Dazed and Confused (film)

Last updated
Dazed and Confused
Dazed and Confused (1993) poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Richard Linklater
Produced byRichard Linklater
Sean Daniel
James Jacks
Written byRichard Linklater
StarringSee Cast section
Cinematography Lee Daniel
Edited by Sandra Adair
Distributed by Gramercy Pictures
Release date
  • September 24, 1993 (1993-09-24)
Running time
102 minutes [2]
CountryUnited States
Budget$6.9 million [3] [4]
Box office$8 million [5]

Dazed and Confused is a 1993 American coming-of-age comedy film written and directed by Richard Linklater. The film features a large ensemble cast of actors who would later become stars, including Jason London, Ben Affleck, Milla Jovovich, Cole Hauser, Parker Posey, Adam Goldberg, Matthew McConaughey, Nicky Katt, Joey Lauren Adams and Rory Cochrane. The plot follows different groups of Texas teenagers during the last day of school in 1976.


The film was a commercial disappointment at the box office, grossing less than $8 million in the United States. Despite this, the film has enjoyed critical and commercial success over the years, and has since become a cult film. It ranked third on Entertainment Weekly magazine's list of the 50 Best High School Movies. [6] The magazine also ranked it 10th on its "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list. [7]

The title of the film is allegedly derived from Jake Holmes's song of the same name. [8] Linklater approached the surviving members of Led Zeppelin for permission to use their song "Rock and Roll" in the film. Jimmy Page and John Paul Jones agreed, but Robert Plant refused. [9]


It is May 28, 1976, the last day of school at Lee High School in Huntsville, Texas. The next year's group of seniors are preparing for the annual hazing of incoming freshmen. Randall "Pink" Floyd, the school's star football player, is asked to sign a pledge promising not to take drugs during the summer or do anything that would "jeopardize the goal of a championship season". When classes end, the incoming freshman boys are hunted down by the seniors and paddled. The incoming freshman girls are also hazed; they are rounded up in the school parking lot by senior girls, covered in mustard, ketchup, flour and raw eggs and forced to propose to senior boys.

As day fades to night, freshman Mitch Kramer escapes the initial hazing with his best friend Carl Burnett but is later cornered after a baseball game and violently paddled. Fred O'Bannion, a senior participating in the hazing tradition for a second year after failing to graduate, delights in punishing Mitch. Pink gives the injured Mitch a ride home and offers to take him cruising with friends that night. Plans for the evening are ruined when Kevin Pickford's parents discover his intention to host a keg party. Elsewhere, the intellectual trio of Cynthia Dunn, Tony Olson and Mike Newhouse decide to participate in the evening's festivities. Pink and his friend David Wooderson, a man in his early 20s who still socializes with high school students, pick up Mitch and head for the Emporium, a pool hall frequented by teenagers.

As the night progresses, students loiter around the Emporium, listen to rock music, cruise the neighborhood and stop at the hamburger drive-in. Mitch is introduced to sophomore Julie Simms, with whom he shares a mutual attraction. While cruising again with Pink, Pickford and Don Dawson, Mitch drinks beer and smokes marijuana for the first time. After a game of mailbox baseball, a neighborhood resident brandishing a gun threatens to call the police. They barely escape after the resident fires at their car. After returning to the Emporium, Mitch runs into his middle school friends. They hatch a plan to exact revenge on O'Bannion. It culminates with them dumping paint on O'Bannion, who leaves in a fit of rage.

After the Emporium closes, an impromptu keg party is planned in a field under a moonlight tower. Cynthia, Tony and Mike arrive at their first keg party, where Mike is threatened by tough guy Clint Bruno. Tony runs into freshman Sabrina Davis, whom he met earlier during the hazing and they begin hanging out together. Cynthia likes Wooderson and exchanges phone numbers with him. Mike, suffering from the humiliation of his confrontation with Clint, decides to make a stand, punches him and gets tackled. The fight is broken up by Pink and Wooderson. Football player Benny O'Donnell confronts Pink about his refusal to sign the pledge. Pink, the only player not to have signed, believes it violates his individuality and beliefs. Mitch leaves the keg party with Julie. They drive to a nearby hill overlooking town to make out. Tony gives Sabrina a ride home and they kiss goodnight.

