy, arterial tree is used to refer to all arteries and/or the branching pattern of the arteries. This article regards the human arterial tree. Starting from the aorta:

Carotid triangle

The carotid triangle is a portion of the anterior triangle of the neck.

Subclavian triangle

The subclavian triangle, the smaller division of the posterior triangle, is bounded, above, by the inferior belly of the omohyoideus; below, by the clavicle; its base is formed by the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoideus.

The thyroid ima artery is an artery of the head and neck. It is an anatomical variant that, when present, supplies blood to the thyroid gland primarily, or the trachea, the parathyroid gland and the thymus gland in rare cases. It has also been reported to be a compensatory artery when one or both of the inferior thyroid arteries are absent and in a few cases the only source of blood to the thyroid gland. It varies in origin, size, blood supply, and termination, and occurs in only 3–10% of the population. Because of the variations and rarity, it may lead to surgical complications.

Outline of human anatomy scientific study of the morphology of the human body

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy:

References

  1. Essentials of human anatomy Head and neck A.K. Dutta 5th Edition p94
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