Timeline of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season

Last updated
Track map of all Atlantic tropical cyclones in 2016 2016 Atlantic hurricane season summary map.png
Track map of all Atlantic tropical cyclones in 2016

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the costliest, as well as the first above-average, Atlantic hurricane season in four years. It featured the highest number of deaths since the 2008 season and also yielded the highest number of named storm landfalls on the United States since that year. [1] [2] The season officially began on June 1 and concluded on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during each year when a majority of tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. [3] The season's first cyclone, Alex developed on January 12, while the final storm of the season, Otto, ultimately dissipated on November 26. [4]

2016 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2016 Atlantic hurricane season was the first above-average hurricane season since 2012, producing 15 named storms, 7 hurricanes and 4 major hurricanes. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the first storm, Hurricane Alex which formed in the Northeastern Atlantic, developed on January 12, being the first hurricane to develop in January since 1938. The final storm, Otto, crossed into the Eastern Pacific on November 25, a few days before the official end. Following Alex, Tropical Storm Bonnie brought flooding to South Carolina and portions of North Carolina. Tropical Storm Colin in early June brought minor flooding and wind damage to parts of the Southeastern United States, especially Florida. Hurricane Earl left 94 fatalities in the Dominican Republic and Mexico, 81 of which occurred in the latter. In early September, Hurricane Hermine, the first hurricane to make landfall in Florida since Hurricane Wilma in 2005, brought extensive coastal flooding damage especially to the Forgotten and Nature coasts of Florida. Hermine was responsible for five fatalities and about $550 million (2016 USD) in damage.

Atlantic hurricane season tropical cyclone season

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

2012 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 2012 Atlantic hurricane season was the final year in a consecutive string of three very active seasons, although many of the storms were weak. It is tied with 1887, 1995, 2010, and 2011 for having the third-most named storms on record. It was also the third-costliest season, behind 2005 and 2017. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year in which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. However, Alberto, the first system of the year, developed on May 19 – the earliest date of formation since Tropical Storm Ana in 2003. A second tropical cyclone, Beryl, developed later that month. This was the first occurrence of two pre-season named storms in the Atlantic basin since 1951. It moved ashore in North Florida on May 29 with winds of 65 mph (100 km/h), making it the strongest pre-season storm to make landfall in the Atlantic basin. This season marked the first time since 2009 where no tropical cyclones formed in July. Another record was set by Hurricane Nadine later in the season; the system became the fourth-longest-lived tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Atlantic, with a total duration of 22.25 days. The final storm to form, Tony, dissipated on October 25 – however, Hurricane Sandy, which formed before Tony, became extratropical on October 29.

Contents

A total of 16 tropical depressions were recorded, of which 15 further intensified into tropical storms. Of those 15, a total of 7 strengthened into hurricanes, while 4 attained their peaks as major hurricanes. [nb 1] Activity began with Alex which, upon making landfall in the Azores, became the first January landfalling tropical cyclone since Hurricane Alice in the 1954 season. [6] In June, tropical storms Colin and Danielle became the earliest third and fourth named storms, respectively, on record. [7] [8] Hermine moved ashore the coastline of Florida as a Category 1 hurricane on September 2, ending the record hurricane drought that began in the state after the 2005 season's Hurricane Wilma. [9] In late September and early October, Hurricane Matthew wrought destruction throughout the Caribbean Sea and Southeastern United States, resulting in $15.09 billion (2016 USD) in damage and 603 deaths; it remains the ninth-costliest hurricane on record in the Atlantic, as well as the tenth-costliest in the United States. [10] In mid-October, Hurricane Nicole ascended to Category 4 intensity and remained a major hurricane while directly impacting Bermuda, the first storm of such strength to do so since Hurricane Fabian in the 2003 season. [11] The season concluded with Hurricane Otto, the latest-forming major hurricane on record in the Atlantic and the first cyclone to cross from the basin while maintaining tropical characteristics into the East Pacific since Hurricane Cesar–Douglas. [4]

Azores Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean

The Azores, officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores, is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal. It is an archipelago composed of nine volcanic islands in the North Atlantic Ocean about 1,360 km (850 mi) west of continental Portugal, about 1,643 km (1,021 mi) west of Lisbon, in continental Portugal, about 1,507 km (936 mi) northwest of Morocco, and about 1,925 km (1,196 mi) southeast of Newfoundland, Canada.

