Tripoli, Lebanon

Last updated
Tripoli
طرابلس
Tripoli, Lebanon photos, Aug 2012.jpg
Clockwise from top left: Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles, Mansouri Great Mosque minaret, Mamluk architecture, bay view, and a Syriac Catholic church
Lebanon adm location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Tripoli
Coordinates: 34°26′12″N35°50′04″E / 34.43667°N 35.83444°E / 34.43667; 35.83444 Coordinates: 34°26′12″N35°50′04″E / 34.43667°N 35.83444°E / 34.43667; 35.83444
Country Flag of Lebanon.svg  Lebanon
Governorate North Governorate
District Tripoli District
Area
  Total27.3 km2 (10.5 sq mi)
Population
  Total227,857
Time zone +2
  Summer (DST)+3
Area code(s) 06
Website tripoli-lebanon.org
The walled Nahr Abu Ali at Tripoli TripoliNahrAbuAli.jpg
The walled Nahr Abu Ali at Tripoli

Tripoli (Arabic : طرابلس/ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus [lower-alpha 1] ) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country. Situated 85 km (53 mi) north of the capital Beirut, it is the capital of the North Governorate and the Tripoli District. Tripoli overlooks the eastern Mediterranean Sea, and it is the northernmost seaport in Lebanon. It holds a string of four small islands offshore. The Palm Islands were declared a protected area because of their status of haven for endangered loggerhead turtles (Chelona mydas), rare monk seals and migratory birds. Tripoli borders the city of El Mina, the port of the Tripoli District, which it is geographically conjoined with to form the greater Tripoli conurbation.

Contents

The history of Tripoli dates back at least to the 14th century BCE. The city is well known for containing the Mansouri Great Mosque and the largest Crusader fortress in Lebanon, the Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles. It has the second highest concentration of Mamluk architecture after Cairo.

In the Arab World, Tripoli is sometimes known as Ṭarābulus al-Sham (Arabic : طرابلس الشام), or Levantine Tripoli, to distinguish it from its Libyan counterpart, known as Tripoli-of-the-West (Arabic : طرابلس الغرب‎; Ṭarābulus al-Gharb).

With the formation of Lebanon and the 1948 breakup of the Syrian–Lebanese customs union, Tripoli, once on par in economic and commercial importance to Beirut, was cut off from its traditional trade relations with the Syrian hinterland and therefore declined in relative prosperity. [2]

Names

Tripoli had a number of different names as far back as the Phoenician age. In the Amarna letters the name "Derbly", possibly a Semitic cognate of the city's modern Arabic name Ṭarābulus, was mentioned, and in other places "Ahlia" or "Wahlia" are mentioned (14th century BCE). [3] In an engraving concerning the invasion of Tripoli by the Assyrian King Ashurnasirpal II (888–859 BCE), it is called Mahallata or Mahlata, Mayza, and Kayza. [4]

Under the Phoenicians, the name Athar was used to refer to Tripoli. [5] When the Ancient Greeks settled in the city they called it Τρίπολις (Tripolis), meaning "three cities," influenced by the earlier phonetically similar but etymologically unrelated name Derbly. [6] The Arabs called it Ṭarābulus and Ṭarābulus al-Šām (referring to bilād al-Šām, to distinguish it from the Libyan city with the same name).

Today, Tripoli is also known as al-fayḥā′ (الفيحاء), which is a term derived from the Arabic verb faha which is used to indicate the diffusion of a scent or smell. Tripoli was once known for its vast orange orchards. During the season of blooming, the pollen of orange flowers was said to be carried on the air, creating a splendid perfume which filled the city and suburbs. [7]

Tripoli, Lebanon panromaic.jpg
A panoramic view of modern Tripoli with its distinctive skyline

History

Overview of historical districts in Tripoli OldTripoli.jpg
Overview of historical districts in Tripoli

Evidence of settlement in Tripoli dates back as early as 1400 BCE. In the 9th century, the Phoenicians established a trading station in Tripoli and later, under Persian rule, the city became the center of a confederation of the Phoenician city-states of Sidon, Tyre, and Arados Island. Under Hellenistic rule, Tripoli was used as a naval shipyard and the city enjoyed a period of autonomy. It came under Roman rule around 64 BCE. The 551 Beirut earthquake and tsunami destroyed the Byzantine city of Tripoli along with other Mediterranean coastal cities.

During Umayyad rule, Tripoli became a commercial and shipbuilding center. It achieved semi-independence under Fatimid rule, when it developed into a center of learning. The Crusaders laid siege to the city at the beginning of the 12th century and were able finally to enter it in 1109. This caused extensive destruction, including the burning of Tripoli's famous library, Dar al-'Ilm (House of Knowledge), with its thousands of volumes. During the Crusaders' rule the city became the capital of the County of Tripoli. In 1289, it fell to the Mamluks and the old port part of the city was destroyed. A new inland city was then built near the old castle. During Ottoman rule from 1516 to 1918, it retained its prosperity and commercial importance. Tripoli and all of Lebanon was under French mandate from 1920 until 1943 when Lebanon achieved independence.

Ancient period

Many historians reject the presence of any Phoenician civilization in Tripoli before the 8th (or sometimes 4th) century BCE. Others argue that the north–south gradient of Phoenician port establishments on the Lebanese coast indicates an earlier age for the Phoenician Tripoli.

