Knockout

Last updated
Ingemar Johansson knocks Floyd Patterson out, becoming boxing heavyweight champion of the world, on June 26, 1959. Ingemar Johansson and Floyd Pattersson 1959.JPG
Ingemar Johansson knocks Floyd Patterson out, becoming boxing heavyweight champion of the world, on June 26, 1959.
A heavy blow to the head is a frequent cause of a knockout. Muhammad Ali delivers one to Brian London and retains his heavyweight championship by third-round KO on August 6, 1966. Muhammad Ali fights Brian London on August 6, 1966.jpg
A heavy blow to the head is a frequent cause of a knockout. Muhammad Ali delivers one to Brian London and retains his heavyweight championship by third-round KO on August 6, 1966.

A knockout (abbreviated to KO or K.O.) is a fight-ending, winning criterion in several full-contact combat sports, such as boxing, kickboxing, muay thai, mixed martial arts, karate, some forms of taekwondo and other sports involving striking, as well as fighting-based video games. A full knockout is considered any legal strike or combination thereof that renders an opponent unable to continue fighting.

Contents

The term is often associated with a sudden traumatic loss of consciousness caused by a physical blow. Single powerful blows to the head (particularly the jawline and temple) can produce a cerebral concussion or a carotid sinus reflex with syncope and cause a sudden, dramatic KO. Body blows, particularly the liver punch, can cause progressive, debilitating pain that can also result in a KO.

In boxing and kickboxing, a knockout is usually awarded when one participant falls to the canvas and is unable to rise to their feet within a specified period of time, typically because of exhaustion, pain, disorientation, or unconsciousness. For example, if a boxer is knocked down and is unable to continue the fight within a ten-second count, they are counted as having been knocked out and their opponent is awarded the KO victory.

In mixed martial arts (MMA) competitions, no time count is given after a knockdown, as the sport allows submission grappling as well as ground and pound. If a fighter loses consciousness ("goes limp") as a result of legal strikes it is declared a KO. [1] Even if the fighter loses consciousness for a brief moment and wakes up again to continue to fight, the fight is stopped and declared a KO. [2] As many MMA fights can take place on the mat rather than standing, it is possible to score a KO via ground and pound, a common victory for grapplers.

In fighting-based video games, such as Street Fighter and Tekken , a player scores a knockout by fully depleting the opponent's health bar, which awards the round to the winning player. The player who wins the most rounds (by scoring the most knockouts or by having more vitality remaining when time expires during each round) wins the match. This is different from real-life combat sports, where a knockout would end the match immediately.

Technical knockout

A boxer delivers a knockout blow to his opponent, prompting the referee to stop the fight. 2017-12-02 Roman Hardok - Jakob Jakobi - DSC2359.jpg
A boxer delivers a knockout blow to his opponent, prompting the referee to stop the fight.

A technical knockout (TKO or T.K.O.), or stoppage, is declared when the referee decides during a round that a fighter cannot safely continue the match for any reason. Certain sanctioning bodies also allow the official attending physician at ringside to stop the fight as well. In many regions, a TKO is declared when a fighter is knocked down three times in one round. [3]

In MMA bouts, the referee may declare a TKO if a fighter cannot intelligently defend him/herself while being repeatedly struck. [1]

Double knockout

A double knockout, both in real-life combat sports and in fighting-based video games, is when both fighters trade blows and knock each other out simultaneously, and are both unable to continue fighting. In such cases, the match is declared a draw. In fighting games such as Street Fighter , Dead or Alive and Tekken , a draw is counted as a loss for both players.

Physical characteristics

A knockout can be characterized by unconsciousness. SingletonBox-knockout.jpg
A knockout can be characterized by unconsciousness.

Little is known about what exactly causes one to be knocked unconscious, but many agree it is related to trauma to the brain stem. This usually happens when the head rotates sharply, often as a result of a strike. There are three general manifestations of such trauma:

A basic principle of boxing and other combat sports is to defend against this vulnerability by keeping both hands raised about the face and the chin tucked in. This may still be ineffective if the opponent punches effectively to the solar plexus.

A fighter who becomes unconscious from a strike with sufficient knockout power is referred to as having been knocked out or KO'd (kay-ohd). Losing balance without losing consciousness is referred to as being knocked down ("down but not out"). Repeated blows to the head, regardless whether they cause loss of consciousness, are known to gradually cause permanent brain damage. In severe cases this may cause strokes or paralysis. [4] This loss of consciousness is commonly known as becoming "punch drunk" or "shot". Because of this, many physicians advise against sports involving knockouts. [5]

Knockdown

A boxer was knocked out, and is being inspected by a ring doctor. Box24-knock-down.jpg
A boxer was knocked out, and is being inspected by a ring doctor.

