# Eckert IV projection

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The Eckert IV projection is an equal-area pseudocylindrical map projection. The length of the polar lines is half that of the equator, and lines of longitude are semiellipses, or portions of ellipses. It was first described by Max Eckert in 1906 as one of a series of three pairs of pseudocylindrical projections. Within each pair, meridians are the same whereas parallels differ. Odd-numbered projections have parallels spaced equally, whereas even-numbered projections have parallels spaced to preserve area. Eckert IV is paired with Eckert III. 

## Formulas

### Forward formulae

Given a sphere of radius R, central meridian λ0 and a point with geographical latitude φ and longitude λ, plane coordinates x and y can be computed using the following formulas:

{\begin{aligned}x&={\frac {2}{\sqrt {4\pi +\pi ^{2}}}}R\,(\lambda -\lambda _{0})(1+\cos \theta )\approx 0.422\,2382\,R\,(\lambda -\lambda _{0})(1+\cos \theta ),\\[8pt]y&=2{\sqrt {\frac {\pi }{4+\pi }}}R\sin \theta \approx 1.326\,5004\,R\sin \theta ,\end{aligned}} where

$\theta +\sin \theta \cos \theta +2\sin \theta =\left(2+{\frac {\pi }{2}}\right)\sin \varphi .$ θ can be solved for numerically using Newton's method. 

### Inverse formulae

{\begin{aligned}\theta &=\arcsin \left[y{\frac {\sqrt {4+\pi }}{2{\sqrt {\pi }}R}}\right]\approx \arcsin \left[{\frac {y}{1.326\,5004\,R}}\right]\\[8pt]\varphi &=\arcsin \left[{\frac {\theta +\sin \theta \cos \theta +2\sin \theta }{2+{\frac {\pi }{2}}}}\right]\\[8pt]\lambda &=\lambda _{0}+x{\frac {\sqrt {4\pi +\pi ^{2}}}{2R(1+\cos \theta )}}\approx \lambda _{0}+{\frac {x}{0.422\,2382\,R\,(1+\cos \theta )}}\end{aligned}} ## Related Research Articles An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation. A tautochrone or isochrone curve is the curve for which the time taken by an object sliding without friction in uniform gravity to its lowest point is independent of its starting point on the curve. The curve is a cycloid, and the time is equal to π times the square root of the radius over the acceleration of gravity. The tautochrone curve is related to the brachistochrone curve, which is also a cycloid. In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions. Specifically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angle's trigonometric ratios. Inverse trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry. In mathematics, trigonometric substitution is the substitution of trigonometric functions for other expressions. In calculus, trigonometric substitution is a technique for evaluating integrals. Moreover, one may use the trigonometric identities to simplify certain integrals containing radical expressions. The great-circle distance or orthodromic distance is the shortest distance between two points on the surface of a sphere, measured along the surface of the sphere. The distance between two points in Euclidean space is the length of a straight line between them, but on the sphere there are no straight lines. In spaces with curvature, straight lines are replaced by geodesics. Geodesics on the sphere are circles on the sphere whose centers coincide with the center of the sphere, and are called great circles. The Mollweide projection is an equal-area, pseudocylindrical map projection generally used for global maps of the world or night sky. It is also known as the Babinet projection, homalographic projection, homolographic projection, and elliptical projection. The projection trades accuracy of angle and shape for accuracy of proportions in area, and as such is used where that property is needed, such as maps depicting global distributions.

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1. Snyder, John P.; Voxland, Philip M. (1989). An Album of Map Projections. Professional Paper 1453. Denver: USGS. p. 60. ISBN   978-0160033681 . Retrieved 2014-09-27.
2. Snyder, John P. (1987). Map Projections – A Working Manual. Professional Paper 1395. Denver: USGS. pp. 253–258. ISBN   0-226-76747-7 . Retrieved 2013-07-24.