Tripoli has not been extensively excavated because the ancient site lies buried beneath the modern city of El Mina. However, a few accidental finds are now in museums. Excavations in El Mina revealed skeletal remains of ancient wolves, eels, and gazelles, part of the ancient southern port quay, grinding mills, different types of columns, wheels, Bows, and a necropolis from the end of the Hellenistic period. A sounding made in the Crusader castle uncovered Late Bronze Age, Iron Age, in addition to Roman, Byzantine, and Fatimid remains. At the Abou Halka area (at the southern entrance of Tripoli) refuges dating to the early (30,000 years old) and middle Stone Age were uncovered. [8]

Ruins in Tripoli Tarabulus ruins.jpg
Ruins in Tripoli

Tripoli became a financial center and main port of northern Phoenicia with sea trade (East Mediterranean and the West), and caravan trade (North Syria and hinterland).

Under the Seleucids, Tripoli gained the right to mint its own coins (112 BCE); it was granted autonomy between 104 and 105, which it retained until 64 BCE. At the time, Tripoli was a center of shipbuilding and cedar timber trade (like other Phoenician cities).

During the Roman and Byzantine period, Tripoli witnessed the construction of important public buildings including municipal stadium or gymnasium due to strategic position of the city midway on the imperial coastal highway leading from Antioch to Ptolemais. In addition, Tripoli retained the same configuration of three distinct and administratively independent quarters (Aradians, Sidonians, and Tyrians). The territory outside the city was divided between the three quarters.

Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid periods

Tripoli gained in importance as a trading centre for the whole Mediterranean after it was inhabited by the Arabs. Tripoli was the port city of Damascus; the second military port of the Arab Navy, following Alexandria; a prosperous commercial and shipbuilding center; a wealthy principality under the Kutama Ismaili Shia Banu Ammar emirs. [9] Legally, Tripoli was part of the jurisdiction of the military province of Damascus (Jund Dimashq). [10]

During a visit by the traveler Nasir-i-Khusrau in 1047, he estimated the size of the population in Tripoli to be around 20,000 and the whole population were Shia Muslims. [11] And according to Nasir Khusraw, the Fatimid Sultan raised a mighty army from Tripoli to defend it against Byzantine, Frankish, Andalusian and Moroccan invasions and raids. [11]

Crusader period

Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles TripoliLebCitadel1.jpg
Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles

The city became the chief town of the County of Tripoli (Latin Crusader state of the Levant) extending from Byblos to Latakia and including the plain of Akkar with the famous Krak des Chevaliers. Tripoli was also the seat of a bishopric. Tripoli was home to a busy port and was a major center of silk weaving, with as many as 4,000 looms. Important products of the time included lemons, oranges, and sugar cane. For 180 years, during the Frankish rule, Occitan was among the languages spoken in Tripoli and neighboring villages.[ citation needed ] At that time, Tripoli had a heterogeneous population including Western Europeans, Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Nestorians, Jews, and Muslims. During the Crusade period, Tripoli witnessed the growth of the inland settlement surrounding the "Pilgrim's Mountain" (the citadel) into a built-up suburb including the main religious monuments of the city such as: The "Church of the Holy Sepulchre of Pilgrim's Mountain" (incorporating the Shiite shrine), the Church of Saint Mary's of the Tower, and the Carmelite Church. The state was a major base of operations for the military order of the Knights Hospitaller, who occupied the famous castle Krak Des Chevaliers (today a UNESCO world heritage site). The state ceased to exist in 1289, when it was captured by the Egyptian Mamluk sultan Qalawun.

Mamluk period

The Mansouri Great Mosque (late 13th century). The arches and courtyard date from the Mamluk period but the minaret is believed to be an earlier Christian structure. TripoliLebGreatMosqueMinaret.jpg
The Mansouri Great Mosque (late 13th century). The arches and courtyard date from the Mamluk period but the minaret is believed to be an earlier Christian structure.
Downtown historical Tripoli Downtown Tripoli, Mamluk style, Tripoli, Lebanon.jpg
Downtown historical Tripoli

Tripoli was captured by Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun from the Crusaders in 1289. The Mamluks destroyed the old city and built a new city 4 km inland from it. [13] About 35 monuments from the Mamluk city have survived to the present day, including mosques, madrasas, khanqahs, hammams (bathhouses), and caravanserais, many of them built by local Mamluk amirs (princes). [14] The Mamluks did not fortify the city with walls but restored and reused the Crusader Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles on site. [13]

During the Mamluk period, Tripoli became a central city and provincial capital of the six kingdoms in Mamluk Syria. Tripoli ranked third after Aleppo and Damascus.[ citation needed ] The kingdom was subdivided into six wilayahs or provinces and extended from Byblos and Aqra mountains south, to Latakia and al Alawiyyin mountains north. It also included Hermel, the plain of Akkar, and Hosn al-Akrad (Krak des Chevaliers). [15]

Tripoli became a major trading port of Syria supplying Europe with candy, loaf and powdered sugar (especially during the latter part of the 14th century). The main products from agriculture and small industry included citrus fruits, olive oil, soap, and textiles (cotton and silk, especially velvet).

The Mamluks formed the ruling class holding main political, military and administrative functions. Arabs formed the population base (religious, industrial, and commercial functions) and the general population included the original inhabitants of the city, immigrants from different parts of Syria, North Africans who accompanied Qalawun's army during the liberation of Tripoli, Eastern Orthodox Christians, some Western families, and a minority of Jews. The population size of Mamluk Tripoli is estimated at 20,000–40,000; against 100,000 in each of Damascus and Aleppo. [15]

Mamluk Tripoli witnessed a high rate of urban growth and a fast city development (according to traveler's accounts). It also had poles of growth including the fortress, the Great Mosque, and the river banks. The city had seven guard towers on the harbor site to defend the inland city, including what still stands today as the Lion Tower. During the period the castle of Saint Gilles was expanded as the Citadel of Mamluk Tripoli. The "Aqueduct of the Prince" was reused to bring water from the Rash'in spring. Several bridges were constructed and the surrounding orchards expanded through marsh drainage. Fresh water was supplied to houses from their roofs.