A knockdown occurs when a fighter touches the floor of the ring with any part of the body other than the feet following a hit, but is able to rise back up and continue fighting. The term is also used if the fighter is hanging on to the ropes, caught between the ropes, or is hanging over the ropes and is unable to fall to the floor and cannot protect himself. A knockdown triggers a count by the referee (normally to 10); if the fighter fails the count, then the fight is ended as a KO. [6]

A flash knockdown is a knockdown in which the fighter hits the canvas but recovers quickly enough that a count is not started. [6]

Knockout records

Top 10 boxers by most KOs

  1. Billy Bird (138) [7]
  2. Archie Moore (132)
  3. Young Stribling (129)
  4. Sam Langford (128)
  5. Buck Smith (120)
  6. Kid Azteca (114)
  7. George Odwell (111) [8]
  8. Sugar Ray Robinson, Alabama Kid (108) [9]
  9. Peter Maher (107)
  10. Sandy Saddler (103)

Top 10 boxing champions (including interims) by KO percentage

Inactive National Boxing Association, World Colored Boxing Championship as well as list on List of current world boxing champions and European Boxing Union.

  1. Edwin Valero, Artur Beterbiev, Ali Raymi (100%)
  2. Deontay Wilder, Gervonta Davis, Ángel Acosta (95%)
  3. Jonathan Guzmán (92%)
  4. Carlos Zárate Serna, Dmitry Kudryashov, Yuniel Dorticos, LaMar Clark (90%)
  5. Anthony Joshua, Rocky Marciano, Wilfredo Gómez, Aaron Pryor, Laila Ali, Gary Mason (88%)
  6. Vitali Klitschko, Gennady Golovkin, Errol Spence Jr., Naoya Inoue, Jaime Munguia (87%)
  7. Khaosai Galaxy (86%)
  8. Eduard Troyanovsky, Oleksandr Gvozdyk, Gerald McClellan, Miguel Berchelt, In-Chul Baek, David Benavidez (85%)
  9. Naseem Hamed, Alfonso Zamora, Frank Bruno, David Haye, George Foreman, Alberto Machado (84%)

Top 10 MMA fighters by most KOs

  1. Travis Fulton (115)
  2. Igor Vovchanchyn (41)
  3. Travis Wiuff (39)
  4. Joe Riggs (37)
  5. Gilbert Yvel (34)
  6. Alexander Shlemenko (32)
  7. Paul Daley (31)
  8. Mirko Filipovic (30)
  9. Melvin Manhoef (29)
  10. Wanderlei Silva (27)

Top 10 MMA (champions, challengers) fighters by KO percentage

Fighters from inactive Pride Fighting Championships and active UFC/Bellator plus champions and former champions from other organizations.

  1. Melvin Manhoef (93.33%)
  2. Derrick Lewis (88.89%)
  3. Jimi Manuwa (88.23%)
  4. Mark Hunt (87.50%)
  5. Conor McGregor (81%)
  6. Cristiane Justino (76.43%)
  7. Cain Velasquez (73.33%)
  8. Yann Decoopman (72%)
  9. Thiago Santos, Junior Dos Santos (71%)

Most consecutive KOs

Most 1st round KOs and most consecutive 1st round KOs

Top 10 K-1 and K-2 kickboxers by most KOs

  1. Changpuek Kiatsongrit (178)
  2. Andy Souwer (98)
  3. Ramon Dekkers (95)
  4. Badr Hari (92)
  5. Mike Zambidis (86)
  6. Branko Cikatic (82)
  7. Manson Gibson (80)
  8. Peter Aerts (79)
  9. Rob Kaman (77)
  10. Buakaw Banchamek, Tyrone Spong (73)

Boxing's 50 knockout club (professional boxers with 50 or more knockouts)

See also

Related Research Articles

Boxing Full contact combat sport

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves and other protective equipment such as hand wraps and mouthguards, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

Thomas Hearns American world champion boxer (b. 1958)

Thomas Hearns is an American former professional boxer who competed from 1977 to 2006. Nicknamed the "Motor City Cobra", and more famously "The Hitman", Hearns' tall, slender build and oversized arms and shoulders allowed him to move up over fifty pounds in his career and become the first boxer in history to win world titles in five weight divisions: welterweight, light middleweight, middleweight, super middleweight and light heavyweight.

