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Valerianus Magnus or Valeriano Magni (1586 – July 20, 1661) was an Italian Capuchin, missionary preacher in Central Europe, polemicist and author.
He was born at Milan, presumably of the noble family of de Magni. He received the Capuchin habit at Prague. He was also provincial superior there, as in 1626 was appointed Apostolic missionary for Germany, Hungary and Poland. He was greatly respected by Holy Roman Emperors Ferdinand II and Ferdinand III, as well as by King Wladislaw IV of Poland, who employed him on diplomatic missions. In July 1647 he performed a vacuum experiment (so-called Torricelli's experiment ) before a distinguished audience at the Royal Castle in Warsaw.
Landgrave Ernst of Hesse, who had been converted at Vienna on 6 January 1652, and who knew Father Valerian, summoned Capuchins to St. Goar on the Rhine, and was present at the religious disputation between Valerian and Haberkorn of Giessen at Burg Rheinfels in 1651. The Jesuit Johann Rosenthal having attacked certain assertions of Valerian's at this debate, the latter was drawn into the sharp literary controversy between Capuchins and Jesuits, which extended even to Rome. On the appearance of his pamphlet Contra imposturas Jesuitarum in 1659, he was cited to appear at Rome. As he did not obey the summons he was arrested at Vienna in 1661 at the instance of the nuncio, but was liberated at the urgent request of Ferdinand III.
He was apparently on his way to Rome when in the same year death overtook him at Salzburg.
1595 (MDXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. As of the start of 1595, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar.
Valerian, also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 22 October 253 AD to spring 260 AD. He was taken captive by the Persian Emperor, Shapur I, after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the first Roman emperor to be captured as a prisoner of war, causing shock and instability throughout the Roman Empire.
Thomas Bartholin was a Danish physician, mathematician, and theologian. He is best known for his work in the discovery of the lymphatic system in humans and for his advancements of the theory of refrigeration anesthesia, being the first to describe it scientifically.
Carel Pietersz. Fabritius was a Dutch painter. He was a pupil of Rembrandt and worked in his studio in Amsterdam. Fabritius, who was a member of the Delft School, developed his own artistic style and experimented with perspective and lighting. Among his works are A View of Delft (1652), The Goldfinch (1654), and The Sentry (1654).
Olaus Magnus was a Swedish writer, cartographer, and Catholic ecclesiastic.
Jesuit's Bark, also known as cinchona bark, as Peruvian Bark, and as China Bark, is a former name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria, as it contains quinine. It is so named because it was obtained from the bark of several species of the genus Cinchona, of the family Rubiaceae, that have been discovered at different times and are indigenous in the Western Andes of South America and were first described and introduced by Jesuit priests who did missionary work in Peru. Other terms referring to this preparation and its source were "Jesuit's Tree", "Jesuit's Powder" and "Pulvis Patrum".
Juan Caramuel y Lobkowitz was a Spanish Catholic scholastic philosopher, ecclesiastic, mathematician and writer. He is believed to be a great-grandson of Jan Popel z Lobkowicz.
Henry of Langenstein, also known as Henry of Hesse the Elder, was a German scholastic philosopher, theologian and mathematician.
Michał Piotr Boym was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer. He was an early Western traveller within the Chinese mainland, and the author of numerous works on Asian fauna, flora and geography. The first European Chinese dictionary, published in 1670, is attributed to Boym.
William Stanyhurst was a Belgian Jesuit of Irish parentage. He was a prolific author of Latin religious works, one of which, Dei immortalis in corpore mortali patientis historia, was widely popular, and was translated into many languages.
Martino Martini was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.
Theatrum Chemicum is a compendium of early alchemical writings published in six volumes over the course of six decades. The first three volumes were published in 1602, while the final sixth volume was published in its entirety in 1661. Theatrum Chemicum remains the most comprehensive collective work on the subject of alchemy ever published in the Western world.
Henry Holden was an English Roman Catholic priest, known as a theologian.
Juan Bautista Morales, 黎玉范,(b. about 1597 at Ecija in Andalusia, Spain; d. Fu-ning, China, 17 September 1664) was a Spanish Dominican missionary in China.
Peter Wadding was an Irish Jesuit theologian.
Teofil (Bogusław) Rutka SJ - Polish Jesuit. Rhetorician, philosopher, theologian and missionary.
Georges Fournier was a French Jesuit priest, geographer and mathematician.