Acaricide

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Chemical structure of permethrin, a common acaricide Permethrin-2D-skeletal.png
Chemical structure of permethrin, a common acaricide

Acaricides are pesticides that kill members of the arachnid subclass Acari , which includes ticks and mites. Acaricides are used both in medicine and agriculture, although the desired selective toxicity differs between the two fields.

Pesticide substance used to destroy pests

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides nematicide, molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, fungicide and disinfectant (antimicrobial). The most common of these are herbicides which account for approximately 80% of all pesticide use. Most pesticides are intended to serve as plant protection products, which in general, protect plants from weeds, fungi, or insects.

Arachnid class of arthropods

Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata. Almost all adult arachnids have eight legs, although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs. The term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη (aráchnē), from the myth of the hubristic human weaver Arachne who was turned into a spider. Spiders are the largest order in the class, which also includes scorpions, ticks, mites, harvestmen, solifuges.

Acari subclass of arachnids

Acari are a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The diversity of the Acari is extraordinary and its fossil history goes back to at least the early Devonian period. Acarologists have proposed a complex set of taxonomic ranks to classify mites. In most modern treatments, the Acari is considered a subclass of Arachnida and is composed of two or three superorders or orders: Acariformes, Parasitiformes, and Opilioacariformes; the latter is often considered a subgroup within the Parasitiformes. The monophyly of the Acari is open to debate, and the relationships of the acarines to other arachnids is not at all clear. In older treatments, the subgroups of the Acarina were placed at order rank, but as their own subdivisions have become better understood, it is more usual to treat them at superorder rank.

Contents

Terminology

More specific words are sometimes used, depending upon the targeted group:

Sarcoptes is a genus of mites.

As a practical matter, mites are a paraphyletic grouping, [2] and mites and ticks are usually treated as a single group.

Mite common name for small arachnids

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari. The term "mite" refers to the members of several groups in Acari but it is not a clade as it spans two different groups of arachnids; it also excludes the ticks, order Ixodida. Mites and ticks are characterised by the body being divided into two regions, the cephalothorax or prosoma, and an opisthosoma. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology.

Examples

Examples include: [3]

Permethrin chemical compound

Permethrin, sold under the brand name Nix among others, is a medication and insecticide. As a medication, it is used to treat scabies and lice. It is applied to the skin as a cream or lotion. As an insecticide, it can be sprayed on clothing or mosquito nets to kill the insects that touch them.

Louse order of insects

Louse is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect. Lice are obligate parasites, living externally on warm-blooded hosts which include every species of bird and mammal, except for monotremes, pangolins, and bats. Lice are vectors of diseases such as typhus.

Cockroach group of insects

Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests.

Acaricides are also being used in attempts to stop rhinoceros poaching. Holes are drilled into the horn of a sedated rhino and acaricide is pumped in and pressurized. Should the horn be consumed by humans as in traditional Chinese medicine, it is expected to cause nausea, stomachache, and diarrhea, or convulsions, depending on the quantity, but not fatalities. Signs posted at wildlife refuges that the rhinos therein have been treated are thus expected to deter poaching. The original idea grew out of research into using the horn as a reservoir for one-time tick treatments; the acaricide is selected to be safe for the rhino, oxpeckers, vultures, and other animals in the preserve's ecosystem. [9]

Rhinoceros family of mammals

A rhinoceros, commonly abbreviated to rhino, is one of any five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae, as well as any of the numerous extinct species. Two of the extant species are native to Africa and three to Southern Asia. The term "rhinoceros" is often more broadly applied to now extinct relatives of the superfamily Rhinocerotoidea.

Traditional Chinese medicine Medicine system that has developed in China over more than 2000 years

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine based on more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage, exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine. TCM is widely used in Greater China where it has a long history, and recently it has begun "gaining global recognition". One of the basic tenets of TCM is that "the body's vital energy circulates through channels, called meridians, that have branches connected to bodily organs and functions." Concepts of the body and of disease used in TCM reflect its ancient origins and its emphasis on dynamic processes over material structure, similar to European humoral theory.

Reservoir A storage space for fluids

A reservoir is, most commonly, an enlarged natural or artificial lake, pond or impoundment created using a dam or lock to store water.

See also

Related Research Articles

Spider mite Family of arthropods

Spider mites are members of the Acari (mite) family Tetranychidae, which includes about 1,200 species. They generally live on the undersides of leaves of plants, where they may spin protective silk webs, and they can cause damage by puncturing the plant cells to feed. Spider mites are known to feed on several hundred species of plants.

Dicofol chemical compound

Dicofol is an organochlorine pesticide that is chemically related to DDT. Dicofol is a miticide that is very effective against spider mite.

Malathion chemical compound

Malathion is an organophosphate insecticide which acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. In the USSR, it was known as carbophos, in New Zealand and Australia as maldison and in South Africa as mercaptothion.

Chlorfenvinphos chemical compound

Chlorfenvinphos is the common name of an organophosphorus compound that was widely used as an insecticide and an acaricide. The molecule itself can be described as an enol ester derived from dichloroacetophenone and diethylphosphonic acid. Chlorfenvinphos has been included in many products since its first use in 1963. However, because of its toxic effect as a cholinesterase inhibitor it has been banned in several countries, including the United States and the European Union. Its use in the United States was cancelled in 1991.