The urban form of Mamluk Tripoli was dictated mainly by climate, site configuration, defense, and urban aesthetics. The layout of major thoroughfares was set according to prevailing winds and topography. The city had no fortifications, but heavy building construction characterized by compact urban forms, narrow and winding streets for difficult city penetration. Residential areas were bridged over streets at strategic points for surveillance and defense. The city also included many loopholes and narrow slits at street junctions.

The religious and secular buildings of Mamluk Tripoli comprise a fine example of the architecture of that time. The oldest among them were built with stones taken from 12th and 13th-century churches; the characteristics of the architecture of the period are best seen in the mosques and madrassas, the Islamic schools. It is the madrassas which most attract attention, for they include highly original structures as well as decoration: here a honeycombed ceiling, there a curiously shaped corniche, doorway or moulded window frame. Among the finest is the madrassa al-Burtasiyah, with an elegant façade picked out in black and white stones and a highly decorated lintel over the main door.

East Tripoli The city of Tripoli, Lebanon.jpg
East Tripoli

Public buildings in Mamluk Tripoli were emphasized through sitting, façade treatment, and street alignment. Well-cut and well-dressed stones (local sandstone) were used as media of construction and for decorative effects on elevations and around openings (the ablaq technique of alternating light and dark stone courses). Bearing walls were used as vertical supports. Cross vaults covered most spaces from prayer halls to closed rectangular rooms, to galleries around courtyards. Domes were constructed over conspicuous and important spaces like tomb chambers, mihrab, and covered courtyards. Typical construction details in Mamluk Tripoli included cross vaults with concave grooves meeting in octagonal openings or concave rosettes as well as simple cupolas or ribbed domes. The use of double drums and corner squinches was commonly used to make the transition from square rooms to round domes. [8]

Decorations in Mamluk buildings concentrated on the most conspicuous areas of buildings: minarets, portals, windows, on the outside, and mihrab, qiblah wall, and floor on the inside. Decorations at the time may be subdivided into structural decoration (found outside the buildings and incorporate the medium of construction itself such as ablaq walls, plain or zigzag moldings, fish scale motifs, joggled lintels or voussoirs, inscriptions, and muqarnas) and applied decoration (found inside the buildings and include the use of marble marquetry, stucco, and glass mosaic). [8]

Mosques evenly spread with major concentration of madrasas around the Mansouri Great Mosque. All khans were located in the northern part of the city for easy accessibility from roads to Syria. Hammams (public baths) were carefully located to serve major population concentrations: one next to the Grand Mosque, the other in the center of the commercial district, and the third in the right-bank settlement.

About 35 monuments from the Mamluk city have survived to the present day, including mosques, madrasas, khanqahs, hammams, and caravanserais, many of them built by local Mamluk amirs. [14] Major buildings in Mamluk Tripoli included six congregational mosques (the Mansouri Great Mosque, al-Aattar, Taynal, al-Uwaysiyat, al-Burtasi, and al-Tawbat Mosques). Sultan al-Ashraf Khalil (r. 1290–93) founded the city's first congregational mosque in memory of his father (Qalawun), in either late 1293 or 1294 (693 AH). [16] [17] Six madrasas were later built around the mosque. [17] [18] [19] The Mamluks did not fortify the city with walls but restored and reused a Crusader citadel on the site. [13] In addition, there were two quarter mosques (Abd al-Wahed and Arghoun Shah), and two mosques that were built on empty land (al-Burtasi and al-Uwaysiyat). Other mosques incorporated earlier structures (churches, khans, and shops). Mamluk Tripoli also included 16 madrasas of which four no longer exist (al-Zurayqiyat, al-Aattar, al-Rifaiyah, and al-Umariyat). Six of the madrasas concentrated around the Grand Mosque. Tripoli also included a Khanqah, many secular buildings, five Khans, three hammams (Turkish baths) that are noted for their cupolas. Hammams were luxuriously decorated and the light streaming down from their domes enhances the inner atmosphere of the place.

Ottoman period

Tripoli gold bezant in Arabic (1270-1300), and Tripoli silver gros (1275-1287), British Museum Tripoli gold bezant in Arabic 1270 1300 Tripoli silver gros 1275 1287.jpg
Tripoli gold bezant in Arabic (1270–1300), and Tripoli silver gros (1275–1287), British Museum

During the Ottoman period, Tripoli became the provincial capital and chief town of the Eyalet of Tripoli, encompassing the coastal territory from Byblos to Tarsus and the inland Syrian towns of Homs and Hama; the two other eyalets were Aleppo Eyalet, and Şam Eyalet. Until 1612, Tripoli was considered as the port of Aleppo. It also depended on Syrian interior trade and tax collection from mountainous hinterland. Tripoli witnessed a strong presence of French merchants during the 17th and 18th centuries and became under intense inter-European competition for trade. Tripoli was reduced to a sanjak centre in the Vilayet of Beirut in 19th century and retained her status until 1918 when it was captured by British forces.

Public works in Ottoman Tripoli included the restoration of the Citadel of Tripoli by Suleiman I, the Magnificent. Later governors brought further modifications to the original Crusader structure used as garrison center and prison. Khan al-Saboun (originally a military barrack) was constructed in the center of the city to control any uprising. Ottoman Tripoli also witnessed the development of the southern entrance of the city and many buildings, such as the al-Muallaq or "hanging" Mosque (1559), al-Tahhan Mosque (early 17th century), and al-Tawbah mosque (Mamluk construction, destroyed by 1612 flood and restored during early Ottoman Period). It also included several secular buildings, such as Khan al-Saboun (early 17th century) and Hammam al-Jadid (1740).