As night turns to dawn, Pink, Wooderson, Don, Ron Slater and several other friends decide to smoke marijuana on the 50-yard line of the football field. The police arrive so they ditch the drugs. Recognizing Pink, the police call Coach Conrad, his football coach. Conrad lectures Pink about hanging out with "losers" and insists that he sign the pledge. Pink says that he might play football but he is not going to sign it. Pink leaves with his friends to obtain tickets to an Aerosmith concert. Mitch arrives home after sunrise to find his mother has waited up for him. She decides against punishment but warns him about coming home late again. Mitch goes to his bedroom, puts on headphones and listens to "Slow Ride" by Foghat as Pink, Wooderson, Slater and Simone Kerr travel down a highway to purchase their tickets.


A selection of the film's cast. Clockwise from top left: Matthew McConaughey, Jason London, Cole Hauser, Milla Jovovich, Ben Affleck and Parker Posey Cast of Dazed and Confused.jpg
A selection of the film's cast. Clockwise from top left: Matthew McConaughey, Jason London, Cole Hauser, Milla Jovovich, Ben Affleck and Parker Posey



When asked in an interview what he wanted to do after Slacker , director Richard Linklater said "I want to make this teenage rock'n'roll spree. I knew I wanted the story to take place on one day in the spring of 1976, but at one point it was much more experimental. The whole movie took place in a car with the characters driving around listening to ZZ Top." [10] Lee Daniel, the director of photography, described the concept: "It would have been two shots—one of a guy putting in an eight-track of ZZ Top's Fandango! and one of two guys driving around talking. The film would be the length of the actual album, and you'd hear each track in the background as a source." [10] Eventually Linklater decided to write a script "to represent different points of view", the first draft of which took a month to complete. Universal Studios fast tracked production of Linklater's script, jumping ahead of 30 other films which were in development at that time. [11]


Casting searches were done in Austin, New York and Los Angeles. Vince Vaughn was almost cast as the bully O'Bannion before Ben Affleck was chosen. [12] As Linklater put it, "Ben was smart and full of life. You don't cast the unappealing person, you cast the appealing person." [10] Other young actors considered for roles include Elizabeth Berkley, Mira Sorvino, Ron Livingston and Claire Danes. [12] Casting director Don Phillips said, "We wanted Claire Danes for the girl, but she was too young. She couldn't leave school." [10] Renee Zellweger has a nonspeaking role in the film, but was originally considered for the part of Darla which went to Parker Posey instead. [13] Linklater said, "Parker was just crazier." [12] Wiley Wiggins was the "big find" in Austin, according to Linklater, who described him as "a 15-year-old with all the bad habits of a grad student: smoking cigarettes, hanging out at coffee shops, my kind of guy." [11]

Some roles which were intended to be larger were reduced. The Kevin Pickford character, played by Shawn Andrews, was meant to be a larger role, but due to his behavior with other cast members, Pickford's screen time was cut in favor of Matthew McConaughey's character, Wooderson. Linklater recalled "There was another actor [Shawn Andrews] who was kind of the opposite [of McConaughey]. He wasn't really getting along with everybody. I could tell the actors weren't responding to him." [10] Linklater had to break up a fight between Andrews and London at one point. On screen, the two characters barely speak to each other during the film. [13] Milla Jovovich, who played Michelle, Pickford's girlfriend, had her role reduced because, in Linklater's words, "it didn't really gel." [12]

McConaughey was not originally cast in the film, as the role of Wooderson was originally small and meant to be cast locally for budget purposes. He was a film student at the University of Texas in Austin and went out drinking with his girlfriend one night. They ended up at the Hyatt hotel bar since his friend was a bartender there and could get them a discount. [14] He approached casting director Phillips in the bar. [13] Phillips recalls, "The bartender says to him, 'See that guy down there? That's Don Phillips. He cast Sean Penn in Fast Times.' And Matthew goes, 'I'm gonna go down and talk to this guy.'" Phillips also recalls that Linklater didn't like McConaughey at first because he was "too handsome." Much of the Wooderson role was improvised or written on the spot, giving McConaughey more screen time. [10]


Dazed and Confused was released on September 24, 1993, in 183 theaters, grossing $918,127 on its opening weekend. It went on to make $7.9 million in North America. [15]

