In map projections, an interruption is any place where the globe has been split. All map projections are interrupted at at least one point. Typical world maps are interrupted along an entire meridian. In that typical case, the interruption forms an east/west boundary, even though the globe has no boundaries.
Most map projection can be interrupted beyond what is required by the projection mathematics. The reason for doing so is to improve distortion within the map by sacrificing proximity—that is, by separating places on the globe that ought to be adjacent. Effectively, this means that the resulting map is actually an amalgam of several partial map projections of smaller regions. Because the regions are smaller, they cover less of the globe, are closer to flat, and therefore accrue less inevitable distortion. These extra interruptions do not create a new projection. Rather, the result is an "arrangement" of an existing projection.
In casual parlance, interrupted projection usually means a projection that has been interrupted beyond mathematical necessity. In this casual sense, the usual east/west interruption of a pseudocylindric map is ignored as an interruption to focus on the elective interruptions. An archetypical example is the Goode homolosine projection. In 1916, John Paul Goode experimented by interrupting the Mollweide projection. Satisfied with the interruption scheme, he then devised a new projection as a composite of the Mollweide and the sinusoidal projection and applied the same interruption scheme to the new projection, which he dubbed "homolosine".
Because pseudocylindric projections map parallels as straight lines, and meridians to have constant spacing, they are easy to interrupt.This is normally done to optimize either for continental areas or for oceanic areas, as explored by Goode.
Many interruption schemes that are much more elaborate have been developed. Since antiquity, for example, globe gores have been developed in order to paste map sections onto model globes. These are regular interruption either along the equator,or in polar form as "rosettes". The Cahill butterfly projection divides the world into octahedral sections. More generally, any mapping onto polyhedral faces becomes an interrupted map when laid flat. Buckminster Fuller proposed his "dymaxion" map in 1943, using a modified icosahedral interruption scheme to divide the oceans up in a way that shows the continents in a nearly continuous mass as "one island". The most elaborate interruptions schemes include those of Athelstan Spilhaus along continental boundaries, and JJ Wijk's myriahedral projections.
Richard Buckminster Fuller was an American architect, systems theorist, author, designer, inventor, and futurist. Fuller published more than 30 books, coining or popularizing terms such as "Spaceship Earth", "Dymaxion", ephemeralization, synergetic, and "tensegrity". He also developed numerous inventions, mainly architectural designs, and popularized the widely known geodesic dome. Carbon molecules known as fullerenes were later named by scientists for their structural and mathematical resemblance to geodesic spheres.
In cartography, a map projection is a way to flatten a globe's surface into a plane in order to make a map. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. All projections of a sphere on a plane necessarily distort the surface in some way and to some extent. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. Every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way, by definition. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. Projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds. However, "map projection" refers specifically to a cartographic projection.
The Dymaxion map or Fuller map is a projection of a world map onto the surface of an icosahedron, which can be unfolded and flattened to two dimensions. The flat map is heavily interrupted in order to preserve shapes and sizes.
The Robinson projection is a map projection of a world map which shows the entire world at once. It was specifically created in an attempt to find a good compromise to the problem of readily showing the whole globe as a flat image.
A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of Earth. World maps form a distinctive category of maps due to the problem of projection. Maps by necessity distort the presentation of the earth's surface. These distortions reach extremes in a world map. The many ways of projecting the earth reflect diverse technical and aesthetic goals for world maps.
The Mollweide projection is an equal-area, pseudocylindrical map projection generally used for global maps of the world or night sky. It is also known as the Babinet projection, homalographic projection, homolographic projection, and elliptical projection. The projection trades accuracy of angle and shape for accuracy of proportions in area, and as such is used where that property is needed, such as maps depicting global distributions.
John Paul Goode, a geographer and cartographer, was one of the key geographers in American geography’s Incipient Period from 1900 to 1940. Goode was born in Stewartville, Minnesota on November 21, 1862. Goode received his bachelor's degree from the University of Minnesota 1889 and his doctorate in economics from the University of Pennsylvania in 1903. Later on in 1903, he was offered a position as a professor in the Geography Department at the University of Chicago.
The sinusoidal projection is a pseudocylindrical equal-area map projection, sometimes called the Sanson–Flamsteed or the Mercator equal-area projection. Jean Cossin of Dieppe was one of the first mapmakers to use the sinusoidal, appearing in a world map of 1570.
A Gaian is a radical Green who views the ecology of the Earth's biosphere not only as the basis of human moral examples, but of all cognition and even sentience. Advocates of this view claim that since we live as part of one planet's photosynthesis chain and are trapped within its gravity well, we are effectively components of one large body—that being the global ecology of Earth itself.
The Goode homolosine projection is a pseudocylindrical, equal-area, composite map projection used for world maps. Normally it is presented with multiple interruptions. Its equal-area property makes it useful for presenting spatial distribution of phenomena.
Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill, American cartographer and architect, was the inventor of the octahedral "Butterfly Map". An early proponent of the San Francisco Civic Center, he also designed hotels, factories and mausoleums like the Columbarium of San Francisco.
The Waterman "Butterfly" World Map is a map arrangement created by Steve Waterman. Waterman first published a map in this arrangement in 1996. The arrangement is an unfolding of a globe treated as a truncated octahedron, evoking the butterfly map principle first developed by Bernard J.S. Cahill (1866–1944) in 1909. Cahill and Waterman maps can be shown in various profiles, typically linked at the north Pacific or north Atlantic oceans.
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The Boggs eumorphic projection is a pseudocylindrical, equal-area map projection used for world maps. Normally it is presented with multiple interruptions. Its equal-area property makes it useful for presenting spatial distribution of phenomena. The projection was developed in 1929 by Samuel Whittemore Boggs (1889–1954) to provide an alternative to the Mercator projection for portraying global areal relationships. Boggs was geographer for the United States Department of State from 1924 until his death. The Boggs eumorphic projection has been used occasionally in textbooks and atlases.
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In map projection, equal-area maps preserve area measure, generally distorting shapes in order to do that. Equal-area maps are also called equivalent or authalic.