Hurricane Alice (December 1954) Category 1 Atlantic hurricane in December 1954 and January 1955

Hurricane Alice is the only known Atlantic hurricane to span two calendar years and one of only two named Atlantic tropical cyclones, along with Tropical Storm Zeta of 2005, to do so. The twelfth tropical cyclone and the eighth hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season, Alice developed on December 30, 1954 from a trough of low pressure in the central Atlantic Ocean in an area of unusually favorable conditions. The storm moved southwestward and gradually strengthened to reach hurricane status. After passing through the Leeward Islands on January 2, 1955, Alice reached peak winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before encountering cold air and turning to the southeast. It dissipated on January 6 over the southeastern Caribbean Sea.

1954 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1954 Atlantic hurricane season resulted in over $750 million in damage, the most of any season at the time. The season officially began on June 15, and nine days later the first named storm developed. Hurricane Alice developed in the Gulf of Mexico and moved inland along the Rio Grande, producing significant precipitation and record flooding that killed 55 people. Activity was slow until late August; only Barbara, a minimal tropical storm, developed in July. In the span of two weeks, hurricanes Carol and Edna followed similar paths before both striking New England as major hurricanes. The latter became the costliest hurricane in Maine's history.

This timeline documents tropical cyclone formations, strengthening, weakening, landfalls, extratropical transitions, and dissipations during the season. It includes information that was not released throughout the season, meaning that data from post-storm reviews by the National Hurricane Center, such as a storm that was not initially warned upon, has been included.

Landfall event of a storm moving over land after being over water

Landfall is the event of a storm or waterspout moving over land after being over water.

National Hurricane Center division of the United States National Weather Service

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) is the division of the United States' National Weather Service responsible for tracking and predicting tropical weather systems between the Prime Meridian and the 140th meridian west poleward to the 30th parallel north in the northeast Pacific Ocean and the 31st parallel north in the northern Atlantic Ocean. The agency, which is co-located with the Miami branch of the National Weather Service, is situated on the campus of Florida International University in University Park, Florida.

Timeline of events

Hurricane Otto (2016)Hurricane Nicole (2016)Hurricane MatthewTropical Storm Julia (2016)Hurricane HermineHurricane Earl (2016)Tropical Storm Danielle (2016)Tropical Storm Colin (2016)Tropical Storm Bonnie (2016)Hurricane Alex (2016)Saffir–Simpson scaleTimeline of the 2016 Atlantic hurricane season

January

January 12

Atlantic Time Zone timezone (UTC−04:00)

The Atlantic Time Zone is a geographical region that keeps standard time—called Atlantic Standard Time (AST)—by subtracting four hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), resulting in UTC−04:00. During part of the year, some portions of the zone observe daylight saving time, referred to as Atlantic Daylight Time (ADT), by moving their clocks forward one hour to result in UTC−03:00. The clock time in this zone is based on the mean solar time of the 60th meridian west of the Greenwich Observatory.

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of a tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Low-pressure area region where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations

A low-pressure area, low, depression or cyclone is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations. Low-pressure systems form under areas of wind divergence that occur in the upper levels of the troposphere. The formation process of a low-pressure area is known as cyclogenesis. Within the field of meteorology, atmospheric divergence aloft occurs in two areas. The first area is on the east side of upper troughs, which form half of a Rossby wave within the Westerlies. A second area of wind divergence aloft occurs ahead of embedded shortwave troughs, which are of smaller wavelength. Diverging winds aloft ahead of these troughs cause atmospheric lift within the troposphere below, which lowers surface pressures as upward motion partially counteracts the force of gravity.

Hurricane Alex at peak intensity on January 14 Alex 2016-01-14 1415Z.png
Hurricane Alex at peak intensity on January 14

January 14

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), formerly the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale (SSHS), classifies hurricanes – Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms – into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds.

1938 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1938 Atlantic hurricane season began earlier than any Atlantic hurricane season on record lasting from January 3 through October 31. The season was generally quiet with 9 tropical cyclones and 4 becoming hurricane strength, 2 of which became major hurricane equivalent.