The film received positive reviews from critics. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, it has a 92% approval rating based on 62 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 7.85/10. The website's critical consensus reads: "Featuring an excellent ensemble cast, a precise feel for the 1970s, and a killer soundtrack, Dazed and Confused is a funny, affectionate, and clear-eyed look at high school life." [16] Metacritic provides a score of 78 out of 100 from 19 critics, indicating "generally favorable" reviews. [17]

Film critic Roger Ebert awarded the film three stars out of four, praising the film as "art crossed with anthropology" with a "painful underside". [18] Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote, "Dazed and Confused has an enjoyably playful spirit, one that amply compensates for its lack of structure". [19] Desson Howe of The Washington Post , wrote, "Dazed succeeds on its own terms and reflects American culture so well, it becomes part of it". [20] In her review for The Austin Chronicle , Marjorie Baumgarten gave particular praise to Matthew McConaughey's performance: "He is a character we're all too familiar with in the movies but McConaughey nails this guy without a hint of condescension or whimsy, claiming this character for all time as his own". [21]

Rolling Stone's Peter Travers gave the film four stars out of four, and praised Linklater as a "sly and formidable talent, bringing an anthropologist's eye to this spectacularly funny celebration of the rites of stupidity. His shitfaced American Graffiti is the ultimate party movie – loud, crude, socially irresponsible and totally irresistible". [22] In his review for Time , Richard Corliss wrote, "Linklater is surely no ham-fisted moralist, and his film has lots of attitude to shake a finger at. But it also has enough buoyant '70s music to shake anybody's tail feather, and a kind of easy jubilance of narrative and character". [23] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film an "A" rating, and wrote, "Yet if Linklater captures the comic goofiness of the time, he also evokes its liberating spirit. The film finds its meaning in the subtle clash between the older, sadistic macho-jock ethos and the follow-your-impulse hedonism that was the lingering legacy of the '60s". [24]

Year-end lists


Quentin Tarantino included it on his list of the 10 greatest films of all time in the 2002 Sight and Sound poll. [26] In 2003, Entertainment Weekly ranked the film #17 on its list of "The Top 50 Cult Films", [27] third on its list of the 50 Best High School Movies, [28] 10th on its "Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years" list, [29] and ranked it #6 on its "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since '83" list. [30]

In October 2004, three of Linklater's former classmates from Huntsville High School, whose surnames are Wooderson, Slater, and Floyd, filed a defamation lawsuit against Linklater, claiming to be the basis for the similarly named characters on the film. The lawsuit was filed in New Mexico rather than Texas because New Mexico has a longer statute of limitations. [31] The suit was subsequently dismissed. [32]

In 2012, McConaughey reprised his role as Wooderson in the Butch Walker and The Black Widows music video "Synthesizers". [33] To celebrate the film's 20th anniversary in 2013, the film received the Star of Texas award from the Texas Film Hall of Fame. Linklater accepted the award after being introduced by Tarantino, who reiterated his appreciation of the film as his favorite of the 1990s. The event featured a reunion of several cast members including Joey Lauren Adams, Wiley Wiggins, Christin Hinojosa, Nicky Katt, Mona Lee, Catherine Avril Morris, Anthony Rapp, Marissa Ribisi, Michelle Burke Thomas, and Mark Vandermeulen. At the event, Linklater described his intent to create an inverse John Hughes film: "The drama is so low-key in [Dazed & Confused]. I don't remember teenage being that dramatic. I remember just trying to go with the flow, socialize, fit in and be cool. The stakes were really low. To get Aerosmith tickets or not? That's a big thing. It was really rare when the star-crossed lovers from the opposite side of the tracks and the girl gets pregnant and there's a car crash and somebody dies. That didn't really happen much. But riding around and trying to look for something to do with the music cranked up, now that happened a lot!" [34] [35]

After Boyhood was released Linklater announced that his next film, Everybody Wants Some!!, would be a "spiritual sequel" to Dazed and Confused. [36] The newer film takes place at a Texas college in 1980. [36]

The line "alright, alright, alright" became a catchphrase for Matthew McConaughey. [37] [38]

Rotten Tomatoes' editorial team credits the film for "putting Austin, Texas on the map." [39]

Home video

MCA/Universal released Dazed and Confused on laserdisc in January 1994, [40] followed by a VHS release two months later. [41]

