Typhoon Kong-rey (2018)

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Typhoon Kong-rey (Queenie)
Typhoon (JMA scale)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
Kong-rey 2018-10-02 0440Z.jpg
Typhoon Kong-rey at peak intensity over the Philippine Sea on October 2
FormedSeptember 28, 2018
DissipatedOctober 7, 2018
( Extratropical after October 6, 2018)
Highest winds 10-minute sustained:215 km/h (130 mph)
1-minute sustained:260 km/h (160 mph)
Lowest pressure900 hPa (mbar); 26.58 inHg
Fatalities3 direct, 1 missing
Damage$48.5 million (2018 USD)
Areas affected Federated States of Micronesia, Japan, South Korea, East China, Taiwan
Part of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Kong-rey, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Queenie, was a large and powerful typhoon that was tied with Typhoon Yutu as the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The twenty-fifth tropical storm and eleventh typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season. Kong-rey originated from a tropical disturbance in the open Pacific. For a couple days, it went westward, organizing into a tropical depression on September 27. Then it intensified into a powerful Category 5 super typhoon early on October 2. Kong-rey underwent an eyewall replacement cycle after its peak intensity, causing it to weaken into a Category 3 typhoon under unfavorable conditions. Kong-rey then struck South Korea on October 6 as a tropical storm. Kong-rey transitioned into a extratropical cyclone later that day while impacting Japan.

Philippines Republic in Southeast Asia

The Philippines, officially the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, and Malaysia and Indonesia to the south.

Typhoon Yutu Pacific typhoon in 2018

Typhoon Yutu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosita, was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone that caused catastrophic destruction on the islands of Tinian and Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, and later impacted the Philippines. It is the strongest typhoon ever recorded to impact the Mariana Islands, as well as the second-strongest tropical cyclone to strike the United States and its unincorporated territories by both wind speed and barometric pressure; the storm is tied with Hurricane Camille of 1969 for the latter record. Yutu was also the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The twenty-sixth named storm, twelfth typhoon, and the seventh super typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Yutu originated from a low-pressure area that formed in the western Pacific Ocean on October 15. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression on the same day, as ocean sea-surface heat content increased. Shortly becoming a tropical depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) assigned the system the identifier 31W. The system continued to strengthen, becoming a tropical storm several hours later, with the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) naming the system Yutu. Increasingly favorable conditions allowed Yutu to explosively intensify, as the system maintained deep convection and subsequently became a severe tropical storm and then a typhoon.

Tropical cyclone Is a rotating storm system

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

Contents

A total of 3 people were killed by the storm, including 2 people from South Korea. In South Korea, damage nationwide totaled at 54.9 billion (US$48.5 million). Although Kong-rey did not make a direct landfall on Kyushu or Shikoku, its outer rainbands affected the two islands. At an area in Shikoku, rain accumulated to 300 mm. In Nagasaki, more than 12,000 families lost power; in Fukuoka Prefecture, a person died because of the rain, mostly due to drowning. Agricultural damage in Okinawa and Miyazaki Prefecture were about JP¥13.99 billion (US$123 million).

South Korea Republic in East Asia

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo which was one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia under Gwanggaeto the Great. Its capital, Seoul, is a major global city and half of South Korea's 51 million people live in the Seoul Capital Area, the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world.

South Korean won Official currency of the Republic of Korea

The won or the Korean Won is the currency of South Korea. A single won is divided into 100 jeon, the monetary subunit. The jeon is no longer used for everyday transactions, and appears only in foreign exchange rates. The won is issued by the Bank of Korea, based in the capital city of Seoul.

Kyushu third largest island of Japan

Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan and most southwesterly of its four main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku(九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei(鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima(筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

Meteorological history

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir-Simpson scale Kong-rey 2018 track.png
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

In late September 2018, a tropical disturbance formed in the waters near Pohnpei Island in the Federated States of Micronesia. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center also gave the storm, Invest 94W, a low chance of development. [1] Over the next couple of days, the system moved westward and organized into a tropical depression on September 27, and the JMA initiated advisories on the storm, while the JTWC issued a TCFA. On September 28, the JTWC designated the system as 30W, [2] while the JMA issued a gale warning for the system. [3] As Tropical Depression 30W continued strengthening, the system became a tropical storm and was named Kong-rey by the JMA. On September 29, the system moved further west, found itself in favorable conditions for strengthening, and became a tropical storm. Later that day, Kong-rey strengthened into a severe tropical storm, and on September 30, the storm attained typhoon status at 03:00 UTC. Kong-rey continued strengthening, and at 18:00 UTC on October 1, Kong-rey became a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon. Early on October 2, Kong-rey strengthened into a Category 5 super typhoon. Unrelated to Kong-rey, Hurricane Walaka was a Category 5 hurricane at the same time Kong-rey intensified to Category 5 super typhoon intensity, marking the first time since 2005 when two tropical cyclones of Category 5 strength existed simultaneously in the Northern Hemisphere. [4] Affected by vertical wind shear, low ocean heat content and decreasing sea surface temperatures, the storm gradually weakened to a Category 3 typhoon on October 3 while undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle. [5] Increased vertical wind shear and lower sea surface temperatures hampered Kong-rey's strength, and Kong-rey was downgraded to a tropical storm on October 4. Early on October 6, Kong-rey made landfall in Tongyeong, South Gyeongsang Province in South Korea as a high-end tropical storm, and later on the same day, Kong-rey transitioned into an extratropical cyclone, while impacting southern Hokkaido, such as areas near Hakodate.

