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Toes on the human left foot. The innermost toe (left in image), which is normally called the big toe, is the hallux .
Bones of the foot (the toe bones are the ones in green, blue and orange)
Latin digiti pedis
MeSH D014034
TA98 A01.1.00.046
TA2 170
FMA 25046
Anatomical terminology

Toes are the digits of the foot of a tetrapod. Animal species such as cats that walk on their toes are described as being digitigrade . Humans, and other animals that walk on the soles of their feet, are described as being plantigrade ; unguligrade animals are those that walk on hooves at the tips of their toes.



Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface. Gray269.png
Bones of the right foot. Plantar surface.
Human toes Foot on white background (cropped).jpg
Human toes
A woman's toes decorated with nail polish and henna, and wearing a metti (toe ring) on the second toe, for her wedding Metti (cropped).JPG
A woman's toes decorated with nail polish and henna, and wearing a metti (toe ring) on the second toe, for her wedding

There are normally five toes present on each human foot. Each toe consists of three phalanx bones, the proximal, middle, and distal, with the exception of the big toe (Latin : hallux). For a minority of people, the little toe also is missing a middle bone. The hallux only contains two phalanx bones, the proximal and distal. The joints between each phalanx are the interphalangeal joints. The proximal phalanx bone of each toe articulates with the metatarsal bone of the foot at the metatarsophalangeal joint. Each toe is surrounded by skin, and present on all five toes is a toenail.

The toes are, from medial to lateral:


Toe movement is generally flexion and extension (movement toward the sole or the back of the foot, resp.) via muscular tendons that attach to the toes on the anterior and superior surfaces of the phalanx bones. [1] :573

With the exception of the hallux, toe movement is generally governed by action of the flexor digitorum brevis and extensor digitorum brevis muscles. These attach to the sides of the bones, [1] :572–75 making it impossible to move individual toes independently. Muscles between the toes on their top and bottom also help to abduct and adduct the toes. [1] :579 The hallux and little toe have unique muscles:

Blood supply

The toes receive blood from the digital branches of the plantar metatarsal arteries and drain blood into the dorsal venous arch of the foot. [1] :580–81

Nerve supply

Sensation to the skin of the toes is provided by five nerves. The superficial fibular nerve supplies sensation to the top of the toes, except between the hallux and second toe, which is supplied by the deep fibular nerve, and the outer surface of the fifth toe, supplied by the sural nerve. Sensation to the bottom of the toes is supplied by the medial plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the great toe and inner three-and-a-half toes, and the lateral plantar nerve, which supplies sensation to the little toe and half of the sensation of the fourth toe.

In humans, the hallux is usually longer than the second toe, but in some individuals, it may not be the longest toe. There is an inherited trait in humans, where the dominant gene causes a longer second toe ("Morton's toe" or "Greek foot") while the homozygous recessive genotype presents with the more common trait: a longer hallux. [2] People with the rare genetic disease fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva characteristically have a short hallux which appears to turn inward, or medially, in relation to the foot.


Humans usually have five toes on each foot. When more than five toes are present, this is known as polydactyly. Other variants may include syndactyly or arachnodactyly. Forefoot shape, including toe shape, exhibits significant variation among people; these differences can be measured and have been statistically correlated with ethnicity. [3] Such deviations may affect comfort and fit for various shoe types. Research conducted for the U.S. Army indicated that larger feet may still have smaller arches, toe length, and toe-breadth. [4]


The human foot consists of multiple bones and soft tissues which support the weight of the upright human. Specifically, the toes assist the human while walking, [5] providing balance, weight-bearing, and thrust during gait.

Clinical significance

A sprain or strain to the small interphalangeal joints of the toe is commonly called a stubbed toe. A sprain or strain where the toe joins to the foot is called turf toe.

Long-term use of improperly sized shoes can cause misalignment of toes, as well as other orthopedic problems.

