|Typhoon (JMA scale)|
|Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)|
|Formed||September 28, 2018|
|Dissipated||October 7, 2018|
|( Extratropical after October 6, 2018)|
|Highest winds|| 10-minute sustained:215 km/h (130 mph)|
1-minute sustained:260 km/h (160 mph)
|Lowest pressure||900 hPa (mbar); 26.58 inHg|
|Fatalities||3 direct, 1 missing|
|Damage||$48.5 million (2018 USD)|
|Areas affected||Federated States of Micronesia, Japan, South Korea, East China, Taiwan|
|Part of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season|
Typhoon Kong-rey, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Queenie, was a large and powerful typhoon that was tied with Typhoon Yutu as the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The twenty-fifth tropical storm and eleventh typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. Kong-rey originated from a tropical disturbance in the open Pacific. For a couple days, it went westward, organizing into a tropical depression on September 27. Then it intensified into a powerful Category 5 super typhoon early on October 2. Kong-rey underwent an eyewall replacement cycle after its peak intensity, causing it to weaken into a Category 3 typhoon under unfavorable conditions. Kong-rey then struck South Korea on October 6 as a tropical storm. Kong-rey transitioned into a extratropical cyclone later that day while impacting Japan.
The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.
Typhoon Yutu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosita, was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone that caused catastrophic destruction on the islands of Tinian and Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, and later impacted the Philippines. It is the strongest typhoon ever recorded to impact the Mariana Islands, as well as the second-strongest tropical cyclone to strike the United States and its unincorporated territories by both wind speed and barometric pressure; the storm is tied with Hurricane Camille of 1969 for the latter record. Yutu was also the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The twenty-sixth named storm, twelfth typhoon, and the seventh super typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Yutu originated from a low-pressure area that formed in the western Pacific Ocean on October 15. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression on the same day, as ocean sea-surface heat content increased. Shortly becoming a tropical depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) assigned the system the identifier 31W. The system continued to strengthen, becoming a tropical storm several hours later, with the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) naming the system Yutu. Increasingly favorable conditions allowed Yutu to explosively intensify, as the system maintained deep convection and subsequently became a severe tropical storm and then a typhoon.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
A total of 3 people were killed by the storm, including 2 people from South Korea. In South Korea, damage nationwide totaled at ₩54.9 billion (US$48.5 million). Although Kong-rey did not make a direct landfall on Kyushu or Shikoku, its outer rainbands affected the two islands. At an area in Shikoku, rain accumulated to 300 mm. In Nagasaki, more than 12,000 families lost power; in Fukuoka Prefecture, a person died because of the rain, mostly due to drowning. Agricultural damage in Okinawa and Miyazaki Prefecture were about JP¥13.99 billion (US$123 million).
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world.
The won or the Korean Won is the currency of South Korea. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates. The won is issued by the Bank of Korea, based in the capital city of Seoul.
Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku(九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei(鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima(筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.
In late September 2018, a tropical disturbance formed in the waters near Pohnpei Island in the Federated States of Micronesia. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also gave the storm, Invest 94W, a low chance of development.Over the next couple of days, the system moved westward and organized into a tropical depression on September 27, and the JMA initiated advisories on the storm, while the JTWC issued a TCFA. On September 28, the JTWC designated the system as 30W, while the JMA issued a gale warning for the system. As Tropical Depression 30W continued strengthening, the system became a tropical storm and was named Kong-rey by the JMA. On September 29, the system moved further west, found itself in favorable conditions for strengthening, and became a tropical storm. Later that day, Kong-rey strengthened into a severe tropical storm, and on September 30, the storm attained typhoon status at 03:00 UTC. Kong-rey continued strengthening, and at 18:00 UTC on October 1, Kong-rey became a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon. Early on October 2, Kong-rey strengthened into a Category 5 super typhoon. Unrelated to Kong-rey, Hurricane Walaka was a Category 5 hurricane at the same time Kong-rey intensified to Category 5 super typhoon intensity, marking the first time since 2005 when two tropical cyclones of Category 5 strength existed simultaneously in the Northern Hemisphere. Affected by vertical wind shear, low ocean heat content and decreasing sea surface temperatures, the storm gradually weakened to a Category 3 typhoon on October 3 while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle. Increased vertical wind shear and lower sea surface temperatures hampered Kong-rey's strength, and Kong-rey was downgraded to a tropical storm on October 4. Early on October 6, Kong-rey made landfall in Tongyeong, South Gyeongsang Province in South Korea as a high-end tropical storm, and later on the same day, Kong-rey transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, while impacting southern Hokkaido, such as areas near Hakodate.
