Hibiscus syriacus

Last updated

Hibiscus syriacus
Hibiscus Syriacus.JPG
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Hibiscus
Species:
H. syriacus
Binomial name
Hibiscus syriacus
L.
Synonyms [1] [2]
List
    • Althaea frutexMill.
    • Hibiscus acerifoliusSalisb.
    • Hibiscus rhombifoliusCav.
    • Ketmia syriaca(L.) Scop.
    • Ketmia syrorumMedik. nom. illeg.

Hibiscus syriacus is a species of flowering plant in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is native to south-central and southeast China, but widely introduced elsewhere, including much of Asia. [3] It was given the epithet syriacus because it had been collected from gardens in Syria. [4] [5] [6] Common names include the rose of Sharon , [7] (especially in North America), Syrian ketmia, [8] shrub althea, [9] and rose mallow (in the United Kingdom). It is the national flower of South Korea and is mentioned in the South Korean national anthem. [10]

Contents

Description

Hibiscus syriacus is a hardy deciduous shrub. It is upright and vase-shaped, reaching 2–4 m (7–13 feet) in height, bearing large trumpet-shaped flowers with prominent yellow-tipped white stamens. [11] The flowers are often pink in color, but can also be dark pink (almost purple), light pink or white. Individual flowers are short-lived, lasting only a day. However, numerous buds produced on the shrub's new growth provide prolific flowering over a long summer blooming period. The soil in which the Hibiscus thrives on is a moist, but well-drained, mixture of sand, clay, chalk, and loam.[ citation needed ]Hibiscus syriacus is highly tolerant of air pollution, heat, humidity, poor soil and drought. [12] The species has naturalized very well in many suburban areas, and might even be termed slightly invasive, so frequently it does seed around. [2]

Leaves Hibiscus syriacus (12).JPG
Leaves

Growth

The branches are thin and gray, white-lenticeled, with raised leaf scars and small buds. Stems and branches do not branch very much unless pruned, resulting in many long, straight stems that originate from about 1.5–4 cm (0.5–1.5 inches) above the ground, giving rise to the shrub's overall vase shape. [13] The leaves appear unusually late in the season, in May. [14] They are usually green or yellowish green, alternate, broadly ovate, palmately veined, and 7.5 cm (3 inches) long. They have three distinct lobes with coarsely-toothed margins.

Flowers

Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu' Hibiscus August 2010-2.jpg
Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu'

H. syriacus has 5-petaled flowers (to 7.5 cm or 3 inches diameter) [15] in solid colors of white, red, purple, mauve, violet, or blue, or bicolors with a different colored throat, depending upon the cultivar. Extending from the base of these five petals is the pistil at the center, with the stamen around it. These basic characteristics give the H. syriacus flower and its many variants their distinctive form. The plant can bloom continuously from July through September, [15] usually at night. With maturity, flexible plant stems become weighted under the load of prolific summer flowers, and bend over halfway to the ground.

Fruits and seeds

Most modern cultivars are virtually fruitless. The fruits of those that have them are green or brown, ornamentally unattractive 5-valved dehiscent capsules, which persist throughout much of the winter on older cultivars. They will eventually shatter over the course of the dormant season and spread their easily germinating seeds around the base of the parent plant, forming colonies with time. [13]

Cultivation

Hibiscus syriacus 'Ardens' - double-flowered Rose of Sharon, Double Purple Althea -- Hibiscus syriacus 'Ardens'.jpg
Hibiscus syriacus 'Ardens' – double-flowered

Though it has no fall color and can be stiff and ungainly if badly pruned, H. syriacus remains a popular ornamental shrub today, with many cultivars. Full-grown plants can tolerate a wide range of conditions, including frost, drought and urban pollution. However, the best results are produced in a warm, sheltered position; a well-drained neutral soil; and full sun. [14]

Propagation

Hibiscus syriacus is fairly easily propagated from either seeds, with variable results, or by layering or cuttings, cloning the original.

Pests and diseases

Old shrubs can develop trunk cankers that may eventually prove fatal to the plant. [16] The plant has some susceptibility to leaf spots, blights, rusts and canker. Japanese beetles, whiteflies and aphids are occasional insect visitors. Japanese beetles can severely damage foliage if left unchecked.