Morton's neuroma commonly results in pain and numbness between the third and fourth toes of the sufferer, due to it affecting the nerve between the third and fourth metatarsal bones. [6]

The big toe is also the most common locus of ingrown nails, and its proximal phalanx joint is the most common locus for gout attacks.


Deformities of the foot include hammer toe, trigger toe, and claw toe. Hammer toe can be described as an abnormal contraction or “buckling” of a toe. This is done by a partial or complete dislocation of one of the joints, which form the toes. Since the toes are deformed further, these may press against a shoe and cause pain. Deformities of the foot can also be caused by rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus. Deformities may predispose to ulcers and pain, especially when shoe-wearing.

A common problem involving the big toe is the formation of bunions. These are structural deformities of the bones and the joint between the foot and big toe, and may be painful. [7] Similar deformity involving the fifth toe is described as tailor's bunion or bunionette.

Right-sided duplication of the right little toe in an 8.5 months old male, with two toes (fifth and sixth) apparently forming joints with the fifth metatarsal bone, which is mildly broadened distally. The duplicated toes have almost normal growth. The fifth toe has mild varus angulation, and the sixth toe has substantial valgus angulation. X-ray of feet in polydactyly.jpg
Right-sided duplication of the right little toe in an 8.5 months old male, with two toes (fifth and sixth) apparently forming joints with the fifth metatarsal bone, which is mildly broadened distally. The duplicated toes have almost normal growth. The fifth toe has mild varus angulation, and the sixth toe has substantial valgus angulation.

In polydactyly (which can also affect the fingers) one or more extra toes are present.

In reconstruction

A favourable option for the reconstruction of missing adjacent fingers [8] /multiple digit amputations, i.e. such as a metacarpal hand reconstruction, is to have a combined second and third toe transplantation. [9] Third and fourth toe transplantation to the hand in replacing lost fingers is also a viable option. [10]



The Old English term for toe is (plural tān). This is a contraction of tāhe, and derives from Proto-Germanic *taihwǭ (cognates: Old Norse , Old Frisian tāne, Middle Dutch tee, Dutch teen (perhaps originally a plural), Old High German zēha, German Zehe), perhaps originally meaning 'fingers' as well (many Indo-European languages use one word to mean both 'fingers' and 'toes', e.g. digit), and thus from PIE root *deyḱ- 'to show'. [11]


The big toe of a human PaluchUStopy.jpg
The big toe of a human

In classical Latin, hallex, [12] [13] allex, [12] [14] hallus [12] and allus, [12] with genitive (h)allicis and (h)alli, are used to refer to the big toe. The form hallux (genitive, hallucis) currently in use is however a blend word of the aforementioned forms. [12] [15] Compare pollex, the equivalent term for the thumb.


Haeckel traces the standard vertebrate five-toed schema from fish fins via amphibian ancestors. [16]

Other animals

The skeleton of Pakicetus, an extinct digitigrade mammal. Pakicetidae - Pakicetus attocki.JPG
The skeleton of Pakicetus , an extinct digitigrade mammal.

In birds with anisodactyl or heterodactyl feet, the hallux is opposed or directed backwards and allows for grasping and perching.

While the thumb is often mentioned[ by whom? ] as one of the signature characteristics in humans, this manual digit remains partially primitive and is actually present in all primates. In humans, the most derived digital feature is the hallux. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Foot</span> Anatomical structure found in vertebrates

The foot is an anatomical structure found in many vertebrates. It is the terminal portion of a limb which bears weight and allows locomotion. In many animals with feet, the foot is a separate organ at the terminal part of the leg made up of one or more segments or bones, generally including claws and/or nails.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Human leg</span> Lower extremity or limb of the human body (foot, lower leg, thigh and hip)

The human leg is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh or sometimes even the hip or buttock region. The major bones of the leg are the femur, tibia, and adjacent fibula. The thigh is between the hip and knee, while the calf (rear) and shin (front) are between the knee and foot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Polydactyly</span> Physical anomaly involving extra fingers or toes