Pohnpei "upon (pohn) a stone altar (pei)" is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei State, one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Major population centers on Pohnpei include Palikir, the FSM's capital, and Kolonia, the capital of Pohnpei State. Pohnpei Island is the largest (334 km²), with a highest point, most populous, and most developed single island in the FSM.
The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent republic associated with the United States. It consists of four states – from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,678 mi) just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of Hawaii.
The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.
Kong-rey was closest to Taiwan on the evening of October 4. Many parts of northern Taiwan are affected by their rain belts and strong gusts. The Meteorological Bureau issued special reports on heavy rains in five counties and cities, and also issued special reports on strong winds in 18 counties and cities. Many coastal areas and adjacent sea areas were strongly strengthened by grades 9-11. The gusts hit.
During the storm’s time, it went towards Japan and it was alerted by the JMA. The highest wind alarm released locally: Storm Alert. Kong-rey was a extratropical cyclone when it struck the Okinawa and Miyazaki Prefecture. Kong-rey cause agricultural damage which were about JP¥13.99 billion (US$123 million).
The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.
Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.
Miyazaki Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Miyazaki.
When Ryukyu islands has been affected by Kong-rey, more than 200 flights to Japan were cancelled, and 6 flights from Hong Kong to Okinawa were cancelled.Kong-rey was the second typhoon that hit Okinawa in a week. The storm brought strong winds and heavy rain to the local area, causing eight injuries and a total of 20,000 households with power outages.
Although Kong-rey did not face the front of Kyushu and Shikoku, the rainband around it brought heavy rain to Kyushu and the four countries. The four countries recorded more than 300 millimeters of rainfall in one day; about 12,000 households in Nagasaki Prefecture had power outages,and one in Fukuoka Prefecture died.
As Kong-rey entered the Chinese mainland, the National Meteorological Center of China issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 18:00 on October 3. The Fujian Provincial Meteorological Observatory issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 11:45 on October 3.
On the evening of October 5, the coastal area of Zhejiang was affected by Kong-rey, and many tourists visited the shore in Shitang Town, Wenling City.As Kong-rey gradually approached Shanghai, the Shanghai Central Meteorological Observatory issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 17:00 on October 4, and the city flood control headquarters launched the city's flood prevention and prevention level IV emergency response.
Kong-rey made landfall in Tongyeong City, Gyeongsangnam-do at 9:50 am local time. The storm caused 2 deaths and 1 disappearancein the local area, and a total of 277 flights were canceled to and from the local area. There were severe flooding in Yingde County and Pohang City in Gyeongsangbuk-do, and more than 30 houses in Busan and Jeju Island were flooded. There were 55,000 power outages in Busan. The national economic loss was 54.9 billion won (a contract of 48.5 million US dollars).
The 2005 Pacific typhoon season was the least active typhoon season since 2000, featuring only 24 tropical storms, 13 typhoons and three super typhoons. The season ran throughout 2005, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Kulap, developed on January 15, while the season's last named storm, Bolaven, dissipated on November 20.
The 2007 Pacific typhoon season was a below average season which featured 24 named storms and 14 typhoons, compared to the average of 27 and 17 respectively. had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 2007, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1999 Pacific typhoon season was the last Pacific typhoon season to use English names as storm names. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1999, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
The 1966 Pacific typhoon season was an active season, with many tropical cyclones having severe impacts in China, Japan, and the Philippines. Overall, there were 49 tropical depressions declared officially or unofficially, of which 30 officially became named storms; of those, 20 reached typhoon status, while 3 further became super typhoons by having winds of at least 240 km/h (150 mph). Throughout the year, storms were responsible for at least 997 fatalities and $377.6 million in damage; however, a complete record of their effects is unavailable.
Typhoon Shanshan, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Luis, was a strong typhoon that affected parts of East Asia in late September 2006. The 13th named storm of the 2006 Pacific typhoon season, Typhoon Shanshan was also the seventh typhoon of the year operationally recognised by the Japan Meteorological Agency. In post-operational analysis Shanshan became the eighth typhoon of the year when Typhoon Maria was added to the list. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center considered Shanshan the 13th tropical storm and eighth typhoon of the season, a Category 4-equivalent typhoon in terms of 1-minute average wind speed. The name Shanshan was submitted to the naming list by Hong Kong and is a girls' given name.