The film was released on HD DVD in 2006. [42] The Criterion Collection released a two-disc boxed-set edition of the film on June 6, 2006 in the U.S. and Canada. Features included an audio commentary by Richard Linklater, deleted scenes, the original trailer, the 50 minute "Making Dazed" documentary that aired on the American Movie Classics channel on September 18, 2005, on-set interviews, behind-the-scenes footage, cast auditions and footage from the ten-year anniversary celebration. Also included is a 72-page book featuring new essays by Kent Jones, Jim DeRogatis, and Chuck Klosterman as well as memories from the cast and crew, character profiles and a mini reproduction of the original film poster designed by Frank Kozik. Entertainment Weekly gave it an "A" rating and stated that it "grants this enduring cult classic the DVD treatment it deserves". [43]

Universal Studios released Dazed and Confused on Blu-ray in August 2011, in a 1080p/AVC MPEG-4 transfer, with a DTS-HD Master Audio 5.1 soundtrack. [42]

The Blunt Truth is a four-minute and twenty second long 1970s anti-cannabis hoax educational film. It appeared as a bonus feature on 2004's Dazed and Confused: Flashback Party Edition. [44]


The soundtrack for the film was released on September 28, 1993 by The Medicine Label, and they consist of hit songs (mostly rock) from the 1970s, the film's setting. The songs "Hurricane" by Bob Dylan, "Hey Baby" by Ted Nugent, and "Sweet Emotion" by Aerosmith were also included in the film, but not on the commercial soundtracks. "The Alien Song (For Those Who Listen)" by Milla Jovovich was briefly performed by the character Michelle Burroughs, but was not included in the soundtrack either. Geffen Records attempted to get up-and-coming band Jackyl to do a cover of Grand Funk's "We're an American Band" to play over the end credits and be released as a single, but Linklater refused. [45]

Dazed and Confused
Soundtrack album by
Various Artists
ReleasedSeptember 28, 1993
Genre Hard rock, blues rock, heavy metal, glam rock, Southern rock, funk, soft rock
Label Giant/Medicine
Dazed and Confused (1993)
1."Rock and Roll, Hoochie Koo" Rick Derringer 3:44
2."Slow Ride" (Single version) Foghat 3:58
3."School's Out" Alice Cooper 3:29
4."Jim Dandy" Black Oak Arkansas 2:42
5."Tush" ZZ Top 2:17
6."Love Hurts" Nazareth 3:53
7."Stranglehold" Ted Nugent 8:24
8."Cherry Bomb" The Runaways 2:19
9."Fox on the Run" Sweet 3:26
10."Low Rider" War 3:13
11."Tuesday's Gone" Lynyrd Skynyrd 7:32
12."Highway Star" Deep Purple 6:08
13."Rock and Roll All Nite" Kiss 2:57
14."Paranoid" Black Sabbath 2:47
Total length:56:56
Even More Dazed and Confused (1994)
1."Free Ride" Edgar Winter Group 3:08
2."No More Mr. Nice Guy"Alice Cooper3:07
3."Livin' in the USA" The Steve Miller Band 4:05
4."Never Been Any Reason" Head East 5:12
5."Why Can't We Be Friends?"War3:51
6."Summer Breeze" Seals and Crofts 3:25
7."Right Place, Wrong Time" Dr. John 2:54
8."Balinese"ZZ Top2:39
9."Lord Have Mercy On My Soul"Black Oak Arkansas6:14
10."I Just Want to Make Love to You"Foghat4:19
11."Show Me the Way" Peter Frampton 4:41
12."Do You Feel Like We Do"Peter Frampton7:13
Total length:50:52


In September 1993, St. Martin's Press published a 127-page, softcover book ( ISBN   0-312-09466-3) inspired by Richard Linklater's screenplay. It was compiled by Linklater, Denise Montgomery, and others, and designed by Erik Josowitz. It was presented as a kind of yearbook, with character profiles, essays by characters, a time-line focusing on the years 1973 to 1977, and various 1970s pop culture charts and quizzes. It also featured dozens of black-and-white photos from the film.

Related Research Articles

Milla Jovovich American actress, model, and musician

Milica Bogdanovna Jovovich, known professionally as Milla Jovovich, is an American actress, model, and musician. Her starring roles in numerous science-fiction and action films led the music channel VH1 to deem her the "reigning queen of kick-butt" in 2006. In 2004, Forbes determined that she was the highest-paid model in the world.

