Timeline of Samarkand

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The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan.


Prior to 14th century

14th-19th centuries

20th century

21st century

See also

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The Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group native to the wider Central Asian region, being among the largest Turkic ethnic group in the area. They comprise the majority population of Uzbekistan, next to Kazakh and Karakalpak minorities, and are also minority groups in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Russia, and China. Uzbek diaspora communities also exist in Turkey, Saudi Arabia, United States, Ukraine, and other countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samarkand</span> City in southeastern Uzbekistan

Samarqand or Samarkand is a city in southeastern Uzbekistan and among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia. Samarqand is the capital of Samarqand Region and a district-level city, that includes the urban-type settlements Kimyogarlar, Farhod and Khishrav. With 551,700 inhabitants (2021), it is the second-largest city of Uzbekistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bukhara</span> City in southwestern Uzbekistan

Bukhara is the seventh-largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of 280,187 as of 1 January 2020, and the capital of Bukhara Region. The mother tongue of the majority of people of Bukhara is the Tajik dialect of the Persian language, although Uzbek is spoken as a second language by most residents.

The Kara-Khanid Khanate, also known as the Karakhanids, Qarakhanids, Ilek Khanids or the Afrasiabids, was a Karluk Turkic khanate that ruled Central Asia in the 9th through the early 13th century. The dynastic names of Karakhanids and Ilek Khanids refer to royal titles with Kara Khagan being the most important Turkic title up until the end of the dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Samanid Empire</span> 819–999 Sunni Iranian empire in Central Asia

The Samanid Empire, also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid amirate, or simply as the Samanids, was a Persianate Sunni Muslim empire, of Iranian dehqan origin. The empire was centred in Khorasan and Transoxiana; at its greatest extent encompassing Persia and Central Asia, from 819 to 999.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Registan</span> Historical center of Samarkand, Uzbekistan

The Registan was the heart of the ancient city of Samarkand of the Timurid Empire, now in Uzbekistan. The name Rēgistan (ریگستان) means "sandy place" or "desert" in Persian.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nuh II</span> Amir of the Samanids from 976 to 997

Nuh II was amir of the Samanids (976–997). He was the son and successor of Mansur I.

Ahmad ibn Asad was a Samanid Amir of Ferghana (819-864/5) and Samarkand (851/2-864/5). He was a son of Asad.

Isma'il was an individual who attempted to resurrect the Samanid state in Transoxiana and eastern Iran (1000–1005). He was the son of Nuh II.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nuh I</span> Amir of the Samanids from 943 to 954

Nuh ibn Nasr, or Nuh I, was the Amir of the Samanids in 943–954. He was the son of Nasr II. It is rumoured that he married a Chinese princess.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emirate of Bukhara</span> 1785–1920 state in Central Asia

The Emirate of Bukhara was a Muslim polity in Central Asia that existed from 1785 to 1920 in what is now Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. It occupied the land between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers, known formerly as Transoxiana. Its core territory was the fertile land along the lower Zarafshon river, and its urban centres were the ancient cities of Samarqand and the emirate's capital, Bukhara. It was contemporaneous with the Khanate of Khiva to the west, in Khwarazm, and the Khanate of Kokand to the east, in Fergana. In 1920, it ceased to exist with the establishment of the Bukharan People's Soviet Republic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nasr II</span> Emir of the Samanids from 914 to 943

Nasr ibn Ahmad or Nasr II, nicknamed "the Fortunate", was the ruler (amir) of Transoxiana and Khurasan as the head of the Samanid dynasty from 914 to 943. His reign marked the high point of the Samanid dynasty's fortunes. He was the son of Ahmad ibn Isma’il.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Po-i-Kalyan</span> Islamic religious complex in Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Po-i-Kalan, or Poi Kalan, is an Islamic religious complex located in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. The complex consists of three parts, the Kalan Mosque, the Kalan Minaret to which the name refers, and the Mir-i-Arab Madrasah. The positioning of the three structures creates a square courtyard in its center, with the Mir-i-Arab and the Kalan Mosque standing on opposite ends. In addition, the square is enclosed by a bazaar and a set of baths connected to the Minaret on the northern and southern ends respectively.

The Al-i Muhtaj or Muhtajids was an Iranian or Iranicized Arab ruling family of the small principality of Chaghaniyan. They ruled during the 10th and early 11th centuries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chaghaniyan</span> Region known in medieval times

Chaghaniyan, known as al-Saghaniyan in Arabic sources, was a medieval region and principality located on the right bank of the Oxus River, to the south of Samarkand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of Central Asia</span> Architectural styles of the societies that have occupied Central Asia throughout history

Architecture of Central Asia refers to the architectural styles of the numerous societies that have occupied Central Asia throughout history. These styles include a regional tradition of Islamic and Iranian architecture, including Timurid architecture of the 14th and 15th centuries, as well as 20th-century Soviet Modernism. Central Asia is an area that encompasses land from the Xinjiang Province of China in the East to the Caspian Sea in the West. The region is made up of the countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. The influence of Timurid architecture can be recognised in numerous sites in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, whilst the influence of Persian architecture is seen frequently in Uzbekistan and in some examples in Turkmenistan. Examples of Soviet architecture can be found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan.

The history of Bukhara stretches back millennia. The origin of its inhabitants goes back to the period of Aryan immigration into the region. The city itself, currently the capital of the Bukhara Region (viloyat) of Uzbekistan, is about two and a half thousand years old. Located on the Silk Road, the city has long been a centre of trade, scholarship, culture, and religion. During the Golden age of Islam, under the rule of Samanids, Bukhara became the intellectual centre of the Islamic world. In medieval times, Bukhara served as the capital of the Khanate of Bukhara and was the birthplace of Imam Bukhari.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand</span> Religious educational institution in Samarkand, Uzbekistan

The Ulugh Beg Madrasa is a madrasa in the historic center of Samarkand, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Uzbekistan. Together with other monuments, it forms the monumental ensemble of Registan, the old heart of the city. It was built between 1417 and 1421 by the then-Timurid governor of Samarkand, Ulugh Beg, Timur's grandson and prominent astronomer, who was later emperor between 1447 and 1449.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Architecture of Uzbekistan</span>

The architecture of Uzbekistan is noted for its originality. Many consider Uzbekistan's architecture to be notable despite the changing economic conditions, technological advances, demographic fluctuations, and cultural shifts that the country has experienced.

The Karakhanid-Samanid wars were two wars fought between the Karakhanid Khaganate and the Samanids in 990–991 and 999–1000. Satuq Buğra Khan's grandson, Hasan b. Sulayman, attacked the Samanids in the late 10th century. Between 990 and 991, Hasan captured Sayram, Fergana, Ilaq, Samarkand and the Samanid capital, Bukhara. However, Hasan b. Sulayman died in 992 and the Samanids returned to Bukhara.


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