Cultivars

The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- [17]

  • Blue Chiffon='Notwood3' [18] (blue, semi-double)
  • 'Diana' [19] (single, white)
  • 'Hamabo' [20] (pale pink, red centre)
  • Lavender Chiffon='Notwoodone' [21] (pale lilac)
  • 'Meehanii' [22] (pink, variegated leaves)
  • 'Oiseau Bleu'('Blue Bird') [23] (blue-violet, maroon centre)
  • 'Red Heart' [24] (white, red centre)
  • White Chiffon='Notwoodtwo' [25] (white, double)
  • 'William R. Smith' [26] (white, single)
  • 'Woodbridge' [27] (deep pink)

National flower

The Presidential Standard of South Korea, with a pair of phoenixes flanking the Korean rose. Flag of the President of South Korea.svg
The Presidential Standard of South Korea, with a pair of phoenixes flanking the Korean rose.

Hibiscus syriacus, also known as the Korean rose, is the national flower of South Korea. [28] The flower appears in national emblems, and Korea is compared poetically to the flower in the South Korean national anthem. [29] The flower's name in Korean is mugunghwa (Hangul: 무궁화; Hanja: 無窮花) or mokkeunhwa (Hangul: 목근화; Hanja: 木槿花). The flower's symbolic significance stems from the Korean word mugung, which means "eternity" or "inexhaustible abundance". Various state emblems of South Korea contain Hibiscus syriacus; it is generally considered by South Koreans to be a traditional symbol of the Korean people and culture. [30]

History and culture

From the 8th century to today, This tree is popular as a garden tree for ordinary Japanese households. 20200705122409 ed1.jpg
From the 8th century to today, This tree is popular as a garden tree for ordinary Japanese households.

Hibiscus syriacus has been grown as a garden shrub in Korea since time immemorial; its leaves were brewed into an herbal tea and its flowers eaten. Later on it was introduced and grown in the gardens of Europe as early as the 16th century, though as late as 1629 John Parkinson thought it was tender and took great precautions with it, thinking it "would not suffer to be uncovered in the Winter time, or yet abroad in the Garden, but kept in a large pot or tubbe in the house or in a warme cellar, if you would have them to thrive." (sic) [31] By the end of the 17th century, some knew it to be hardy: Gibson, describing Lord Arlington's London house noted six large earthen pots coddling the "tree hollyhock", as he called it, "that grows well enough in the ground". [32] By the 18th century the shrub was common in English gardens and in the North American colonies, known as Althea frutex and "Syrian ketmia". [33]

Related Research Articles

<i>Eschscholzia californica</i> Species of flowering plant and state flower of California

Eschscholzia californica, the California poppy, golden poppy, California sunlight or cup of gold, is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae, native to the United States and Mexico. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant flowering in summer, with showy cup-shaped flowers in brilliant shades of red, orange and yellow. It is also used as food or a garnish. It became the official state flower of California in 1903.

<i>Hydrangea</i> genus of flowering plants in the family Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea common names hydrangea or hortensia, is a genus of 70–75 species of flowering plants native to Asia and the Americas. By far the greatest species diversity is in eastern Asia, notably China, Korea, and Japan. Most are shrubs 1 to 3 meters tall, but some are small trees, and others lianas reaching up to 30 m (98 ft) by climbing up trees. They can be either deciduous or evergreen, though the widely cultivated temperate species are all deciduous.

<i>Hebe</i> (plant) Genus of flowering plants

Hebe is a genus of plants native to New Zealand, Rapa in French Polynesia, the Falkland Islands, and South America. It includes about 90 species and is the largest plant genus in New Zealand. Apart from H. rapensis, all species occur in New Zealand. This includes the two species, H. salicifolia and H. elliptica, that have distributions extending to South America. The genus is named after the Greek goddess of youth, Hebe.

<i>Hibiscus</i> Genus of plants

Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. The genus is quite large, comprising several hundred species that are native to warm temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are renowned for their large, showy flowers and those species are commonly known simply as "hibiscus", or less widely known as rose mallow. Other names include hardy hibiscus, rose of sharon, and tropical hibiscus.

<i>Deutzia</i> Genus of flowering plants

Deutzia is a genus of about 60 species of flowering plants in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to eastern and central Asia, and Central America and also Europe. By far the highest species diversity is in China, where 50 species occur.