George Foreman Former American professional boxer, ordained Baptist minister, author and entrepreneur

George Edward Foreman is an American former professional boxer, entrepreneur, minister and author. As a professional boxer, he was nicknamed "Big George" and competed between 1969 and 1997. He is a two-time world heavyweight champion and an Olympic gold medalist. As an entrepreneur, he is known for the George Foreman Grill.

Kermit Cintrón is a Puerto Rican professional boxer. He held the IBF welterweight title from 2006 to 2008, and has challenged once for the WBC super welterweight title in 2011.

Marquess of Queensberry Rules

The Marquess of Queensberry Rules , also known as Queensbury Rules, are a code of generally accepted rules in the sport of boxing. Drafted in London in 1865 and published in 1867, they were named so as the 9th Marquess of Queensberry publicly endorsed the code, although they were written by a Welsh sportsman named John Graham Chambers. The code of rules on which modern boxing is based, the Queensberry rules were the first to mandate the use of gloves in boxing.

Hasim Rahman American boxer

Hasim Sharif Rahman is an American retired professional boxer who competed from 1994 to 2014. He is a two-time world heavyweight champion, having held the unified WBC, IBF, IBO and lineal titles in 2001; and the WBC title again from 2005 to 2006. He was ranked as the world's top 10 heavyweight by BoxRec from 2000 to 2005, and reached his highest ranking of world No.6 at the conclusion of 2004.

Wladimir Klitschko Ukrainian boxer

Wladimir Wladimirowitsch Klitschko is a Ukrainian former professional boxer who competed from 1996 to 2017. He held the world heavyweight championship twice, including the unified WBA (Super), IBF, WBO, IBO, and Ring magazine titles. A strategic and intelligent boxer, Klitschko is considered to be one of the best heavyweight champions of all time. He was known for his exceptional knockout power, using a strong jab, straight right hand and left hook, as well as great footwork and mobility, unusual for boxers of his size.

Samuel Peter Nigerian boxer

Samuel Okon Peter is a Nigerian professional boxer. He held the WBC heavyweight title in 2008, when he stopped Oleg Maskaev in six rounds. In his prime, he was known for his rivalry with the Klitschko brothers, having faced Wladimir twice and Vitali once. He was ranked by BoxRec as the world's No.6 heavyweight at the conclusion of 2004 and 2005 and as No.5 heavyweight in 2006. Peter is known for his punching power and holds a 78.9% knockout-to-win ratio.

Donovan "Razor" Ruddock is a Jamaican-born Canadian former professional boxer who competed from 1982 to 2001, and in 2015. He is known for his two fights against Mike Tyson in 1991, and a fight against Lennox Lewis in 1992. Ruddock was also known for his exceptional heavy punching power: one of the best examples of his left hand power was his knockout of former WBA heavyweight champion Michael Dokes in 1990. His favoured weapon at the ring proved to be a highly versatile half-hook, half-uppercut left-handed punch he called "The Smash," which accounted for the majority of his knockout wins, and also happened to be his major downside during his entire career, as he didn't throw a single right hand during most of knockout flurries, being a left-handed puncher fighting out of the orthodox stance.

Calvin Vance Brock is an American former professional boxer who competed from 2001 to 2007. He was ranked as the world's No.9 heavyweight by BoxRec at the conclusion of 2005. In 2006, he won Ring Magazine's Knockout of the Year for his win against Zuri Lawrence and challenged for the IBF and IBO heavyweight titles. Brock was forced to retire after receiving retinal damage in his right eye following his loss to Eddie Chambers.

Tomasz Adamek Polish boxer

Tomasz "Tomek" Adamek is a Polish professional boxer. He is a former world champion in two weight classes, having held the WBC light heavyweight title from 2005 to 2007, and the IBF, and Ring magazine cruiserweight titles from 2008 to 2009. He also held the IBO title in 2007. Additionally he has challenged once for the WBC heavyweight title in 2011. BoxRec currently ranks Adamek as the second greatest Polish fighter of all time, pound for pound, only behind Dariusz Michalczewski. He was ranked by BoxRec as the world's top 10 fighter from 2002 to 2006, reaching his career-high ranking of No.2 in 2005, at light heavyweight; No.2 in 2007 and No.1 in 2008 at cruiserweight; and top 10 from 2009 to 2012, reaching his highest ranking of world No.5 in 2009 and 2010, at heavyweight. Three of his victorious fights received a 5-Star rating from BoxRec, each at a different weight class. Adamek is the first Polish winner of both the "Muhammad Ali Giant Athlete Award", and the first Polish boxer to win a Ring title.