Polydactyly or polydactylism, also known as hyperdactyly, is an anomaly in humans and animals resulting in supernumerary fingers and/or toes. Polydactyly is the opposite of oligodactyly.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thumb</span> First digit of the hand

The thumb is the first digit of the hand, next to the index finger. When a person is standing in the medical anatomical position, the thumb is the outermost digit. The Medical Latin English noun for thumb is pollex, and the corresponding adjective for thumb is pollical.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bunion</span> Deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the big toe

A bunion, also known as hallux valgus, is a deformity of the joint connecting the big toe to the foot. The big toe often bends towards the other toes and the joint becomes red and painful. The onset of bunions is typically gradual. Complications may include bursitis or arthritis.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Hammer toe</span> Medical condition

A hammer toe, hammertoe or contracted toe is a deformity of the muscles and ligaments of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the second, third, fourth, or fifth toe, bending it into a shape resembling a hammer. In the early stage, a flexible hammertoe is movable at the joints; a rigid hammertoe joint cannot be moved and usually requires surgery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tibial nerve</span> Branch of the sciatic nerve

The tibial nerve is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve passes through the popliteal fossa to pass below the arch of soleus.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dorsal interossei of the foot</span> Four muscles situated between the metatarsal bones

In human anatomy, the dorsal interossei of the foot are four muscles situated between the metatarsal bones.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flexor hallucis longus muscle</span> One of the three deep muscles in the lower leg

The flexor hallucis longus muscle (FHL) attaches to the plantar surface of phalanx of the great toe and is responsible for flexing that toe. The FHL is one of the three deep muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg, the others being the flexor digitorum longus and the tibialis posterior. The tibialis posterior is the most powerful of these deep muscles. All three muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve which comprises half of the sciatic nerve.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abductor hallucis muscle</span> Intrinsic muscle of the foot

The abductor hallucis muscle is an intrinsic muscle of the foot. It participates in the abduction and flexion of the great toe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Adductor hallucis muscle</span> Muscle responsible for adducting the big toe

The Adductor hallucis arises by two heads—oblique and transverse and is responsible for adducting the big toe. It has two heads, both are innervated by the lateral plantar nerve.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flexor hallucis brevis muscle</span> Muscle in sole of the foot that leads to the big toe

Flexor hallucis brevis muscle is a muscle of the foot that flexes the big toe.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Plantar interossei muscles</span> Three muscles located between the metatarsal bones in the foot

In human anatomy, plantar interossei muscles are three muscles located between the metatarsal bones in the foot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abductor digiti minimi muscle of foot</span> Muscle which lies along the lateral (outer) border of the foot

The abductor digiti minimi is a muscle which lies along the lateral (outer) border of the foot, and is in relation by its medial margin with the lateral plantar artery, vein and nerves.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sole (foot)</span> Bottom part of foot

The sole is the bottom of the foot.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Medial plantar nerve</span> Larger of the two terminal divisions of the tibial nerve

The medial plantar nerve is the larger of the two terminal divisions of the tibial nerve, which accompanies the medial plantar artery.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Metatarsophalangeal joints</span> Joints between the foot and toes

The metatarsophalangeal joints, also informally known as toe knuckles, are the joints between the metatarsal bones of the foot and the proximal bones of the toes. They are condyloid joints, meaning that an elliptical or rounded surface comes close to a shallow cavity.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Interphalangeal joints of the foot</span>

The interphalangeal joints of the foot are between the phalanx bones of the toes in the feet.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fifth metatarsal bone</span>

The fifth metatarsal bone is a long bone in the foot, and is palpable along the distal outer edges of the feet. It is the second smallest of the five metatarsal bones. The fifth metatarsal is analogous to the fifth metacarpal bone in the hand.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tailor's bunion</span> Medical condition

Tailor's bunion, also known as digitus quintus varus or bunionette, is a condition caused as a result of inflammation of the fifth metatarsal bone at the base of the little toe.


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