Independent Lebanon

Rusted cars at the Tripoli railway station 2017-01-14 Tripoli train 1.jpg
Rusted cars at the Tripoli railway station

Since the end of Ottoman rule in 1918, Tripoli has been mired in a period of extended economic and political decline. Beirut's rise as Lebanon's dominant port deprived Tripoli of its former preeminence as a trade hub, and globalization eroded the city's ability to compete in manufacturing. [20] Lebanon's civil war, from 1975 to 1990, hit Tripoli hard. On 15 September 1985 intense fighting broke out between Tawheed al-Islami, a Sunni militia which controlled the harbour and was backed by the PLO, and the Alawite Arab Democratic Party’s militia. The ADP were backed by the communist Red Knights as well as Syrian special forces. After a week of fighting which saw around 150 killed, 4-500 wounded and 200,000 people leaving their homes, the Syrians brokered a truce which involved the Syrian army occupying five key positions and the removal of heavy weapons. [21] The truce broke down on 27 September and Tahweed al-Islami positions where bombarded from SSNP and Syrian artillery positions in the surrounding hills. On 1 October, following an Iranian diplomatic intervention, Tahweed agreed to surrender their heavy weapons and Syrian troops, on 6 October, were deployed throughout the city. A further 350 people had been killed and hundreds more wounded. [22]

The Syrian army remained in the city for almost three decades until 2005:

As a majority Sunni city with a growing strain of indigenous Islamist militancy, Tripoli suffered some of the Syrians’ cruelest predations at a time when then-President Hafez al-Assad was engaged in the brutal suppression of Syria’s own Muslim Brotherhood. [20]

Wartime violence and instability triggered waves of emigration and capital flight. It also left Tripoli increasingly isolated, not least due to the dismantling of Lebanon's rail network and the abandonment of the Tripoli railway station. The city, moreover, saw little of the post-war reconstruction funding that Prime Minister Rafic Hariri ushered into Lebanon, with an overwhelming focus on the capital. [20]

In the years since, living conditions in Tripoli have continued to decline. In 2016, the United Nation's Human Settlements Program estimated that 58% of Tripoli's Lebanese residents lived in poverty. [23] That already high figure preceded Lebanon's 2019 financial crisis, which has ratcheted up poverty and food insecurity. [24]

Tripoli's stagnation is attributable, in part, to the city's dysfunctional politics, in which a fragmented array of Sunni political figures (such as Saad Hariri, Najib Mikati, Faisal Karami, and Ashraf Rifi) vie for influence through competing networks of patronage: "No single leader has been able to assert dominance, leaving city politics to devolve into chaos." [25]

Demographics

Tripoli has a majority of Sunni Muslims. Lebanon's small Alawite community is concentrated in the Jabal Mohsen neighborhood. Christians constitute today less than 5 percent of the population of the city. [2] [26]

Geography

Climate

Tripoli has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Csa) with mild wet winters and very dry, hot summers. Temperatures are moderated throughout the year due to the warm Mediterranean current coming from Western Europe. Therefore, temperatures are warmer in the winter by around 10 °C (18 °F) and cooler in the summer by around 7 °C (13 °F) compared to the interior of Lebanon. Although snow is an extremely rare event that only occurs around once every ten years, hail is common and occurs fairly regularly in the winter. Rainfall is concentrated in the winter months, with the summer typically being very dry.

Climate data for Tripoli, Lebanon
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)16.6
(61.9)
17.2
(63.0)
19.0
(66.2)
21.6
(70.9)
24.9
(76.8)
27.5
(81.5)
29.4
(84.9)
30.3
(86.5)
29.5
(85.1)
27.2
(81.0)
23.7
(74.7)
18.9
(66.0)
23.8
(74.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)12.9
(55.2)
13.4
(56.1)
15.0
(59.0)
17.5
(63.5)
20.7
(69.3)
23.6
(74.5)
25.7
(78.3)
26.6
(79.9)
25.4
(77.7)
22.9
(73.2)
19.3
(66.7)
14.8
(58.6)
19.8
(67.7)
Average low °C (°F)9.3
(48.7)
9.7
(49.5)
11.0
(51.8)
13.4
(56.1)
16.6
(61.9)
19.8
(67.6)
22.0
(71.6)
22.9
(73.2)
21.4
(70.5)
18.7
(65.7)
14.9
(58.8)
10.8
(51.4)
15.9
(60.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)183
(7.2)
131
(5.2)
110
(4.3)
49
(1.9)
17
(0.7)
2
(0.1)
1
(0.0)
1
(0.0)
9
(0.4)
57
(2.2)
112
(4.4)
176
(6.9)
848
(33.3)
Source: Climate-Data.org [27]

Offshore islands

Palm Islands Nature Reserve Palms Islands.jpg
Palm Islands Nature Reserve

Tripoli has many offshore islands. The Palm Islands Nature Reserve, or the Rabbits' Island, is the largest of the islands with an area of 20 ha (49 acres). The name "Araneb" or Rabbits comes from the great numbers of rabbits that were grown on the island during the time of the French mandate early in the 20th century. It is now a nature reserve for green turtles, rare birds and rabbits. Declared as a protected area by UNESCO in 1992, camping, fire building or other depredation is forbidden. In addition to its scenic landscape, the Palm Island is also a cultural heritage site. Evidence for human occupation, dated back to the Crusader period, was uncovered during 1973 excavations by the General Directorate of Antiquities. The Bakar Islands, also known as Abdulwahab Island, were leased to Adel and Khiereddine Abdulwahab as a shipyard, since the Ottoman rule and till this day a well known ship and marine contractor. It was also known as St Thomas Island during the Crusades. It is the closest to the shore and can be accessed via a bridge that was built in 1998. Bellan Island's name comes from a plant found on the island and used to make brooms. Some people claim that the name comes from the word "blue whale" (Baleine in French) that appeared next to the island in early 20th century. Fanar Island is 1,600 m (5,200 ft) long and is the home of a light-house built during the 1960s.

