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|CompTox Dashboard (EPA)|
|ECHA InfoCard|| 100.054.145 |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||493.75 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Tiamulin (previously thiamutilin) is a pleuromutilin antibiotic drug that is used in veterinary medicine particularly for pigs and poultry.
Tiamulin is a diterpene antimicrobial with a pleuromutilin chemical structure similar to that of valnemulin.
Antimicrobial resistance is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe. The term antibiotic resistance is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics. Resistant microbes are more difficult to treat, requiring alternative medications or higher doses of antimicrobials. These approaches may be more expensive, more toxic or both. Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR). Those considered extensively drug resistant (XDR) or totally drug-resistant (TDR) are sometimes called "superbugs".
Clindamycin is an antibiotic used for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections, including bone or joint infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, strep throat, pneumonia, middle ear infections, and endocarditis. It can also be used to treat acne, and some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In combination with quinine, it can be used for malaria. It is available by mouth, by injection into a vein, and as a cream to be applied to the skin or in the vagina.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For example, antibiotics are used against bacteria, and antifungals are used against fungi. They can also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes are microbicidal, while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. It is a combination consisting of amoxicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. It is specifically used for otitis media, strep throat, pneumonia, cellulitis, urinary tract infections, and animal bites. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.
The Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) is an Executive Agency of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) seeking to protect public health, animal health, the environment and promoting animal welfare by assuring the safety, quality and efficacy of veterinary medicines in the United Kingdom.
The peptidyl transferase is an aminoacyltransferase as well as the primary enzymatic function of the ribosome, which forms peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids using tRNAs during the translation process of protein biosynthesis. The substrates for the peptidyl transferase reaction are two tRNA molecules, one bearing the growing peptide chain and the other bearing the amino acid that will be added to the chain. The peptidyl chain and the amino acids are attached to their respective tRNAs via ester bonds to the O atom at the CCA-3' ends of these tRNAs. Peptidyl transferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the addition of an amino acid residue in order to grow the polypeptide chain in protein synthesis. It is located in the large ribosomal subunit, where it catalyzes the peptide bond formation. It is composed entirely of RNA. The alignment between the CCA ends of the ribosome-bound peptidyl tRNA and aminoacyl tRNA in the peptidyl transferase center contribute to its ability to catalyze these reactions. This reaction occurs via nucleophilic displacement. The amino group of the aminoacyl tRNA attacks the terminal carboxyl group of the peptidyl tRNA. Peptidyl transferase activity is carried out by the ribosome. Peptidyl transferase activity is not mediated by any ribosomal proteins but by ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a ribozyme. Ribozymes are the only enzymes which are not made up of proteins, but ribonucleotides. All other enzymes are made up of proteins. This RNA relic is the most significant piece of evidence supporting the RNA World hypothesis.
Apramycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in veterinary medicine. It is produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.
Florfenicol is a fluorinated synthetic analog of thiamphenicol , mainly used in veterinary medicine.
Retapamulin is a topical antibiotic developed by GlaxoSmithKline. It is the first drug in the new class of pleuromutilin antibiotics to be approved for human use. It is marketed as an ointment under the brand names Altabax and Altargo.
Flumequine is a synthetic fluoroquinolone antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections. It is a first-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial that has been removed from clinical use and is no longer being marketed. The marketing authorization of flumequine has been suspended throughout the EU. It kills bacteria by interfering with the enzymes that cause DNA to unwind and duplicate. Flumequine was used in veterinarian medicine for the treatment of enteric infections, as well as to treat cattle, swine, chickens, and fish, but only in a limited number of countries. It was occasionally used in France to treat urinary tract infections under the trade name Apurone. However this was a limited indication because only minimal serum levels were achieved.
Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic used in veterinary medicine.
Pleuromutilin and its derivatives are antibacterial drugs that inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria by binding to the peptidyl transferase component of the 50S subunit of ribosomes.
Fenticlor is an antibacterial and antifungal agent for topical use. It is an antimicrobial agent. It is also used in veterinary medicine.
A quinolone antibiotic is a member of a large group of broad-spectrum bacteriocidals that share a bicyclic core structure related to the substance 4-quinolone. They are used in human and veterinary medicine to treat bacterial infections, as well as in animal husbandry.
Lycoperdonosis is a respiratory disease caused by the inhalation of large amounts of spores from mature puffballs. It is classified as a hypersensitivity pneumonitis —an inflammation of the alveoli within the lung caused by hypersensitivity to inhaled natural dusts. It is one of several types of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by different agents that have similar clinical features. Typical progression of the disease includes symptoms of a cold hours after spore inhalation, followed by nausea, rapid pulse, crepitant rales, and dyspnea. Chest radiographs reveal the presence of lung nodules. The early symptoms presented in combination with pulmonary abnormalities apparent on chest radiographs may lead to misdiagnosis of the disease as tuberculosis, histiocytosis, or pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii. Lycoperdonosis is generally treated with corticosteroids, which decrease the inflammatory response; these are sometimes given in conjunction with antimicrobials.
Brachyspira is a genus of bacteria classified within the phylum Spirochaetes.
Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment when ill, treatment of a group of animals when at least one is diagnosed with clinical infection (metaphylaxis), and preventative treatment (prophylaxis). Antibiotics are an important tool to treat animal as well as human disease, safeguard animal health and welfare, and support food safety. However, used irresponsibly, this may also have impacts on human, animal and environmental health in a One Health context, as up to 90% of the antibiotic parent compounds can be directly excreted and this can lead to antibiotic resistance developing in the environment.
The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA), founded in 1876, provides leadership on national veterinary issues, advocates for animal welfare, and works to encourage life balance in veterinary professionals.
Lefamulin is an antibiotic used it to treat adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. It is taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.
Laura H. Kahn is a native Californian. She is an author, lecturer, a general internist physician, and a research scholar with the Program on Science and Global Security at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University in New Jersey. She is the Co-Founder, of One Health Initiative. She is an online columnist for the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. She is an expert advisor and author in the field of zoonosis. Zoonosis is the study of infectious diseases where cross-species illnesses that are caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites spread from non-human animals to humans. She is the author of Who's in Charge? Leadership During Epidemics, Bioterror Attacks, and Other Public Health Crises
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