# Bernard J. S. Cahill

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Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill (London, January 30, 1866 - Alameda County, October 4, 1944 [1] [2] ), American cartographer and architect, was the inventor of the octahedral "Butterfly Map" (published in 1909 and patented in 1913 [3] ). An early proponent of the San Francisco Civic Center, he also designed hotels, factories and mausoleums like the Columbarium of San Francisco.

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His Butterfly World Map, like Buckminster Fuller's later Dymaxion map of 1943 and 1954, enabled all continents to be uninterrupted, and with reasonable fidelity to a globe. Cahill demonstrated this principle by also inventing a rubber-ball globe which could be flattened under a pane of glass in the "butterfly" form, then return to its ball shape.

A variant was developed by Gene Keyes in 1975, the Cahill–Keyes projection.

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Lilian "Lillie" Belle Bridgman (1866–1948) was an American scientist and architect. A childhood accident resulted in a broken leg and contributed to a lifelong impairment that required her to use a crutch. This condition may have changed her focus from helping with outdoor farm work to studying, writing and reading. It did not prevent her from hiking in the Berkeley Hills and the Sierras. After working first as a science teacher and writer, she changed her profession in mid-life and followed her dream of becoming an architect.

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The octant projection or octants projection, is a type of projection proposed the first time, in 1508, by Leonardo da Vinci in his Codex Atlanticus. Leonardo's authorship would be demonstrated by Christopher Tyler, who stated "For those projections dated later than 1508, his drawings should be effectively considered the original precursors..". In fact, there is a sketch of it on a page in the Codex Atlanticus manuscripts, made from the very hand of Leonardo, being Leonardo's sketch, the first known description of the octant projection.

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## References

1. "Cahill, B. J. S. (Bernard J. S.)". SNAC. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
2. "Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill (Architect)". Pacific Coast Architecture Database. Retrieved January 21, 2020.
3. Polanco, Alejandro (July 12, 2011). "Un mapa del mundo para terminar con los mapas del mundo". Tecnología Obsoleta (in Spanish). Retrieved January 21, 2020.