The opposite of Palms Island, which is a large flat sandy beach, is Ramkin Island. This island is largely made up of cliffs and rocks. Anyone who enjoys adventure, cliff leaping, free diving, spear fishing, and snorkeling will enjoy this location.

Architecture

Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles

the citadel takes its name from Raymond de Saint-Gilles, who dominated the city in 1102 and commanded a fortress to be built in which he named Mont Pelerin (Mt Pilgrim). The original castle was burnt down in 1289, and rebuilt again on numerous occasions and was rebuilt in 1307–08 by Emir Essendemir Kurgi.

Later the citadel was rebuilt in part by the Ottoman Empire which can be seen today, with its massive Ottoman gateway, over which is an engraving from Süleyman the Magnificent who had ordered the restoration. In the early 19th century, the Citadel was extensively restored by the Ottoman Governor of Tripoli Mustafa Agha Barbar.

The Clock Tower

The Al-Tell Clock Tower TelClock.jpg
The Al-Tell Clock Tower

The Clock tower is one of the most iconic monuments in Tripoli. The tower is located in Al-Tell square, and was gifted to the city by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II. [20] It was erected in 1906 to celebrate the 30th year of Abdulhamid II of the Ottoman Empire, like the Jaffa Clock Tower and many others throughout the Empire.

The Clock tower underwent a complete renovation in 1992 with personal funding from the honorary Turkish consul of Northern Lebanon, Sobhi Akkari, and the second at February 2016 as a gift from the Turkish prime minister in cooperation with the Committee of Antiquities and Heritage in the municipality of Tripoli, and now the clock tower is again operational. "Al Manshieh" which is one of the oldest parks in Tripoli, is located next to the clock tower.

Hammams

Hammam an-Nuri Tripoli Lebanon AnNuriHammamTripoliLebanon.jpg
Hammam an-Nuri Tripoli Lebanon

When Tripoli was visited by Ibn Batutah in 1355, he described the newly founded Mamluk city. "Traversed by water-channels and full of’ gardens", he writes, "the houses are newly built. The sea lies two leagues distant, and the ruins of the old town are seen on the sea-shore. It was taken by the Franks, but al-Malik ath-Tháhir (Qala’un) retook it from them, and then laid the place in ruins and built the present town. There are fine baths here.’’

Indeed, the hammams built in Tripoli by the early Mamluk governors were splendid edifices and many of them are still present until today. Some of the more known are:

Oscar Niemeyer's Rachid Karame Fairground

The helicopter landing apron (left) and the gateway arch to the open-air theatre at the Rashid Karami International Fair TripoliLebanonFair OscarNiemeyer OpenAirTheatre HeliPort-RomanDeckert14102018.jpg
The helicopter landing apron (left) and the gateway arch to the open-air theatre at the Rashid Karami International Fair

The International Fair of Tripoli site, [29] formally known as the Rachid Karami International Exhibition Center, is a complex of buildings designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer who was commissioned for the project in 1963. The site was built for a World's Fair event to be held in the city, but construction was halted in 1975 due to the outbreak of the Lebanese civil war, and never resumed. The site contains 15 semi-completed Niemeyer buildings within an approximate 1 km2 (250 acres or 10,000 hectares) area near Tripoli's southern entrance. [30]

"More recent years have seen the fairground undermined by a mixture of periodic instability and nonsensical administrative procedures that make it virtually impossible to put the facility to use. If the city needed any more physical metaphors for decay, the fairground is flanked by a Quality Inn that is literally falling apart, and whose ownership is years overdue on payment to the site’s administrators." [20]

Tripoli Railway Station

Churches

Many churches in Tripoli are a reminder of the history of the city. These churches also show the diversity of Christians in Lebanon and particularly in Tripoli:

  • Beshara Catholic Church
  • Armenian Evangelical Baptist Church
  • Latin Church (Roman Catholic)
  • Moutran Church
  • Armenian Orthodox Church
  • Greek Catholic Church
  • St Efram Syriac Orthodox Church
  • St. Elie Orthodox Church
  • St. John of the Pilgrims Mount church
  • St. Jorjios (George) Catholic Church

Mosques

Taynal Mosque TaynalMosque.jpg
Taynal Mosque

Tripoli is a very rich city containing many mosques that are spread all over the city. In every district of the city there is a mosque. During the Mamluk era, a lot of mosques were built and many still remain until today.

Some of the more known mosques:

  • Aattar
  • Abou Bakr Al Siddeeq
  • Arghoun Shah
  • Bertasi
  • Kabir al Aali
  • Mahmoud Beik the Sanjak
  • Mansouri Great Mosque
  • Omar Ibn El-Khattab Mosque
  • Sidi Abdel Wahed
  • Tawbah Mosque
  • Tawjih Mosque
  • Taynal Mosque
  • Al Bachir Mosque
  • Hamza Mosque
  • Al Rahma Mosque
  • Al Salam Mosque

The Al-Ghuraba cemetery is located within the city.

Education

Tripoli has a large number of schools of all levels, public and private. It is also served by several universities within the city limits as well as in its metro area.