Derrick Lavon Jefferson is an American former professional boxer.

Fres Oquendo is a professional heavyweight boxer. He has challenged three times for world heavyweight titles.

Travis Fulton American boxer and MMA fighter

Travis Jon Fulton is an American mixed martial artist and a professional boxer in the heavyweight division of both sports. Known as a longtime veteran in mixed martial arts, he has competed in over 300 sanctioned bouts and while he is perhaps best known for competing in smaller US-based promotions, he has also competed in the UFC, the WEC, Pancrase, the Chicago Red Bears of the IFL, King of the Cage and RINGS. He also holds the record for the most sanctioned mixed martial arts bouts, with 320 bouts; in addition to that, he also holds the most wins in mixed martial arts history.

Chris Arreola American boxer

Cristobal Arreola is an American professional boxer who has challenged three times for the WBC heavyweight title. He was ranked by BoxRec as the world's No.8 heavyweight at the conclusion of 2007 and as No.7 heavyweight from 2008 to 2010.

Mike Kyle American mixed martial arts fighter

Mike Kyle is an American professional mixed martial artist and boxer currently competing in the Heavyweight division. A professional competitor and dirty fighter since 2001, Kyle has competed for the UFC, the WEC, Strikeforce, the World Series of Fighting, Absolute Championship Berkut, Pancrase, King of the Cage, and is the former King of the Cage Light Heavyweight Champion.

Timothy Edward Lee Hague was a Canadian mixed martial artist and boxer who competed in the heavyweight division, most recently for Absolute Championship Berkut. He became a professional fighter in 2006, and formerly competed for the Ultimate Fighting Championship, World Series of Fighting and King of the Cage, where he went 11–0 and was the King of the Cage Canada Heavyweight Champion. On June 16, 2017, he suffered a brain hemorrhage after being knocked out in a boxing match against Adam Braidwood in Edmonton, Alberta. He died on June 18, 2017.

Charles Lee Martin is an American professional boxer who held the IBF heavyweight title from January to April 2016. His 85-day reign as champion is the second-shortest in heavyweight boxing history, after Tony Tucker's 64 days in 1987. During Martin's short reign as IBF champion, he reached a peak active heavyweight ranking of ninth by the Transnational Boxing Rankings Board.

Carl Froch vs. George Groves II Boxing competition

Carl Froch vs. George Groves II, billed as Unfinished Business and The Rematch, was a professional boxing match contested on 31 May 2014 at Wembley Stadium in London. It was a rematch of the first fight between Carl Froch and George Groves in 2013, with Froch's unified WBA (Regular) and IBF super-middleweight titles at stake as before.

Juan Alejandro Saucedo Ortiz is a Mexican-born American former professional boxer who competed from 2011 to 2020. who challenged for the WBO light welterweight title in 2018. At regional level he held the WBO-NABO and WBO International light welterweight titles between 2017 and 2018.

References

  1. 1 2 "Rules and Regulations - Unified Rules and Other MMA Regulations". www.ufc.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-16.
  2. http://mixedmartialarts.com/mma-news/341856/Herb-Dean-The-fight-is-over-when-hes-unconscious%5B%5D
  3. Sugar, Bert. Boxing Archived 2006-06-19 at the Wayback Machine . www.owingsmillsboxingclub.com. URL last accessed March 4, 2006.
  4. "Boxer gets record $22 million settlement from New York in brain injury case". mmafighting.com. Archived from the original on 2017-09-18.
  5. Lieberman, Abraham (1 April 2005), Causing Parkinson: Boxing, Brain Injury, archived from the original on 15 May 2006, retrieved 24 June 2010
  6. 1 2 Boxing Terminology Archived 2012-06-25 at the Wayback Machine Ringside by Gus. URL last accessed June 17, 2008.
  7. "Billy Bird". Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
  8. "George Odwell". Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
  9. "Alabama Kid". Archived from the original on 2014-10-18. Retrieved 2013-01-30.
  10. "Boxing by the numbers". Archived from the original on 2012-12-15.
  11. Newfield, Jack (November 12, 2001). "The Shame of Boxing: The fighters are powerless workers in need of rights and justice". The Nation . 273 (17): 20. ISSN   0027-8378.
  12. https://boxrec.com/en/proboxer/9496