In horticulture, lime sulfur is a mixture of calcium polysulfides formed by reacting calcium hydroxide with sulfur, used in pest control. It can be prepared by boiling calcium hydroxide and sulfur together with a small amount of surfactant. It is normally used as an aqueous solution, which is reddish-yellow in colour and has a distinctive offensive odour.

Amitraz chemical compound

Amitraz is a non-systemic acaricide and insecticide and has also been described as a scabicide. It was first synthesized by the Boots Co. in England in 1969. Amitraz has been found to have an insect repellent effect, works as an insecticide and also as a pesticide synergist. Its effectiveness is traced back on alpha-adrenergic agonist activity, interaction with octopamine receptors of the central nervous system and inhibition of monoamine oxidases and prostaglandin synthesis. Therefore, it leads to overexcitation and consequently paralysis and death in insects. Because amitraz is less harmful to mammals, amitraz is among many other purposes best known as insecticide against mite- or tick-infestation of dogs. It is also widely used in the beekeeping industry as a control for the Varroa destructor mite, although there are recent reports of resistance.

Fenthion chemical compound

Fenthion is an organothiophosphate insecticide, avicide, and acaricide. Like most other organophosphates, its mode of action is via cholinesterase inhibition. Due to its relatively low toxicity towards humans and mammals, fenthion is listed as moderately toxic compound in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization toxicity class.

Phosmet chemical compound

Phosmet is a phthalimide-derived, non-systemic, organophosphate insecticide used on plants and animals. It is mainly used on apple trees for control of codling moth, though it is also used on a wide range of fruit crops, ornamentals, and vines for the control of aphids, suckers, mites, and fruit flies.

Dioxathion chemical compound

Dioxathion, systematically known as p-dioxane-2,3-diyl ethyl phosphorodithioate, is an organophosphate pesticide. It is used as an insecticide on livestock and as an acaricide on citrus fruits, deciduous fruits and nuts.

Insecticidal soap is based on potassium fatty acids and is used to control many plant pests. Because insecticidal soap works on only direct contact with the pests, it is sprayed on plants in way such that the entire plant is wetted. Soaps have a low mammalian toxicity and are therefore considered safe to be used around children and pets and may be used in organic farming.

Fluvalinate chemical compound

Fluvalinate is a synthetic pyrethroid chemical compound contained as an active agent in the products Apistan, Klartan, and Minadox, that is an acaricide, that is commonly used to control varroa mites in honey bee colonies, infestations that constitute a significant disease of such insects.

This is an index of articles relating to pesticides.

Pyriprole chemical compound

Pyriprole is for veterinary use on dogs against external parasites such as fleas and ticks.

Mites of domestic animals

Mites that infest and parasitize domestic animals cause disease and loss of production. Mites are small invertebrates, most of which are free living but some are parasitic. Mites are similar to ticks and both comprise the order Acari in the phylum Arthropoda. Mites are highly varied and their classification is complex; a simple grouping is used in this introductory article. Vernacular terms to describe diseases caused by mites include scab, mange, and scabies. Mites and ticks have substantially different biology from, and are classed separately from, insects. Mites of domestic animals cause important types of skin disease, and some mites infest other organs. Diagnosis of mite infestations can be difficult because of the small size of most mites, but understanding how mites are adapted to feed within to the structure of the skin is useful.

Mites of livestock

Mites are small crawling animals related to ticks and spiders. Most mites are free-living and harmless. Other mites are parasitic, and those that infest livestock animals cause many diseases that are widespread, reduce production and profit for farmers, and are expensive to control.

Flea treatments are procedures used to treat flea infestations in human or animal populations. They may treat both the itching caused by bites and may remove or kill the fleas themselves.

References

  1. Mullen, Gary; Durden, Lance (2002). Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Elsevier. p. 525. ISBN   9780080536071.
  2. Lindquist, E.E. (1996). "Chapter 1.5.2 Phylogenetic Relationships". In Lindquist, E.E.; Sabelis, M.W.; Bruin, J. Eriophyoid Mites: Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Elsevier Science B.V. p. 301. ISBN   9780080531236.
  3. Roberts, James R.; Reigart, J. Routt (2013). "Other Insecticides and Acaracides" (PDF). Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings (6th ed.). Washington DC: Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. pp. 80–96.
  4. "Everris".
  5. "Gowan Co".
  6. "OHP".
  7. "BASF".
  8. "Syngenta".
  9. Angler, Martin. "Dye and Poison Stop Rhino Poachers". Scientific American Blog Network. Archived from the original on 12 December 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2018. It is actually a mixture between the bright pink dye and an ectoparasiticide, which normally is used for protecting rhino against ticks. In this case, however, the purpose is not to protect the rhino against ticks but to poison rhino horn consumers. The purpose: Discouraging the (typically) Asian clients to buy the horn and to prevent poaching in the first place. If they consume RRP-treated horn powder, they will heavily suffer from nausea, stomach-ache and diarrhea.