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The **Tobler hyperelliptical projection** is a family of equal-area pseudocylindrical projections that may be used for world maps. Waldo R. Tobler introduced the construction in 1973 as the *hyperelliptical* projection, now usually known as the Tobler hyperelliptical projection.^{ [1] }

A **world map** is a map of most or all of the surface of the Earth. World maps form a distinctive category of maps due to the problem of projection. Maps by necessity distort the presentation of the earth's surface. These distortions reach extremes in a world map. The many ways of projecting the earth reflect diverse technical and aesthetic goals for world maps.

**Waldo Rudolph Tobler** was an American-Swiss geographer and cartographer. Tobler's idea that "Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things" is referred to as the "first law of geography." He has proposed a second law as well: "The phenomenon external to an area of interest affects what goes on inside". Tobler was an active Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Santa Barbara Department of Geography until his death.

As with any pseudocylindrical projection, in the projection’s normal aspect,^{ [2] } the parallels of latitude are parallel, straight lines. Their spacing is calculated to provide the equal-area property. The projection blends the cylindrical equal-area projection with meridians of longitude that follow a particular kind of curve known as * superellipses *^{ [3] } or Lamé curves or sometimes as hyperellipses. The curve is described by *x*^{k} + *y*^{k} = *γ*^{k}. The relative weight of the cylindrical equal-area projection is given as *α*, ranging from all cylindrical equal-area with *α* = 1 to all hyperellipses with *α* = 0.

A **circle of latitude** on Earth is an abstract east–west circle connecting all locations around Earth at a given latitude.

In geography, **latitude** is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude is an angle which ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° at the poles. Lines of constant latitude, or *parallels*, run east–west as circles parallel to the equator. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth. On its own, the term latitude should be taken to be the *geodetic latitude* as defined below. Briefly, geodetic latitude at a point is the angle formed by the vector perpendicular to the ellipsoidal surface from that point, and the equatorial plane. Also defined are six *auxiliary latitudes* which are used in special applications.

In cartography, the **cylindrical equal-area projection** is a family of cylindrical, equal-area map projections.

When *α* = 0 and *k* = 1 the projection degenerates to the Collignon projection; when *α* = 0, *k* = 2, and *γ* ≈ 1.2731 the projection becomes the Mollweide projection.^{ [4] } Tobler favored the parameterization shown with the top illustration; that is, *α* = 0, *k* = 2.5, and *γ* = 1.183136.

In mathematics, a **degenerate case** is a limiting case in which an element of a class of objects is qualitatively different from the rest of the class and hence belongs to another, usually simpler, class. **Degeneracy** is the condition of being a degenerate case.

The **Collignon projection** is an equal-area pseudocylindrical map projection first known to be published by Édouard Collignon in 1865 and subsequently cited by A. Tissot in 1881.

The **Mollweide projection** is an equal-area, pseudocylindrical map projection generally used for global maps of the world or night sky. It is also known as the **Babinet projection**, **homalographic projection**, **homolographic projection**, and **elliptical projection**. The projection trades accuracy of angle and shape for accuracy of proportions in area, and as such is used where that property is needed, such as maps depicting global distributions.

The **Gall–Peters projection** is a rectangular map projection that maps all areas such that they have the correct sizes relative to each other. Like any equal-area projection, it achieves this goal by distorting most shapes. The projection is a particular example of the cylindrical equal-area projection with latitudes 45° north and south as the regions on the map that have no distortion.

The **Mercator projection** is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569. It became the standard map projection for navigation because of its unique property of representing any course of constant bearing as a straight segment. Such a course, known as a rhumb or, mathematically, a loxodrome, is preferred by navigators because the ship can sail in a constant compass direction to reach its destination, eliminating difficult and error-prone course corrections. Linear scale is constant on the Mercator in every direction around any point, thus preserving the angles and the shapes of small objects and fulfilling the conditions of a conformal map projection. As a side effect, the Mercator projection inflates the size of objects away from the equator. This inflation starts infinitesimally but accelerates with latitude to reach infinite at the poles. So, for example, landmasses such as Greenland and Antarctica appear far larger than they actually are relative to landmasses near the equator, such as Central Africa.

A **map projection** is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane. Maps cannot be created without map projections. All map projections necessarily distort the surface in some fashion. Depending on the purpose of the map, some distortions are acceptable and others are not; therefore, different map projections exist in order to preserve some properties of the sphere-like body at the expense of other properties. There is no limit to the number of possible map projections.

A **superellipse**, also known as a **Lamé curve** after Gabriel Lamé, is a closed curve resembling the ellipse, retaining the geometric features of semi-major axis and semi-minor axis, and symmetry about them, but a different overall shape.