Typhoon Kong-rey was a moderate typhoon that affected Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands in early April 2007. The first named storm of the 2007 Pacific typhoon season, Kong-rey became the earliest-occurring typhoon since Typhoon Sudal on April 6, 2004. At its peak, it was considered to be a Category 2-equivalent typhoon by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, though re-analysis increased it to a Category 3-equivalent. Typhoon Kong-rey caused about $10,000 in damages and no injuries along its path.
Typhoon Dianmu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Helen, was a powerful typhoon that struck southeastern Japan during the 2004 Pacific typhoon season. The name Dianmu is the name of the goddess of thunder and lightning in Chinese folklore.
The 2010 Pacific typhoon season was the least active Pacific typhoon season on record, featuring only 14 named storms; seven of them strengthened into typhoons while one reached super typhoon intensity. The Pacific typhoon season during 2010 was in fact less active than the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season, the only such occurrence other than 2005. In the same year, the Pacific hurricane season broke the same record being the least active season on record. During the season no storms have made landfall in mainland Japan, the only second such occurrence since 1988. Also, all of the 14 named storms developed west of 150°E. Moreover, the season had an index total Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) of 115, which is the second lowest in the basin after 1999. It was also the fourth consecutive year with a below average ACE index.
Typhoon Conson, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Frank, was the first of the record ten typhoons to impact Japan during the 2004 Pacific typhoon season. Developing out of a tropical depression near the northern Philippines in early June, Conson slowly traveled towards the north. Gradually strengthening, the storm reached typhoon status late on June 7 according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and several hours later according to the Japan Meteorological Agency. After turning towards the northeast, the typhoon brushed Taiwan and reached its peak intensity with winds of 150 km/h on June 9. After reaching its peak, Conson gradually weakened, passing through Okinawa before being downgraded to a tropical storm the next day. On June 11, the storm made landfall as a minimal tropical storm in the Kōchi Prefecture just before becoming extratropical. The extratropical remnants continued towards the northeast and were last mentioned on June 14 crossing the international date line.
The 2011 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season that produced a total of 21 named storms, 8 typhoons, and four super typhoons. This season was much more active than the previous season, although both seasons were below the Pacific typhoon average of 26. The season ran throughout 2011, though most tropical cyclone tend to develop between May and October. The season’s first named storm, Aere, developed on May 7 while the season’s last named storm, Washi dissipated on December 19.
The 2014 Pacific typhoon season was a slightly below average season, featuring 23 tropical storms, 11 typhoons, and 8 super typhoons. The season's peak months August and September saw minimal activity caused by an unusually strong and a persistent suppressing phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The season ran throughout 2014, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season began with the development of Tropical Storm Lingling on January 18, and ended after Tropical Storm Jangmi which dissipated on January 1 of the next year.
The 2018 Pacific typhoon season was an above-average season producing 29 storms, 13 typhoons and 7 super typhoons. It was an event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation, in which tropical cyclones form in the western Pacific Ocean. The season ran throughout 2018, though most tropical cyclones typically develop between May and October. The season's first named storm, Bolaven, developed on January 3, while the season's last named storm, Man-yi, dissipated on November 28. The season's first typhoon, Jelawat, reached typhoon status on March 29, and became the first super typhoon of the year on the next day.
Typhoon Bolaven, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Julian, was regarded as the most powerful storm to strike the Korean Peninsula in nearly a decade, with wind gusts measured up to 186 km/h (116 mph). Forming as a tropical depression on August 19, 2012 to the southwest of the Mariana Islands, Bolaven steadily intensified as it slowly moved west-northwestward in a region favoring tropical development. The system was soon upgraded to a tropical storm less than a day after formation and further to a typhoon by August 21. Strengthening became more gradual thereafter as Bolaven grew in size. On August 24, the system attained its peak intensity with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) and a barometric pressure of 910 mbar. Weakening only slightly, the storm passed directly over Okinawa on August 26 as it began accelerating toward the north. Steady weakening continued as Bolaven approached the Korean Peninsula and it eventually made landfall in North Korea late on August 28 before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone. The remnants rapidly tracked northeastward over the Russian Far East before turning eastward and were last noted on September 1 crossing the International Dateline.
