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|Period||6th century CE|
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Tiloya Panatti or Trilokaprajnapati is one of the earlier Prakrit texts on Jain cosmology composed by Acharya Yativrshabha.
Jain cosmology has a unique perception of the Universe. It perceives different solar and lunar entities in a manner that is different from the current cosmology as well those put forward by different cultures. According to Jain cosmology, this universe is an uncreated entity existing since beginningless time. The Universe is made up of what Jains call six dravya or reals or substances - Living beings, non-living things or matter, space, time and the principles of motion and rest. The universe itself is divided abode of gods, abode of humans and animals, and abode of hellish beings.
The Tiloya Panatti is a Prakrit work in the Jain Shauraseni dialect and has been composed primarily in the Arya metre. The work has a total of 5677 verses divided into 9 chapters. The chapter scheme is as under:
The Jain Shauraseni used in this work would seem to suggest that this work predates the Western recensions of the Agamas that took place in Valabhi in the 6th century CE. In addition to cosmology, this work sheds light on Jain dogmatics, culture, history, mythology and ascetic lineages. Of the 5677 gathas, most are in the Arya metre, but other metres such as Shardulavikridita, Vasantatilaka, Indravajra, Dodhaka, Svagata and Malini have also been used. Apart from the gathas, there are several long passages in prose.
Acharya Yativrshabha authored the Tiloya Panatti in seventh century CE.He is known for his important commentary on the Kasayapahuda, (Treatise on Passions), which is dated in the early centuries of the Common Era. Hence it is speculated that Acharya Yativrshabha belonged to 4-5th century CE.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion. It is one of the oldest Indian religions. The three main pillars of Jainism are ahiṃsā (non-violence), anekāntavāda (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (non-attachment).
Mahavira, also known as Vardhamana, was the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism. He was the spiritual successor of the 23rd Tirthankara Parshvanatha. Mahavira was born in the early part of the 6th century BCE into a royal Jain family in Bihar, India. His mother's name was Trishala and his father's name was Siddhartha. They were lay devotees of Parshvanatha. Mahavira abandoned all worldly possessions at the age of about 30 and left home in pursuit of spiritual awakening, becoming an ascetic. Mahavira practiced intense meditation and severe austerities for twelve and a half years, after which he attained Kevala Gyan (omniscience). He preached for 30 years and attained Moksha (liberation) in the 6th century BCE, although the year varies by sect.
The Śvētāmbara is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara means "white-clad", and refers to its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara "sky-clad" Jains, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.
Kundakunda was a Digambara Jain monk and philosopher, who likely lived in the 2nd CE century CE or later.
Nemichandra Siddhanta Chakravarty was the author of Dravyasamgraha, Gommatsāra, Trilokasara, Labdhisara and Kshapanasara. He was among the most distinguished of the Jain Acharyas.
Rishabhanatha, also Ṛṣabhadeva, Rishabhadeva, Ṛṣabha or Ikshvaku is the first Tīrthaṅkara of Jainism and the founder of Ikshvaku dynasty. He was the first of twenty-four teachers in the present half-cycle of time in Jain cosmology, and called a "ford maker" because his teachings helped one across the sea of interminable rebirths and deaths. The legends depict him as having lived millions of years ago. He was the spiritual successor of Sampratti Bhagwan, the last Tirthankar of previous time cycle. He is also known as Ādinātha which translates into "First (Adi) Lord (nātha)", as well as Aadishvara, Yugadideva, Prathamarajeshwara, and Nabheya. Along with Mahavira, Parshvanath, Neminath, and Shantinath; Rishabhanath is one of the five Tirthankaras that attract the most devotional worship among the Jains.
Jain cosmology is the description of the shape and functioning of the Universe (loka) and its constituents according to Jainism. Jain cosmology considers the universe as an uncreated entity that has existed since infinity with neither beginning nor end. Jain texts describe the shape of the universe as similar to a man standing with legs apart and arm resting on his waist. This Universe, according to Jainism, is broad at the top, narrow at the middle and once again becomes broad at the bottom.