**Johann Heinrich Lambert** was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics, philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Edward Tufte calls him and William Playfair "The two great inventors of modern graphical designs".

The **Robinson projection** is a map projection of a world map which shows the entire world at once. It was specifically created in an attempt to find a good compromise to the problem of readily showing the whole globe as a flat image.

The **scale** of a map is the ratio of a distance on the map to the corresponding distance on the ground. This simple concept is complicated by the curvature of the Earth's surface, which forces scale to vary across a map. Because of this variation, the concept of scale becomes meaningful in two distinct ways. The first way is the ratio of the size of the **generating globe** to the size of the Earth. The generating globe is a conceptual model to which the Earth is shrunk and from which the map is projected.

The **sinusoidal projection** is a pseudocylindrical equal-area map projection, sometimes called the **Sanson–Flamsteed** or the **Mercator equal-area projection**. Jean Cossin of Dieppe was one of the first mapmakers to use the sinusoidal, appearing in a world map of 1570.

The **Goode homolosine projection** is a pseudocylindrical, equal-area, composite map projection used for world maps. Normally it is presented with multiple interruptions. Its equal-area property makes it useful for presenting spatial distribution of phenomena.

A **Lambert conformal conic projection** (**LCC**) is a conic map projection used for aeronautical charts, portions of the State Plane Coordinate System, and many national and regional mapping systems. It is one of seven projections introduced by Johann Heinrich Lambert in his 1772 publication *Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten*.

In mathematics, the **differential geometry of surfaces** deals with the differential geometry of smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric. Surfaces have been extensively studied from various perspectives: *extrinsically*, relating to their embedding in Euclidean space and *intrinsically*, reflecting their properties determined solely by the distance within the surface as measured along curves on the surface. One of the fundamental concepts investigated is the Gaussian curvature, first studied in depth by Carl Friedrich Gauss, who showed that curvature was an intrinsic property of a surface, independent of its isometric embedding in Euclidean space.

The **Eckert VI projection** is an equal-area pseudocylindrical map projection. The length of polar line is half that of the equator, and lines of longitude are sinusoids. It was first described by Max Eckert in 1906 as one of a series of three pairs of pseudocylindrical projections. In each pair, the meridians have the same shape, and the odd-numbered projection has equally spaced parallels, whereas the even-numbered projection has parallels spaced to preserve area. The pair to Eckert VI is the Eckert V projection.

The **Eckert II projection** is an equal-area pseudocylindrical map projection. In the equatorial aspect the network of longitude and latitude lines consists solely of straight lines, and the outer boundary has the distinctive shape of an elongated hexagon. It was first described by Max Eckert in 1906 as one of a series of three pairs of pseudocylindrical projections. Within each pair, the meridians have the same shape, and the odd-numbered projection has equally spaced parallels, whereas the even-numbered projection has parallels spaced to preserve area. The pair to Eckert II is the Eckert I projection.

In mathematics, a **superelliptic curve** is a plane curve with an equation of the form

In cartography, the **loximuthal projection** is a map projection introduced by Karl Siemon in 1935, and independently in 1966 by Waldo R. Tobler, who named it. It is characterized by the fact that loxodromes from one chosen central point are shown straight lines, correct in azimuth from the center, and are "true to scale" in the sense that distances measured along such lines are proportional to lengths of the corresponding rhumb lines on the surface of the earth. It is neither an equal-area projection nor conformal.

The **Boggs eumorphic projection** is a pseudocylindrical, equal-area map projection used for world maps. Normally it is presented with multiple interruptions. Its equal-area property makes it useful for presenting spatial distribution of phenomena. The projection was developed in 1929 by Samuel Whittemore Boggs (1889–1954) to provide an alternative to the Mercator projection for portraying global areal relationships. Boggs was geographer for the United States Department of State from 1924 until his death. The Boggs eumorphic projection has been used occasionally in textbooks and atlases.

The **Equal Earth map projection** is an equal-area pseudocylindrical projection for world maps, invented by Bojan Šavrič, Bernhard Jenny, and Tom Patterson in 2018. It is inspired by the widely used Robinson projection, but unlike the Robinson projection, retains the relative size of areas. The projection equations are simple to implement and fast to evaluate.

- ↑ Snyder, John P. (1993).
*Flattening the Earth: 2000 Years of Map Projections*. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 220. - ↑ The Tobler Hyperelliptical Projection on the Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science's site
- ↑ "Superellipse" in MathWorld encyclopedia
- ↑ Tobler, Waldo (1973). "The hyperelliptical and other new pseudocylindrical equal area map projections".
*Journal of Geophysical Research*.**78**(11): 1753–1759. Bibcode:1973JGR....78.1753T. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.495.6424 . doi:10.1029/JB078i011p01753.

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