Typhoon Sanba, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Karen, was the strongest tropical cyclone worldwide in 2012. The sixteenth named storm and tenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Sanba formed as a tropical depression east of The Philippines on September 10. The storm gradually intensified as it moved generally northward in an area favorable for tropical development. The system was soon upgraded to a tropical storm less than a day after formation and subsequently further to a typhoon on September 12. Later that day, Sanba entered a phase of explosive intensification, quickly strengthening and gaining annular characteristics. On September 13, the system attained its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and a barometric pressure of 900 mbar, becoming the strongest typhoon in the Western Pacific Ocean since Megi in 2010. Accelerating towards more northerly latitudes, a period of gradual weakening ensued afterwards as its eye expanded. It made landfall on South Korea late on September 17 as a typhoon before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone the following day. Sanba's remnants tracked into the Primorsky Krai region of eastern Russia before they were last noted on September 19.
Typhoon Jelawat, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Lawin, was the most intense tropical cyclone of the 2012 Pacific typhoon season in terms of ten-minute maximum sustained winds, tied with Typhoon Sanba. Following Bolaven and Sanba, Jelawat was the third typhoon directly hitting Okinawa Island in 2012. Jelawat, which means carp in Malaysian, is a type of freshwater fish.
This timeline documents all of the events of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. Most of the tropical cyclones formed between May and November. The scope of this article is limited to the Pacific Ocean, north of the equator between 100°E and the International Date Line. Tropical storms that form in the entire Western Pacific basin are assigned a name by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Tropical depressions that form in this basin are given a number with a "W" suffix by the United States' Joint Typhoon Warning Center. In addition, the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) assigns names to tropical cyclones that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility. These names, however, are not in common use outside of the Philippines.
Typhoon Francisco, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Urduja, was a powerful typhoon that strengthened to the equivalent of a Category 5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale, according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The 25th named storm and the 10th typhoon of the 2013 Pacific typhoon season, Francisco formed on October 16 east of Guam from a pre-existing area of convection. With favorable conditions, it quickly intensified into a tropical storm before passing south of Guam. After stalling to the southwest of the island, Francisco turned to the northwest into an environment of warm waters and low wind shear, becoming a typhoon. The JTWC upgraded it to super typhoon status on October 18, while the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) estimated peak 10‑minute sustained winds of 195 km/h (120 mph). Gradual weakening ensued, and after the typhoon turned to the northeast, Francisco deteriorated into a tropical storm on October 24. Passing southeast of Okinawa and mainland Japan, the storm accelerated and became extratropical on October 26, dissipating later that day.
Typhoon Neoguri, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Florita, was a large and powerful tropical cyclone which mainly struck Japan in 2014. The eighth named storm and the second typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Neoguri developed into a tropical storm on July 3 and then a typhoon on July 4. It rapidly deepened on July 5, reaching peak intensity late on July 6. Neoguri began to decay on July 7 and passed through Okinawa on July 8 and then making landfall over Kyushu as a severe tropical storm late on July 9. After Neoguri passed through the southern coast of Honshū on July 10, it became extratropical on July 11.
Typhoon Gene, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Oyang, struck Japan during late September 1990. An area of disturbed weather formed several hundred kilometers south-southeast of Okinawa on September 18. Gradual development occurred as it tracked generally westward, and on September 22, the disturbance developed into a tropical depression. The depression intensified into a tropical storm the next day. Continuing to steadily intensify, Gene turned northwest and became a severe tropical storm on September 25. In the evening, Gene was declared a typhoon, and on September 26, attained its maximum intensity. Gene leveled off in intensity while recurving towards Japan. After brushing Kyushu and Shikoku on September 29 and Honshu on September 20, Gene weakened back to a tropical storm. On September 30, Gene transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, which was last noted on October 1.
Typhoon Trami, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Paeng, was the second typhoon to affect Japan within a month. The twenty-fourth tropical storm and tenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season, Trami developed from a low-pressure area southeast of Guam on September 20. It intensified into a tropical storm on the next day, and intensified into a typhoon on September 22. Trami steadily intensified and reached its peak intensity late on September 24. On the following day, Trami slowed down and drifting slowly northward. It began to weaken due to upwelling. Trami accelerated and turned northeastward on September 29, before it struck Japan on the next day, and became extratropical on October 1. The extratropical remnants persisted for days until dissipated completely on October 8.
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