Sugar Ray Robinson

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Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson 1966.jpg
Sugar Ray Robinson in the Madison Square Garden in 1966
Statistics
Real nameWalter (Walker) Smith Jr.
Weight(s)
Height5 ft 11 in (180 cm)
Reach72½ in
Born(1921-05-03)May 3, 1921
Ailey, Georgia, U.S.
DiedApril 12, 1989(1989-04-12) (aged 67)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights200
Wins173
Wins by KO109
Losses19
Draws6
No contests2
Medal record
Men's amateur boxing
Representing Flag of the United States.svg  United States
New York Golden Gloves
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1939 New York Featherweight
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1940 New York Lightweight
Intercity Golden Gloves
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1939 Chicago Featherweight
Gold medal icon (G initial).svg 1940 New York Lightweight

Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr.; May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1940 to 1965. He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. [1] He is regarded as the greatest boxer of all time. [2]

Contents

Robinson was a dominant amateur, but his exact amateur record is not known. It is usually listed as 85–0 with 69 knockouts, 40 in the first round. However it has been reported he lost to Billy Graham and Patsy Pesca as a teenager under his given name, Walker Smith Jr. He turned professional in 1940 at the age of 19 and by 1951 had a professional record of 128–1–2 with 84 knockouts. From 1943 to 1951 Robinson went on a 91-fight unbeaten streak, the third-longest in professional boxing history. [3] [4] Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and won the world middleweight title in the latter year. He retired in 1952, only to come back two-and-a-half years later and regain the middleweight title in 1955. He then became the first boxer in history to win a divisional world championship five times (a feat he accomplished by defeating Carmen Basilio in 1958 to regain the middleweight championship). Robinson was named "fighter of the year" twice: first for his performances in 1942, then nine years and over 90 fights later, for his efforts in 1951. Historian Bert Sugar ranked Robinson as the greatest fighter of all time and in 2002, Robinson was also ranked number one on The Ring magazine's list of "80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years". [5] As of May 2021, BoxRec ranks Robinson as the nineteenth greatest boxer, pound-for-pound, of all time. [6]

Renowned for his classy and flamboyant lifestyle outside the ring, [7] Robinson is credited with being the originator of the modern sports "entourage". After his boxing career ended, Robinson attempted a career as an entertainer, but it was not successful. He struggled financially until his death in 1989. In 2006, he was featured on a commemorative stamp by the United States Postal Service. [8]

Early life

Robinson was born Walker Smith Jr. in Ailey, Georgia, to Walker Smith Sr. and Leila Hurst. [9] Robinson was the youngest of three children; his eldest sister Marie was born in 1917, and his other sister Evelyn in 1919. His father was a cotton, peanut, and corn farmer in Georgia, who moved the family to Detroit where he initially found work in construction. [9] According to Robinson, Smith Sr. later worked two jobs to support his family—cement mixer and sewer worker. "He had to get up at six in the morning and he'd get home close to midnight. Six days a week. The only day I really saw him was Sunday ... I always wanted to be with him more." [10]

His parents separated, and he moved with his mother to the New York City neighborhood of Harlem at the age of twelve. Robinson originally aspired to be a doctor, but after dropping out of DeWitt Clinton High School (in the Bronx) in ninth grade he switched his goal to boxing. [11] When he was 15, he attempted to enter his first boxing tournament but was told he needed to first obtain an AAU membership card. However, he could not procure one until he was eighteen years old. He received his name when he circumvented the AAU's age restriction by borrowing a birth certificate from his friend Ray Robinson. [12] Subsequently told that he was "sweet as sugar" by a lady in the audience at a fight in Watertown, New York, Smith Jr. became known as "Sugar" Ray Robinson. [13] [14]