<i>Slacker</i> (film) 1991 film by Richard Linklater

Slacker is a 1990 American independent comedy-drama film written, produced, and directed by Richard Linklater, who also appears in the film. Slacker was nominated for the Grand Jury Prize - Dramatic at the Sundance Film Festival in 1991.

Rory Cochrane American actor

Rory Cochrane is an American actor. He is known for playing Ron Slater in Dazed and Confused, Lucas in Empire Records, Lee Schatz in Argo, Freck in A Scanner Darkly and Tim Speedle in CSI: Miami.

Richard Linklater American director and screenwriter

Richard Stuart Linklater is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter. He is known for films that revolve mainly around suburban culture and the effects of the passage of time. His films include the comedies Slacker (1990) and Dazed and Confused (1993); the Before trilogy romance films—Before Sunrise (1995), Before Sunset (2004), and Before Midnight (2013); the music-themed comedy School of Rock (2003); the animated films Waking Life (2001) and A Scanner Darkly (2006); the coming-of-age drama Boyhood (2014); and the comedy film Everybody Wants Some!! (2016).

<i>Before Sunrise</i> 1995 film by Richard Linklater

Before Sunrise is a 1995 American romantic drama film directed by Richard Linklater and co-written by Linklater and Kim Krizan. The first installment in the Before trilogy, it follows Jesse and Céline as they meet on a Eurail train and disembark in Vienna to spend the night together.

<i>My Boyfriends Back</i> (1993 film)

My Boyfriend's Back is a 1993 American romantic zombie black comedy film directed by Bob Balaban which tells the story of Johnny Dingle, a teenage boy who returns from the dead as a zombie to meet Missy McCloud, the girl he's in love with, for a date. The film received negative reviews.

Wiley Wiggins American game designer and film actor (born 1976)

Wiley Ramsey Wiggins is an American game designer and film actor. A native of Austin, Texas, he is the nephew of Lanny Wiggins, who was a member of Janis Joplin's early band, The Waller Creek Boys.

Jack Rickard

Jack Rickard, was an American illustrator for numerous advertising campaigns and multiple comic strips but was best known as a key contributor to Mad for more than two decades. Rickard's artwork appeared in more than 175 Mad issues, including 35 covers; he also illustrated sixteen Madpaperback covers.

<i>Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation</i> 1995 film by Kim Henkel

Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation is a 1995 American slasher film written and directed by Kim Henkel, and starring Renée Zellweger, Matthew McConaughey, and Robert Jacks as Leatherface. The plot follows four teenagers who encounter Leatherface and his murderous family in backwoods Texas on the night of their prom. It is the fourth installment in the Texas Chainsaw Massacre series, and also features uncredited cameo appearances from Marilyn Burns, Paul A. Partain, and John Dugan, all stars of the original film.

The Austin Film Society (AFS) is a non-profit film society based in Austin, Texas. Founded in 1985 to exhibit independent, experimental, foreign and various other non-mainstream art films, the film society has grown from just film exhibition to fostering independent filmmaking in Texas and has served as a cornerstone in building the film industry in Austin. The film society also owns and maintains Austin Studios, hosts the annual Texas Film Awards gala, and oversees the Austin Film Society grant program. The film society was founded by film director Richard Linklater, who currently serves on the board as artistic director. Other notable members on the board and advisory board include Tim McCanlies, Robert Rodriguez, Charles Burnett, Guillermo del Toro, Jonathan Demme, Mike Judge, John Sayles, Steven Soderbergh, Paul Stekler and Quentin Tarantino.

<i>Magic Mike</i> 2012 film by Steven Soderbergh

Magic Mike is a 2012 American comedy-drama film directed by Steven Soderbergh and starring Channing Tatum, Alex Pettyfer, Matt Bomer, Joe Manganiello, and Matthew McConaughey. The plot revolves around Adam, a 19-year-old who enters the world of male stripping, guided by Mike Lane, who has been in the business for six years.

Shawn Andrews (actor) American actor

Shawn Andrews is an American actor. He is best known for his role as Kevin Pickford in the 1993 Richard Linklater film Dazed and Confused.

Matthew McConaughey American actor

Matthew David McConaughey is an American actor and producer. He first gained notice for his supporting performance in the coming-of-age comedy Dazed and Confused (1993), which was considered by many to be his breakout role. After a number of supporting roles in films including Angels in the Outfield (1994) and Texas Chainsaw Massacre: The Next Generation (1994), his breakthrough performance as a leading man came in the legal drama A Time to Kill (1996). He followed this with leading performances in the science fiction film Contact (1997), the historical drama Amistad (1997), the comedy-drama The Newton Boys (1998), the satire EDtv (1999), the war film U-571 (2000), and the psychological thriller Frailty (2001).