Rose of Sharon

Rose of Sharon is a common name that has been applied to several different species of flowering plants that are valued in different parts of the world. It is also a biblical expression, though the identity of the plant referred to is unclear and is disputed among biblical scholars. In neither case does it refer to actual roses, although one of the species it refers to in modern usage is a member of Rosaceae. The deciduous flowering shrub known as the rose of Sharon is a member of the mallow family which is distinct from the family Rosaceae. The name's colloquial application has been used as an example of the lack of precision of common names, which can potentially cause confusion. "Rose of Sharon" has become a frequently used catch phrase in poetry and lyrics.

<i>Hibiscus rosa-sinensis</i> Species of flowering plant in the mallow family Malvaceae

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, known colloquially as Chinese hibiscus, China rose, Hawaiian hibiscus, rose mallow and shoeblackplant, is a species of tropical hibiscus, a flowering plant in the Hibisceae tribe of the family Malvaceae. It is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, but is not known in the wild, so that its native distribution is uncertain. An origin in some part of tropical Asia is likely. It is widely grown as an ornamental plant in the tropics and subtropics.

<i>Osteospermum</i> Genus of plants

Osteospermum, is a genus of flowering plants belonging to the Calenduleae, one of the smaller tribes of the sunflower/daisy family Asteraceae. They are known as the daisybushes or African daisies.

<i>Dasiphora fruticosa</i> Species of flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae

Dasiphora fruticosa is a species of hardy deciduous flowering shrub in the family Rosaceae, native to the cool temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere, often growing at high altitudes in mountains. Dasiphora fruticosa is a disputed name, and the plant is still widely referenced in the horticultural literature under its synonym Potentilla fruticosa. Common names include shrubby cinquefoil, golden hardhack, bush cinquefoil, shrubby five-finger, and widdy.

<i>Hydrangea macrophylla</i> Species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea macrophylla is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to Japan. It is a deciduous shrub growing to 2 m (7 ft) tall by 2.5 m (8 ft) broad with large heads of pink or blue flowers in summer and autumn. Common names include bigleaf hydrangea, French hydrangea, lacecap hydrangea, mophead hydrangea, penny mac and hortensia. It is widely cultivated in many parts of the world in many climates. It is not to be confused with H. aspera 'Macrophylla'.

<i>Hosta</i> Genus of flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae

Hosta is a genus of plants commonly known as hostas, plantain lilies and occasionally by the Japanese name gibōshi. Hostas are widely cultivated as shade-tolerant foliage plants. The genus is currently placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Agavoideae, and is native to northeast Asia. Like many "lilioid monocots", the genus was once classified in the Liliaceae. The genus was named by Austrian botanist Leopold Trattinnick in 1812, in honor of the Austrian botanist Nicholas Thomas Host. In 1817, the generic name Funkia was used by German botanist Kurt Sprengel in honor of Heinrich Christian Funck, a collector of ferns and alpines; this was later used as a common name and can be found in some older literature.

<i>Camellia japonica</i> Species of flowering plant

Camellia japonica, known as common camellia, or Japanese camellia, is a species of flowering plant in the family Theaceae. There are thousands of cultivars of C. japonica in cultivation, with many colors and forms of flowers. In the U.S. it is sometimes called japonica, a name more often used in the UK for Chaenomeles.

<i>Lavandula angustifolia</i> Species of plant

Lavandula angustifolia, formerly L. officinalis, is a flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean. Its common names include lavender, true lavender or English lavender ; also garden lavender, common lavender, and narrow-leaved lavender.

<i>Cornus alba</i> Species of flowering plant

Cornus alba, the red-barked, white or Siberian dogwood, is a species of flowering plant in the family Cornaceae, native to Siberia, northern China and Korea. It is a large deciduous surculose (suckering) shrub that can be grown as a small tree. As a popular ornamental used in landscaping its notable features include the red stems in fall (autumn) through late winter, the brightest winter bark of any cornus; and the variegated foliage in some cultivars, such as C. alba 'Elegantissima', in which the discreet flat whitish flower clusters are almost lost in the variegated texture and dappled light. C. alba can grow to 3 m (10 ft) high, but variegated forms are less vigorous. For the brightest winter bark, young shoots are encouraged by cutting to the ground some older stems at the end of the winter, before leaves are open. The oval fruits are white, sometimes tinted blue.