Mallinatha was the 19th tīrthaṅkara "ford-maker" of the present avasarpiṇī age in Jainism. Jain texts indicate Mālliṇātha was born at Mithila into the Ikshvaku dynasty to King Kumbha and Queen Prajnavati. Tīrthaṅkara Māllīnātha lived for over 56,000 years, out of which 54,800 years less six days, was with omniscience.
The Ṣaṭkhaṅḍāgama is the foremost and oldest Digambara Jain sacred text.
Jainism is an ancient Indian religion belonging to the śramaṇa tradition. It prescribes ahimsa (non-violence) towards all living beings to the greatest possible extent. The three main teachings of Jainism are ahimsa, anekantavada (non-absolutism), aparigraha (non-possessiveness). Followers of Jainism take five main vows: ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha. Monks follow them completely whereas śrāvakas (householders) observe them partially. Self-discipline and asceticism are thus major focuses of Jainism.
Kevala jñāna or Keval gyāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as complete understanding or supreme wisdom.
Jain literature refers to the literature of the Jain religion. It is a vast and ancient literary tradition, which was initially transmitted orally. The oldest surviving material is contained in the canonical Jain Agamas, which are written in Ardhamagadhi, a Prakrit language. Various commentaries were written on these canonical texts by later Jain monks. Later works were also written in other languages, like Sanskrit and Maharashtri Prakrit.
Jīva or Atman is a philosophical term used within Jainism to identify the soul. As per Jain cosmology, jīva or soul is the principle of sentience and is one of the tattvas or one of the fundamental substances forming part of the universe. The Jain metaphysics, states Jagmanderlal Jaini, divides the universe into two independent, everlasting, co-existing and uncreated categories called the jiva (soul) and the ajiva. This basic premise of Jainism makes it a dualistic philosophy. The jiva, according to Jainism, is an essential part of how the process of karma, rebirth and the process of liberation from rebirth works.
Umaswati, also spelled as Umasvati and known as Umaswami, was an Indian scholar, possibly between 2nd-century and 5th-century CE, known for his foundational writings on Jainism. He authored the Jain text Tattvartha Sutra. Umaswati's work was the first Sanskrit language text on Jain philosophy, and is the earliest extant comprehensive Jain philosophy text accepted as authoritative by all four Jain traditions. His text has the same importance in Jainism as Vedanta Sutras and Yogasutras have in Hinduism.
According to the Jain cosmology, the śalākapuruṣa "illustrious or worthy persons" are 63 illustrious beings who appear during each half-time cycle. They are also known as the triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣa. The Jain universal or legendary history is a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious persons. Their life stories are said to be most inspiring.
Digambara is one of the two major schools of Jainism, the other being Śvētāmbara (white-clad). The Sanskrit word Digambara means "sky-clad", referring to their traditional monastic practice of neither possessing nor wearing any clothes.
Simandhara is a Tīrthaṅkara, an arihant, who is said to be currently living in another world in the Jain cosmological universe.
Jainism is an Indian religion which is traditionally believed to be propagated by twenty-four spiritual teachers known as tirthankara. Broadly, Jainism is divided into two major schools of thought, Digambara and Svetambara. These are further divided into different sub-sects and traditions. While there are differences in practices, the core philosophy and main principles of each sect is the same.
Jinabhadra or Vachanacharya Jinabhadragani Kshamashramana was Jain ascetic author of Prakrit and Sanskrit texts.
In Jain tradition, twelve contemplations, are the twelve mental reflections that a Jain ascetic and a practitioner should repeatedly engage in. These twelve contemplations are also known as Barah anuprekśa or Barah bhāvana. According to Jain Philosophy, these twelve contemplations pertain to eternal truths like nature of universe, human existence, and karma on which one must meditate. Twelve contemplations is an important topic that has been developed at all epochs of Jain literature. They are regarded as summarising fundamental teachings of the doctrine. Stoppage of new Karma is called Samvara. Constant engagement on these twelve contemplations help the soul in samvara or stoppage of karmas.