The universities in Tripoli and its metro area are:

Economy

International Fair of Tripoli

Commerce

Tripoli, while once economically comparable to Beirut, has declined in recent decades. [2] Organizations such as the Business Incubation Association in Tripoli (BIAT) are currently trying to revive traditional export businesses such as furniture production, artisanal copper goods, soaps, as well as expand new industries such as ICT offshoring and new technological invention. [31]

The Tripoli Special Economic Zone (TSEZ) was established in 2008 to provide exemptions from many taxes and duties for investment projects that have more than $300,000 of capital and more than half their workers from Lebanon. [32] It is a 55-hectare site adjacent to the Port of Tripoli. [33]

Recently, a Tripoli development plan called "Tripoli Vision 2020" has been formulated and supported by a number of advisory councils including influential key government officials and prominent businessmen in the city. The goal of the project is to provides a comprehensive framework consisting of promoting investment, investing, training, re-skilling, talent placement and output promotion to reinvigorate the city's economy. The Tripoli Vision 2020 was sponsored by the Prime Minister Saad Hariri Office and the Tripoli MPs Joint Office with the comprehensive study conducted by Samir Chreim of SCAS Inc. [34]

Inequality

Tripoli embodies Lebanon's extreme wealth inequality: Although it is one of the country's most concentrated centers of poverty, it is also the hometown of several extravagantly wealthy politicians, notably including Najib Mikati, Taha Mikati and Mohammad Safadi who are accused of accumulating their wealth by embezzling government funds. [35]

The Soap Khan

The Soap Khan of Tripoli Lebanon SoapkhanTripoliLebanon.jpg
The Soap Khan of Tripoli Lebanon

The khan, built around a square courtyard decorated with a fountain, houses soap making workshops and shops.

At the end of the 15th century, the governor of Tripoli Yusuf Sayfa Pasha established Khan Al Saboun (the hotel of soap traders). This market was finished at the beginning of the 16th century, the last days of the Mamluk rule. The manufacture of soap was very popular in Tripoli. There, the market became a trade center where soap was produced and sold. Afterwards, traders of Tripoli began to export their soap to Europe.

Initially, perfumed soaps were offered as gifts in Europe and as a result, handiwork developed in Tripoli. Due to the ongoing increase of the demand, craftsmen started to consider soap making as a real profession and real art which led to an increased demand for Tripoli soap in various Arab and Asian countries. Currently, many varieties of soap are manufactured and sold in Tripoli such as anti-acne soaps, moisturizing soaps, slimming soaps, etc. which has increased an exportation of these soap products.

The raw material used for these kinds of soap is olive oil. The Tripoli soap is also composed of: honey, essential oils, and natural aromatic raw materials like flowers, petals, and herbs. The soaps are dried in the sun, in a dry atmosphere, allowing the evaporation of the water that served to mix the different ingredients. The drying operation lasts for almost three months. As the water evaporates, a thin white layer appears on the soap surface, from the soda that comes from the sea salts. The craftsman brushes the soap very carefully with his hand until the powder trace is eliminated.

The Tailors' Khan Tripoli souks -1.png
The Tailors’ Khan

Khan el-Khayyatin–the Tailors' Khan

Unlike other khans built around a square courtyard, el-Khayyatin, built in the 14th century, is a 60 meter long passage with arches on each side. [36]

Arabic sweets

Tripoli is regionally known for its Arabic sweets where people consider it as one of the main attractions and reasons to visit the city. Some sweetshops have even built a regionally and even internationally recognized brand name like Abdul Rahman & Rafaat Al Hallab, who both became so popular, opening shops outside Tripoli and shipping sweets boxes worldwide.

Environmental issues

See Oil pollution from ships in Tripoli.

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

The I-ME-WE (India-Middle East-Western Europe) submarine communication cable links Tripoli with other countries. Fiberjpg.jpg
The I-ME-WE (India-Middle East-Western Europe) submarine communication cable links Tripoli with other countries.

Tripoli is twinned with:

See also

Notes

  1. This pronunciation of Tripoli's Arabic name is written down as طَرَابُلُس in vowelized form. [1]

Related Research Articles

Sidon Capital city of South Governorate, Lebanon

Sidon, known locally as Sayda or Saida, is the third-largest city in Lebanon. It is located in the South Governorate, of which it is the capital, on the Mediterranean coast. Tyre to the south and Lebanese capital Beirut to the north are both about 40 kilometres away. Sidon has a population of about 80,000 within city limits, while its metropolitan area has more than a quarter-million inhabitants.

Achziv Ancient site on the Mediterranean coast of northern Israel

Achziv is an ancient site on the Mediterranean coast of northern Israel, between the border with Lebanon and the city of Acre. It is located 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) north of Acre on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, within the municipal area of Nahariya. Today it is an Israeli national park.

Homs City in Syria

Homs, known in pre-Islamic Syria as Emesa, is a city in western Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. It is 501 metres (1,644 ft) above sea level and is located 162 kilometres (101 mi) north of Damascus. Located on the Orontes River, Homs is also the central link between the interior cities and the Mediterranean coast.

Safita Place in Tartus, Syria

Safita is a city in the Tartous Governorate, northwestern Syria, located to the southeast of Tartous and to the northwest of Krak des Chevaliers. It is situated on the tops of three hills and the valleys between them, in the Syrian Coastal Mountain Range. According to the Syria Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Safita had a population of 20,301 in the 2004 census.

Islamic Cairo Part of central Cairo around the old walled city

Islamic Cairo, also called Historic Cairo or Medieval Cairo, refers generically to the historic areas of Cairo, Egypt, that existed before the city's modern expansion during the 19th and 20th centuries; particularly the central parts around the old walled city and around the Citadel of Cairo. The name "Islamic" Cairo refers not to a greater prominence of Muslims in the area but rather to the city's rich history and heritage since its foundation in the early period of Islam, while distinguishing it from with the nearby Ancient Egyptian sites of Giza and Memphis. This area holds one of the largest and densest concentrations of historic architecture in the Islamic world. It is characterized by hundreds of mosques, tombs, madrasas, mansions, caravanserais, and fortifications dating from throughout the Islamic era of Egypt. In 1979, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) proclaimed Historic Cairo a World Cultural Heritage site, as "one of the world's oldest Islamic cities, with its famous mosques, madrasas, hammams and fountains" and "the new centre of the Islamic world, reaching its golden age in the 14th century."