<i>Bernie</i> (2011 film)

Bernie is a 2011 American black comedy film directed by Richard Linklater, and written by Linklater and Skip Hollandsworth. The film stars Jack Black, Shirley MacLaine and Matthew McConaughey. It is based on Hollandsworth's January 1998 article, "Midnight in the Garden of East Texas," published in Texas Monthly magazine. It explores the 1996 murder of 80-year-old millionairess Marjorie Nugent in Carthage, Texas by her 39-year-old companion, Bernhardt "Bernie" Tiede.

<i>The Spade</i> 2011 studio album by Butch Walker

The Spade is the sixth full-length studio album by Butch Walker, and the second released under the name Butch Walker and the Black Widows. It was released on August 30, 2011 on CD, vinyl, and digital formats. The lead single was "Summer of '89".

Matthew McConaughey filmography Filmography of American actor

Matthew McConaughey is an American actor who made his breakthrough by starring in the Richard Linklater-directed coming of age comedy Dazed and Confused in 1993. His first lead role was in the 1996 film adaptation of the John Grisham novel A Time to Kill. The following year, McConaughey played the lawyer Roger Sherman Baldwin opposite Morgan Freeman and Anthony Hopkins in the Steven Spielberg-directed historical drama Amistad, and also starred opposite Jodie Foster in the Robert Zemeckis-directed science fiction drama Contact. In 1998, he appeared in the Linklater-directed comedy-drama The Newton Boys. During the 2000s, McConaughey was typecast as a romantic comedy lead in the films The Wedding Planner (2001), How to Lose a Guy in 10 Days (2003), Failure to Launch (2006), and Ghosts of Girlfriends Past (2009).

Moonlight towers (Austin, Texas) United States historic place

The moonlight towers in Austin, Texas, are the only known surviving moonlight towers in the world. They are 165 feet (50 m) tall and have a 15-foot (4.6 m) foundation. A single tower casts light from six carbon arc lamps, illuminating a 1,500-foot-radius (460 m) circle brightly enough to read a watch.

<i>Everybody Wants Some!!</i> (film) 2016 film by Richard Linklater

Everybody Wants Some!! is a 2016 American teen comedy film written and directed by Richard Linklater, about college baseball players in 1980s Texas. The film stars Blake Jenner, Zoey Deutch, Ryan Guzman, Tyler Hoechlin, Glen Powell, Will Brittain, and Wyatt Russell. It had its world premiere at South by Southwest on March 11, 2016, and was theatrically released in the United States on March 30, 2016, by Paramount Pictures. The film grossed $5.4 million against a $10 million budget but was critically acclaimed.

<i>The Dark Tower</i> (2017 film) 2017 American fantasy western film

The Dark Tower is a 2017 American science fantasy Western action film directed and co-written by Nikolaj Arcel. Based on Stephen King's novel series of the same name, the film stars Idris Elba as Roland Deschain, a gunslinger on a quest to protect the Dark Tower—a mythical structure which supports all realities—while Matthew McConaughey plays his nemesis, Walter Padick and Tom Taylor stars as Jake Chambers, a boy who becomes Roland's apprentice.


