Bernard Joseph Stanislaus Cahill (London, January 30, 1866 - Alameda County, October 4, 1944), American cartographer and architect, was the inventor of the octahedral "Butterfly Map" (published in 1909 and patented in 1913 ). An early proponent of the San Francisco Civic Center, he also designed hotels, factories and mausoleums like the Columbarium of San Francisco.
His Butterfly World Map, like Buckminster Fuller's later Dymaxion map of 1943 and 1954, enabled all continents to be uninterrupted, and with reasonable fidelity to a globe. Cahill demonstrated this principle by also inventing a rubber-ball globe which could be flattened under a pane of glass in the "butterfly" form, then return to its ball shape.
A variant was developed by Gene Keyes in 1975, the Cahill–Keyes projection.
The Gall–Peters projection is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other. Like any equal-area projection, it achieves this goal by distorting most shapes. The projection is a particular example of the cylindrical equal-area projection with latitudes 45° north and south as the regions on the map that have no distortion.
The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It became the standard map projection for navigation because of its unique property of representing any course of constant bearing as a straight segment. Such a course, known as a rhumb or, mathematically, a loxodrome, is preferred by navigators because the ship can sail in a constant compass direction to reach its destination, eliminating difficult and error-prone course corrections. Linear scale is constant on the Mercator in every direction around any point, thus preserving the angles and the shapes of small objects and fulfilling the conditions of a conformal map projection. As a side effect, the Mercator projection inflates the size of objects away from the equator. This inflation is very small near the equator, but accelerates with latitude to become infinite at the poles. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear far larger than they actually are relative to landmasses near the equator, such as Central Africa.
The Neotropical realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms constituting the Earth's land surface. Physically, it includes the tropical terrestrial ecoregions of the Americas and the entire South American temperate zone.
In cartography, a map projection is a way to flatten a globe's surface into a plane in order to make a map. This requires a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of the globe into locations on a plane. All projections of a sphere on a plane necessarily distort the surface in some way and to some extent. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. Every distinct map projection distorts in a distinct way, by definition. The study of map projections is the characterization of these distortions. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections. Projections are a subject of several pure mathematical fields, including differential geometry, projective geometry, and manifolds. However, "map projection" refers specifically to a cartographic projection.
The Dymaxion map or Fuller map is a projection of a world map onto the surface of an icosahedron, which can be unfolded and flattened to two dimensions. The flat map is heavily interrupted in order to preserve shapes and sizes.
A world map is a map of most or all of the surface of Earth. World maps form a distinctive category of maps due to the problem of projection. Maps by necessity distort the presentation of the earth's surface. These distortions reach extremes in a world map. The many ways of projecting the earth reflect diverse technical and aesthetic goals for world maps.
Bernard Ralph Maybeck was an American architect in the Arts and Crafts Movement of the early 20th century. He was an instructor at University of California, Berkeley. Most of his major buildings were in the San Francisco Bay Area.
The Mollweide projection is an equal-area, pseudocylindrical map projection generally used for global maps of the world or night sky. It is also known as the Babinet projection, homalographic projection, homolographic projection, and elliptical projection. The projection trades accuracy of angle and shape for accuracy of proportions in area, and as such is used where that property is needed, such as maps depicting global distributions.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas. The term originated in the early 16th century after Europeans made landfall in what would later be called the Americas in the Age of Discovery, expanding the geographical horizon of classical geographers, who had thought of the world as consisting of Africa, Europe, and Asia, collectively now referred to as the Old World. The phrase gained prominence after the publication of a pamphlet titled Mundus Novus attributed to Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci. The Americas were also referred to as the "fourth part of the world".
Frank Colton Havens was a real estate and water developer in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Jaroslav Josef Polivka, Czech structural engineer who collaborated with Frank Lloyd Wright between 1946 and 1959.
Charles Augustus Keeler was an American author, poet, ornithologist and advocate for the arts, particularly architecture.
The Waterman "Butterfly" World Map is a map arrangement created by Steve Waterman. Waterman first published a map in this arrangement in 1996. The arrangement is an unfolding of a globe treated as a truncated octahedron, evoking the butterfly map principle first developed by Bernard J.S. Cahill (1866–1944) in 1909. Cahill and Waterman maps can be shown in various profiles, typically linked at the north Pacific or north Atlantic oceans.
Lilian "Lillie" Belle Bridgman (1866–1948) was an American scientist and architect. A childhood accident resulted in a broken leg and contributed to a lifelong impairment that required her to use a crutch. This condition may have changed her focus from helping with outdoor farm work to studying, writing and reading. It did not prevent her from hiking in the Berkeley Hills and the Sierras. After working first as a science teacher and writer, she changed her profession in mid-life and followed her dream of becoming an architect.
The Cahill–Keyes projection is a polyhedral compromise map projection first proposed by Gene Keyes in 1975. The projection is a refinement of an earlier 1909 projection by Cahill. The projection was designed to achieve a number of desirable characteristics, namely symmetry of component maps (octants), scalability allowing the map to continue to work well even at high resolution, uniformity of geocells, metric-based joining edges, minimized distortion compared to a globe, and an easily understood orientation to enhance general usability and teachability.
The octant projection or octants projection, is a type of projection proposed the first time, in 1508, by Leonardo da Vinci in his Codex Atlanticus. Leonardo's authorship would be demonstrated by Christopher Tyler, who stated "For those projections dated later than 1508, his drawings should be effectively considered the original precursors..". In fact, there is a sketch of it on a page in the Codex Atlanticus manuscripts, made from the very hand of Leonardo, being Leonardo's sketch, the first known description of the octant projection.
Leonardo's world map is a map drawn in the "octant projection" in approximately 1514, found among the papers of Leonardo da Vinci. It features an early use of the name America. The map incorporates information from the travels of Amerigo Vespucci, published in 1503 and 1505. Additionally, the map accurately shows the Arctic as an ocean and Antarctica as a continent of about the correct size.
Gene Scott Keyes is a former Assistant Professor of World Politics, a sometime peace activist, noted cartographer, and promoter of the international second language Esperanto. He achieved considerable attention for his peace activism when his mother, Charlotte E. Keyes wrote an article for McCall's, Suppose They Gave a War and Nobody Came. The title phrase, based on a quote from a Carl Sandburg poem, became part of the anti-Vietnam-War lexicon. The slogan also went on to become the basis of the film Suppose They Gave a War and Nobody Came. His cartography work has won two awards.
The Vallard Atlas is a world atlas, one of the Dieppe school of maps, produced in 1547. It is believed to have been owned by Nicolas Vallard, its authorship being unknown.
In map projections, an interruption is any place where the globe has been split. All map projections are interrupted at at least one point. Typical world maps are interrupted along an entire meridian. In that typical case, the interruption forms an east/west boundary, even though the globe has no boundaries.