<i>Camellia sasanqua</i> Species of flowering plant

Camellia sasanqua, with common name sasanqua camellia, is a species of Camellia native to China and Japan. It is usually found growing up to an altitude of 900 metres.

<i>Fatsia japonica</i> Species of plant

Fatsia japonica, also glossy-leaf paper plant, fatsi, paperplant, false castor oil plant, or Japanese aralia, is a species of flowering plant in the family Araliaceae, native to southern Japan and southern Korea.

<i>Escallonia</i> Genus of shrubs

Escallonia is a genus of shrubs and trees in the family Escalloniaceae. They are native to North and South America.

<i>Hydrangea serrata</i> Species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae

Hydrangea serrata is a species of flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae, native to mountainous regions of Korea and Japan. Common names include mountain hydrangea and tea of heaven. Growing to 1.2 m (4 ft) tall and broad, it is a deciduous shrub with oval leaves and panicles of blue and pink flowers in summer and autumn (fall). It is widely cultivated as an attractive ornamental shrub throughout the world in areas with suitable climate and soil.

<i>Hypoestes phyllostachya</i> Species of flowering plant

Hypoestes phyllostachya, the polka dot plant, is a species of flowering plant in the family Acanthaceae, native to South Africa, Madagascar, and south east Asia. The spots often merge into larger areas of colour.

<i>Acer palmatum</i> Species of maple

Acer palmatum, commonly known as Japanese maple, palmate maple, or smooth Japanese maple (Japanese: irohamomiji, イロハモミジ, or momiji,, is a species of woody plant native to Japan, Korea, China, eastern Mongolia, and southeast Russia. Many different cultivars of this maple have been selected and they are grown worldwide for their large variety of attractive forms, leaf shapes, and spectacular colors.

References

  1. "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species" . Retrieved April 8, 2014.
  2. 1 2 "Hibiscus syriacus (Hibiscus, Rose of China, Rose of Sharon, Rose-of-Sharon, Shrub Althea) | North Carolina Extension Gardener Plant Toolbox". plants.ces.ncsu.edu. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  3. "Hibiscus syriacus L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2018-07-29.
  4. Lawton, B.P. 2004. Hibiscus – hardy and tropical plants for the garden. Timber Press, Portland, OR
  5. Walker, J. 1999. Hibiscus. Cassel, London, England.
  6. Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Hibiscus".
  7. "Hibiscus syriacus". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 20 January 2016.
  8. BSBI List 2007 (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  9. http://www.hort.uconn.edu/plants/detail.php?pid=204
  10. "National Administration> National Symbols of the Republic of Korea> The National Flower - Mugunghwa". www.mois.go.kr. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  11. RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN   978-1405332965.
  12. "Hibiscus Syriacus 'Notwoodtwo' WHITE CHIFFON – Plant Finder". Missouribotanicalgarden.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 21 Apr. 2017.
  13. 1 2 plantfacts.osu.edu/pdf/0247-539.pdf. N.p., 2017. Web. 21 Apr. 2017.
  14. 1 2 Buchan, Ursula. "Hibiscus syriacus: how to grow". The Telegraph. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  15. 1 2 "Hibiscus syriacus - Plant Finder". www.missouribotanicalgarden.org. Retrieved 2021-02-27.
  16. Cankers On Trees: Various. 1st ed. Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Science, 2015. Web. 21 Apr. 2017.
  17. "AGM Plants – Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 48. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  18. "RHS Plantfinder - Hibiscus syriacusBlue Chiffon='Notwood3'" . Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  19. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Diana'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  20. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Hamabo'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  21. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacusLavender Chiffon 'Notwoodone'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  22. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Meehanii'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  23. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Oiseau Bleu'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  24. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Red Heart'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  25. "RHS Plantfinder - Hibiscus syriacusWhite Chiffon = 'Notwoodtwo'" . Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  26. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'William R. Smith'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  27. "RHS Plant Selector – Hibiscus syriacus 'Woodbridge'" . Retrieved 23 August 2020.
  28. "Korea.net".
  29. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cmtjuG5nPgc
  30. "The Korean rose". 8 May 2018.
  31. Parkinson, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris, 1629.
  32. Quoted in Coats 1992.
  33. Ann Leighton, American Gardens in the Eighteenth Century: 'For Use or Delight' (1976:429).

Further reading