1955 Atlantic hurricane season hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean

The 1955 Atlantic hurricane season was, at the time, the costliest season ever recorded. The hurricane season officially began on June 15, 1955, and ended on November 15, 1955. It was slightly above average, with 13 recorded tropical cyclones. The first storm, Alice, had persisted since December 30, 1954. Alice caused relatively minor impact as it tracked through the Lesser Antilles and eastern Caribbean Sea in early January. Tropical Storm Brenda caused two deaths and minor damage along the Gulf Coast of the United States in early August. The quick succession of Hurricanes Connie and Diane caused significant flooding in the Northeastern United States, with nearly $1 billion (1955 USD) in losses and at least 232 fatalities. The next three storms – Hurricanes Edith and Flora and Tropical Storm Five – caused very minor or no impact. In early August, Hurricane Gladys caused severe localized flooding in Mexico, primarily in Mexico City. Additionally, an offshoot of Gladys inflicted minor impact in Texas.

January 15

Terceira Island Island in Azores, Portugal

Terceira is an island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is one of the larger islands of the archipelago, with a population of 56,000 inhabitants in an area of approximately 396.75 square kilometres. It is the location of the Azores' oldest city, Angra do Heroísmo, the historical capital of the archipelago and UNESCO World Heritage Site; the seat of the judicial system ; and the main base of the Azores Air Zone Command, Base Aérea nº 4, and a United States Air Force detachment.

Extratropical cyclone type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

May

May 27

May 28

Tropical Storm Bonnie at its initial peak intensity on May 28 Bonnie 2016-05-28 2037Z.png
Tropical Storm Bonnie at its initial peak intensity on May 28

May 29

May 30

June

June 1

June 2

June 3

June 4

Storm path of Tropical Storm Colin during early June Colin 2016 track.png
Storm path of Tropical Storm Colin during early June

June 5

June 7

Storm path of Tropical Storm Danielle during late June Danielle 2016 track.png
Storm path of Tropical Storm Danielle during late June

June 19

June 20

June 21

July

August

August 2

August 3

Hurricane Earl approaching Belize on August 3 Earl 2016-08-03 2245Z.png
Hurricane Earl approaching Belize on August 3

August 4

August 6

August 17

Storm path of Tropical Storm Fiona during mid-August Fiona 2016 track.png
Storm path of Tropical Storm Fiona during mid-August

August 19

August 22

August 23

August 24

August 25

August 27

Hurricane Gaston on the cusp of major hurricane intensity on August 28 Gaston 2016-08-28 1645Z.jpg
Hurricane Gaston on the cusp of major hurricane intensity on August 28

August 28

August 29

August 31

September

Hurricane Hermine approaching the coastline of Florida on September 1 Hermine 2016-09-01 2300Z.png
Hurricane Hermine approaching the coastline of Florida on September 1

September 1

September 2

September 3

September 12

September 13

September 14

Tropical Storm Julia over Georgia on September 14 Julia 2016-09-14 1905Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Julia over Georgia on September 14

September 15

September 16

September 17

September 19

Storm path of Tropical Storm Karl during mid- to late September Karl 2016 track.png
Storm path of Tropical Storm Karl during mid- to late September

September 20

September 21

September 22

September 23

Storm path of Tropical Storm Lisa during late September Lisa 2016 track.png
Storm path of Tropical Storm Lisa during late September

September 25

September 28

September 29

September 30

October

Hurricane Matthew at Category 5 intensity on October 1 Matthew 2016-10-01 0225Z.png
Hurricane Matthew at Category 5 intensity on October 1

October 1

October 4

October 5

October 6

October 7

October 8

Hurricane Nicole shortly before attaining Category 4 intensity on October 12 Nicole 2016-10-12 2030Z.png
Hurricane Nicole shortly before attaining Category 4 intensity on October 12

October 9

October 11

October 12

October 13

October 14

October 18

Hurricane Otto making landfall in Southeastern Nicaragua at peak intensity on November 24 Otto 2016-11-24 1605Z.jpg
Hurricane Otto making landfall in Southeastern Nicaragua at peak intensity on November 24

November

November 20

November 21

November 23

November 24

November 25

November 30

See also

Footnotes

  1. A major hurricane is a storm that ranks as Category 3 or higher on the Saffir–Simpson scale. [5]
  2. The figures for maximum sustained winds and position estimates are rounded to the nearest 5 units (knots, miles, or kilometers), following the convention used in the National Hurricane Center's operational products for each storm. All other units are rounded to the nearest digit.

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Preceded by
2015
Atlantic hurricane season timelines
2016
Succeeded by
2017