Enfeh City in North Governorate

Enfeh, or Enfe, Anfeh, Anfe, is a town in the Koura district of the North Governorate of Lebanon at Latitude 34°21'0"N and Longitude 35°44'0"E. Enfeh borders the towns of Chekka, Al-Qalamoun, Barghoun and Zakroun. It is located 65 kilometres (40 mi) north of Beirut and 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) south of Tripoli. Its total area is 4.93 square kilometres (1.90 sq mi), and its population is around 6,500.

Citadel of Aleppo Castle in Syria

The Citadel of Aleppo is a large medieval fortified palace in the centre of the old city of Aleppo, northern Syria. It is considered to be one of the oldest and largest castles in the world. Usage of the Citadel hill dates back at least to the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. Occupied by many civilizations over time – including the Armenians, Greeks, Byzantines, Ayyubids, Mamluks and Ottomans – the majority of the construction as it stands today is thought to originate from the Ayyubid period. An extensive conservation work took place in the 2000s by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, in collaboration with Aleppo Archeological Society. Dominating the city, the Citadel is part of the Ancient City of Aleppo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1986. During the 2010s, the Citadel received significant damage during the lengthy Battle of Aleppo. It was reopened to the public in early 2017 with repairs to damaged parts underway.

Smar Jbeil City in North Governorate

Smar Jbeil is a village located in the Batroun District in the North Governorate of Lebanon. It is located on a hill facing the Mediterranean Sea at 500 m elevation. It is one of the oldest villages in Lebanon.

Sidon Sea Castle

Sidon's Sea Castle was built by the crusaders in the thirteenth century as a fortress of the holy land. It is one of the most prominent historical sites in the port city of Sidon, Lebanon.

Tourism in Lebanon

The tourism industry in Lebanon has been important to the local economy historically and to this day comprises a major source of revenue for the country. Before the Lebanese Civil War, Beirut was widely regarded as "The Paris of the Middle East" or also "The Pearl of the Middle East" often cited as a financial and business hub where visitors could experience Levantine Mediterranean culture, cuisine, history, archaeology, and architecture of Lebanon.

Ottoman Syria The region of Syria under Ottoman rule (1516–1918)

Ottoman Syria refers to divisions of the Ottoman Empire within the region of Syria, usually defined as being east of the Mediterranean Sea, west of the Euphrates River, north of the Arabian Desert and south of the Taurus Mountains.

Al-Qadmus is a town in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Tartus Governorate, located northeast of Tartus and 14 kilometres southeast of Baniyas. Nearby localities include Kaff al-Jaa and Masyaf to the east, Wadi al-'Uyun and al-Shaykh Badr to the south, Hammam Wasel, al-Qamsiyah and Maten al-Sahel to the southwest, Taanita to the west, al-Annazeh to the northwest and Deir Mama to the northeast. It is situated just east of the Mediterranean coast and its ruined castle stands on a plateau roughly 850 metres above sea level and just above the town.

Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles

Qala'at Sanjil and Qala'at Tarablus in Arabic, is a citadel and fort on a hilltop in Tripoli, Lebanon. Once known as The Citadel of Raymond de Saint-Gilles and also as Mons Peregrinus, it takes its name from Raymond of Saint-Gilles, a Crusader commander who was a key player in its enlargement. It is a common misconception that he was responsible for its construction when in 1103 he laid siege to the city. In fact in the early 19th century, the citadel was extensively restored and rebuilt by the Ottoman governor of Tripoli Mustafa Agha Barbar and in consequence very little of the original Crusader structure has survived until this day.

Architecture of Lebanon Architecture of Lebanon

The architecture of Lebanon embodies the historical, cultural and religious influences that have shaped Lebanon's built environment. It has been influenced by the Phoenicians, Romans, Byzantines, Umayyads, Crusaders, Mamluks, Ottomans and French. Additionally, Lebanon is home to many examples of modern and contemporary architecture. Architecturally notable structures in Lebanon include ancient thermae and temples, castles, churches, mosques, hotels, museums, government buildings, souks, residences and towers.

Ancient City of Aleppo Historic city centre of Aleppo, Syria

The Ancient City of Aleppo is the historic city centre of Aleppo, Syria. Before the Syrian Civil War, many districts of the ancient city remained essentially unchanged since its construction during the 12th to the 16th century. Being subjected to constant invasions and political instability, the inhabitants of the city were forced to build cell-like quarters and districts that were socially and economically independent. Each district was characterized by the religious and ethnic characteristics of its inhabitants.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Damascus, Syria.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Aleppo, Syria.

Khawabi Village in Tartus, Syria

Khawabi, also spelled Qala'at al-Khawabi is a village and medieval citadel in northwestern Syria, administratively part of the Tartus Governorate, located 20 kilometers northeast of Tartus and 12 kilometers east of al-Sawda. Khawabi is situated in a hilly area, surrounded by olive groves, in the Coastal Mountain Range. Nearby localities include al-Sawda and to the west, Al-Annazah to the northwest, al-Qamsiyah to the north, Brummanet Raad to the northeast, al-Shaykh Badr to the east, Khirbet al-Faras to the south and Bimalkah to the southwest.

Mamluk architecture Building style of 13th-16th century Egypt

Mamluk architecture was an Islamic architectural style under the Mamluk Sultanate (1250–1517), which ruled over Egypt, the Levant, and the Hijaz from their capital, Cairo. Despite their often tumultuous internal politics, the Mamluk sultans were prolific patrons of architecture and contributed enormously to the fabric of historic Cairo. The Mamluk period, particularly in the 14th century, oversaw the peak of Cairo's power and prosperity. Their architecture also appears in cities such as Damascus, Jerusalem, Aleppo, Tripoli, and Medina.