  1. "Dazed and Confused (1993)". AFI Catalog of Feature Films . Retrieved 23 February 2021.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. "Dazed and Confused". British Board of Film Classification. February 12, 1993. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  3. "Dazed and Confused - The Numbers". thenumbers.com. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
  4. "Dazed and Confused (1993)". thisdistractedglobe.com. August 8, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2013.
  5. "Dazed and Confused". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  6. "50 Best High School Movies". Filmsite.org. 2006-09-15. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  7. "The Comedy 25: The Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years | Movies". EW.com. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  8. "Interview – Richard Linklater". Mindjack. Retrieved 2011-04-20.
  9. Led-Zeppelin.org. "Led Zeppelin Assorted Info". Archived from the original on 2012-05-14.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Spitz, Marc (December 26, 2013). "An Oral History of Dazed and Confused". Maxim. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  11. 1 2 Hoad, Phil (2019-06-11). "Richard Linklater: How we made Dazed and Confused". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019-06-11.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Gorber, Jason (January 28, 2016). "'Dazed and Confused' at Sundance: 12 things we learned from Richard Linklater". Mashable. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 Stern, Marlow (September 24, 2013). "'Dazed and Confused' 20th Anniversary: 20 Craziest Facts About the Cult Classic". The Daily Beast. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  14. name=https://austin.eater.com/2015/11/23/9782500/matthew-mcconaughey-hyatt-bar-alamo-drathouse-franchise
  15. "Dazed and Confused". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
  16. "Dazed and Confused (1993)". Rotten Tomatoes . Fandango Media . Retrieved September 29, 2020.
  17. "Dazed and Confused Reviews". Metacritic . CBS Interactive . Retrieved July 11, 2019.
  18. Ebert, Roger (September 24, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". RogerEbert.com. Ebert Digital LLC. Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  19. Maslin, Janet (September 24, 1993). "Reviews/Film; Nervously Contemplating Life After High School". The New York Times . Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  20. Howe, Desson (October 22, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". The Washington Post . Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  21. Baumgarten, Marjorie (September 24, 1993). "Dazed and Confused". The Austin Chronicle . Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  22. Travers, Peter (December 8, 2000). "Dazed and Confused". Rolling Stone . Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  23. Corliss, Richard (October 11, 1993). "A Toke of Our Esteem". Time . Retrieved February 10, 2009.
  24. Gleiberman, Owen (September 24, 1994). "Dazed and Confused: EW Review". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved April 9, 2018.
  25. Carlton, Bob (December 29, 1994). "It Was a Good Year at Movies". The Birmingham News . p. 12-01.
  26. Tarantino, Quentin. "Sight and Sound Top Ten Poll 2002". Sight and Sound . Archived from the original on 2008-04-23. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  27. "The Top 50 Cult Films". Entertainment Weekly . May 23, 2003.
  28. "50 Best High School Movies". Entertainment Weekly . 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  29. "The Comedy 25: The Funniest Movies of the Past 25 Years". Entertainment Weekly . August 27, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-27.
  30. "The Cult 25: The Essential Left-Field Movie Hits Since '83" list". Entertainment Weekly . September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  31. Carlson, Peter (2004-12-08). "Bummer, Man Portrayed as Potheads In 'Dazed,' Trio Has A New Joint Venture: Suing the Filmmaker". The Washington Post. washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2009-11-17.
  32. Linklater, Richard. Director's commentary, Dazed and Confused, Criterion Collection DVD.
  33. Hughes, Sarah Anne (January 23, 2012). "Matthew McConaughey reprises 'Dazed and Confused' role for music video". The Washington Post . Archived from the original on May 6, 2014. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  34. Valby, Karen (March 8, 2013). "Quentin Tarantino pays tribute to 'Dazed and Confused' at the Texas Film Hall of Fame Awards". Entertainment Weekly . Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  35. "Dazed And Confused 20Th Anniversary Reunion". Austin Film Society. 2013. Archived from the original on March 26, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  36. 1 2 "Richard Linklater reveals follow-up to 'Boyhood'". NME. Retrieved August 5, 2013.
  37. "How Matthew McConaughey Came Up With 'Alright, Alright, Alright'". Huffington Post . Retrieved 2014-12-02. Matthew McConaughey might as well trademark "alright, alright, alright," the catchphrase so closely associated with him ...
  38. The Origin Of Matthew McConaughey's 'Alright, Alright, Alright' George Stroumboulopoulos Tonight on CBC 2014-03-03
  39. "All Wes Anderson Movies Ranked" . Retrieved 2020-05-04.
  40. "Expectations High". Billboard. January 15, 1994. Retrieved 2014-04-30. MCA/Universal bows the 1976 high school tale Dazed and Confused...
  41. "Dazed and Confused VHS". familyvideo.com. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  42. 1 2 Cohen, Steven (August 8, 2011). "Dazed and Confused". High-Def Digest. Retrieved 2014-04-30.
  43. Labrecque, Jeff (June 2, 2006). "Dazed and Confused". Entertainment Weekly . Retrieved 2009-04-21.
  44. Chaney, Jen (November 2, 2004). "'Dazed' and disappointed". The Washington Post.
  45. ""Dazed By Days" By Richard Linklater". Cinephilia & Beyond. Retrieved September 29, 2020.