Pohnpei island in Micronesia

Pohnpei "upon (pohn) a stone altar (pei)" is an island of the Senyavin Islands which are part of the larger Caroline Islands group. It belongs to Pohnpei State, one of the four states in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM). Major population centers on Pohnpei include Palikir, the FSM's capital, and Kolonia, the capital of Pohnpei State. Pohnpei Island is the largest (334 km²), with a highest point, most populous, and most developed single island in the FSM.

Federated States of Micronesia Island republic in Oceania

The Federated States of Micronesia is an independent republic associated with the United States. It consists of four states – from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosrae – that are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean. Together, the states comprise around 607 islands that cover a longitudinal distance of almost 2,700 km (1,678 mi) just north of the equator. They lie northeast of New Guinea, south of Guam and the Marianas, west of Nauru and the Marshall Islands, east of Palau and the Philippines, about 2,900 km (1,802 mi) north of eastern Australia and some 4,000 km (2,485 mi) southwest of the main islands of Hawaii.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command located in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

Impact

Taiwan

Kong-rey was closest to Taiwan on the evening of October 4. Many parts of northern Taiwan are affected by their rain belts and strong gusts. The Meteorological Bureau issued special reports on heavy rains in five counties and cities, and also issued special reports on strong winds in 18 counties and cities. Many coastal areas and adjacent sea areas were strongly strengthened by grades 9-11. The gusts hit. [6]

Japan

During the storm’s time, it went towards Japan and it was alerted by the JMA. The highest wind alarm released locally: Storm Alert. Kong-rey was a extratropical cyclone when it struck the Okinawa and Miyazaki Prefecture. Kong-rey cause agricultural damage which were about JP¥13.99 billion (US$123 million). [7] [8]

Japan Meteorological Agency meteorological service of Japan

The Japan Meteorological Agency, JMA, is an agency of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. It is charged with gathering and providing results for the public in Japan, that are obtained from data based on daily scientific observation and research into natural phenomena in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, seismology and volcanology, among other related scientific fields. Its headquarters is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Extratropical cyclone type of cyclone

Extratropical cyclones, sometimes called mid-latitude cyclones or wave cyclones, are low-pressure areas which, along with the anticyclones of high-pressure areas, drive the weather over much of the Earth. Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. These types of cyclones are defined as large scale (synoptic) low pressure weather systems that occur in the middle latitudes of the Earth. In contrast with tropical cyclones, extratropical cyclones produce rapid changes in temperature and dew point along broad lines, called weather fronts, about the center of the cyclone.

Miyazaki Prefecture Prefecture of Japan

Miyazaki Prefecture is a prefecture of Japan on the island of Kyushu. The capital is the city of Miyazaki.

When Ryukyu islands has been affected by Kong-rey, more than 200 flights to Japan were cancelled, and 6 flights from Hong Kong to Okinawa were cancelled. [9] Kong-rey was the second typhoon that hit Okinawa in a week. The storm brought strong winds and heavy rain to the local area, causing eight injuries and a total of 20,000 households with power outages. [10]

Although Kong-rey did not face the front of Kyushu and Shikoku, the rainband around it brought heavy rain to Kyushu and the four countries. The four countries recorded more than 300 millimeters of rainfall in one day; about 12,000 households in Nagasaki Prefecture had power outages, [11] and one in Fukuoka Prefecture died. [12]

China Mainland

Tropical Storm Kong-rey in the East China Sea on October 5, 2018 Kong-rey 2018-10-05 0200Z.jpg
Tropical Storm Kong-rey in the East China Sea on October 5, 2018

As Kong-rey entered the Chinese mainland, the National Meteorological Center of China issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 18:00 on October 3. The Fujian Provincial Meteorological Observatory issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 11:45 on October 3.

On the evening of October 5, the coastal area of Zhejiang was affected by Kong-rey, and many tourists visited the shore in Shitang Town, Wenling City. [13] As Kong-rey gradually approached Shanghai, the Shanghai Central Meteorological Observatory issued a typhoon blue warning signal at 17:00 on October 4, and the city flood control headquarters launched the city's flood prevention and prevention level IV emergency response.

Korea

Kong-rey made landfall in Tongyeong City, Gyeongsangnam-do at 9:50 am local time. The storm caused 2 deaths and 1 disappearance [14] in the local area, and a total of 277 flights were canceled to and from the local area. There were severe flooding in Yingde County and Pohang City in Gyeongsangbuk-do, and more than 30 houses in Busan and Jeju Island were flooded. There were 55,000 power outages in Busan. The national economic loss was 54.9 billion won (a contract of 48.5 million US dollars). [15]

See also

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