The Kisrawan campaigns were a series of Mamluk military expeditions against the mountaineers of the Kisrawan, as well as the neighboring areas of Byblos and the Jurd, in Mount Lebanon. The offensives were launched in 1292, 1300 and 1305. The mountaineers were Shia Muslim, Alawite, Maronite and Druze tribesmen who historically acted autonomously of any central authority. The Maronites in particular had maintained close cooperation with the Crusader state in Tripoli. After the fall of Tripoli to the Mamluks in 1289, the mountaineers would often block the coastal road between Tripoli and Beirut, prompting the first Mamluk expedition in 1292 under the viceroy of Egypt Badr al-Din Baydara. During that campaign, the Mamluks, spread along the coastal road and cut off from each other at various points, were constantly harried by the mountaineers, who confiscated their weapons, horses and money. Baydara withdrew his men only after paying off the mountain chiefs.

References

  1. "طَرَابُلُس: Lebanon". Geographical Names. Retrieved 2010-12-13.
  2. 1 2 3 http://www.mafhoum.com/press10/312P1.htm [ bare URL ]
  3. Les peuples et les civilisations du Proche Orient by Jawād Būlus. p. 308.[ full citation needed ]
  4. Wanderings −2: History of the Jews by Chaim Potok. p. 169.[ full citation needed ]
  5. History of Syria, Including Lebanon and Palestine by Philip Khuri Hitti. p. 225.[ full citation needed ]
  6. Lebanon in Pictures by Peter Roop, Sam Schultz, Margaret J. Goldstein. p. 17.[ full citation needed ]
  7. Ghazi Omar Tadmouri (30 October 2009). "Names of Tripoli through the history". Tripoli City. Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  8. 1 2 3 Saliba, R., Jeblawi, S., and Ajami, G., Tripoli the Old City: Monument Survey – Mosques and Madrasas; A Sourcebook of Maps and Architectural Drawings, Beirut: American University of Beirut Publications, 1995. [ page needed ]
  9. William Harris (19 Jul 2012). Lebanon: A History, 600–2011 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN   9780195181111.
  10. Tadmouri, O. AS., Lubnan min al-fath al-islami hatta sukut al-dawla al-'umawiyya (13–132 H/ 634–750 CE): Silsilat Dirasat fi Tarih AlSahel AlShami, Tripoli, 1990. Arabic.
  11. 1 2 al-Qubadiani, Nasir ibn Khusraw. Safarnama (سفرنامه). p. 48.
  12. "Jami' al-Mansuri al-Kabir". Archnet. Retrieved 2021-06-14.
  13. 1 2 3 Luz, Nimrod (2002). "Tripoli Reinvented: A Case of Mamluk Urbanization". In Lev, Yaacov (ed.). Towns and material culture in the medieval Middle East. Brill. pp. 53–71. ISBN   9004125434.
  14. 1 2 Bloom & Blair 2009 , Tripoli (i)
  15. 1 2 Tadmouri, O. AS., Tarikh Tarablus al-siyasi wa'-hadari Aabr al-'usour, Tripoli, 1984. (in Arabic)[ full citation needed ]
  16. "Jami' al-Mansuri al-Kabir". Archnet. Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  17. 1 2 Mahamid, Hatim (2009). "Mosques as higher educational institutions in Mamluk Syria". Journal of Islamic Studies. 20 (2): 188–212. doi:10.1093/jis/etp002.
  18. Mohamad, Danah (2020). Review of the Development and Change of Tripoli Bazaar in Lebanon (PDF). Bursa Uludağ University (Master's thesis). p. 81.
  19. "Qantara - Madrasa al-Qartâwîyya". www.qantara-med.org. Retrieved 2021-06-13.
  20. 1 2 3 4 5 Simon, Alex (30 January 2017). "The city that didn't know where to start - Tripoli's revolving stalemate". synaps.network. Retrieved 2021-11-16.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. Middle East International No 259, 27 September 1985, Publishers Lord Mayhew, Dennis Walters MP; Jim Muir pp.7,8
  22. Middle East International No 260, 11 October 1985, Publishers Lord Mayhew, Dennis Walters MP; Jim Muir pp.10,11
  23. "Tripoli City Profile | UN-Habitat". unhabitat.org. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  24. Gebeily, Maya. "Portrait of poverty in Lebanon as UN visits poorest place on Med". Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 2021-11-22.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  25. Parreira, Christiana (23 October 2019). "The art of not governing". Synaps.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. Riad Yazbeck. "Return of the Pink Panthers?" Archived 2012-02-19 at the Wayback Machine . Mideast Monitor. Vol. 3, No. 2, August 2008
  27. "Climate: Tripoli". November 2011.
  28. "Hammam Al-Nouri". Tripoli-Lebanon.com.
  29. International Fair of Tripoli
  30. McManus, Manus (3 November 2016). "International Fair of Tripoli by Oscar Niemeyer". e-architect. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  31. "Projects :: BIAT". biatcenter.org.
  32. "About us". Tripoli Special Economic Zone. Retrieved 2018-07-16.
  33. "Lebanon's former finance minister hails special economic zone achievements". Xinhua Net. 2018-07-05.
  34. "Robert Fadel – روبير فاضل". www.robertfadel.com. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2015-10-16.
  35. Cornish, Chloe (2020-10-05). "Billionaires and bankrupts: Lebanon's second city highlights inequality". Financial Times. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
  36. "Tripoli-Lebanon.com Tourism-Khans Page". www.tripoli-lebanon.com.

Further reading

Published in the 19th–20th century
Published in the 21st century