Robinson idolized Henry Armstrong and Joe Louis as a youth, and actually lived on the same block as Louis in Detroit when Robinson was 11 and Louis was 17. [13] Outside the ring, Robinson got into trouble frequently as a youth, and was involved with a street gang. [13] He married at 16. The couple had one son, Ronnie, and divorced when Robinson was 19. [13] He reportedly finished his amateur career with an 85–0 record with 69 knockouts – 40 coming in the first round, though this has been disputed. [15] He won the New York Golden Gloves featherweight championship in 1939 (def.Louis Valentine points 3), and the New York Golden Gloves lightweight championship in 1940 (def.Andy Nonella KO 2). [12]

Boxing career

Early career

Robinson made his professional debut on October 4, 1940, winning by a second-round stoppage over Joe Echevarria. Robinson fought five more times in 1940, winning each time, with four wins coming by way of knockout. In 1941, he defeated world champion Sammy Angott, future champion Marty Servo and former champion Fritzie Zivic. The Robinson-Angott fight was held above the lightweight limit, since Angott did not want to risk losing his lightweight title. Robinson defeated Zivic in front of 20,551 at Madison Square Garden—one of the largest crowds in the arena to that date. [16] Robinson won the first five rounds, according to Joseph C. Nichols of The New York Times , before Zivic came back to land several punches to Robinson's head in the sixth and seventh rounds. [16] Robinson controlled the next two rounds, and had Zivic in the ninth. After a close tenth round, Robinson was announced as the winner on all three scorecards. [16]

In 1942 Robinson knocked out Zivic in the tenth round in a January rematch. The knockout loss was only the second of Zivic's career in more than 150 fights. [17] Robinson knocked him down in the ninth and tenth rounds before the referee stopped the fight. Zivic and his corner protested the stoppage; James P. Dawson of The New York Times stated "[t]hey were criticizing a humane act. The battle had been a slaughter, for want of a more delicate word." [17] Robinson then won four consecutive bouts by knockout, before defeating Servo in a controversial split decision in their May rematch. After winning three more fights, Robinson faced Jake LaMotta, who would become one of his more prominent rivals, for the first time in October. He defeated LaMotta by a unanimous decision, although he failed to get Jake down. Robinson weighed 145 lb (66 kg) compared to 157.5 for LaMotta, but he was able to control the fight from the outside for the entire bout, and actually landed the harder punches during the fight. [18] Robinson then won four more fights, including two against Izzy Jannazzo, from October 19 to December 14. For his performances, Robinson was named "Fighter of the Year". He finished 1942 with a total of 14 wins and no losses.

Robinson built a record of 40–0 before losing for the first time to LaMotta in a 10-round re-match. [19] LaMotta, who had a 16 lb (7.3 kg) weight advantage over Robinson, knocked Robinson out of the ring in the eighth round, and won the fight by decision. The fight took place in Robinson's former home town of Detroit, and attracted a record crowd. [19] After being controlled by Robinson in the early portions of the fight, LaMotta came back to take control in the later rounds. [19] After winning the third LaMotta fight less than three weeks later, Robinson then defeated his childhood idol: former champion Henry Armstrong. Robinson fought Armstrong only because the older man was in need of money. By now Armstrong was an old fighter, and Robinson later stated that he carried the former champion.

On February 27, 1943, Robinson was inducted into the United States Army, where he was again referred to as Walker Smith. [20] Robinson had a 15-month military career. Robinson served with Joe Louis, and the pair went on tours where they performed exhibition bouts in front of US Army troops. Robinson got into trouble several times while in the military. He argued with superiors who he felt were discriminatory against him, and refused to fight exhibitions when he was told African American soldiers were not allowed to watch them. [13] [21] In late March 1944, Robinson was stationed at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, waiting to ship out to Europe, where he was scheduled to perform more exhibition matches. But on March 29, Robinson disappeared from his barracks. When he woke up on April 5 in Fort Jay Hospital on Governor's Island, he had missed his sailing for Europe and was under suspicion of deserting. He himself reported falling down the stairs in his barracks on the 29th, but said that he had complete amnesia, and he could not remember any events from that moment until the 5th. According to his file, a stranger had found him in the street on April 1 and helped him to a hospital. In his examination report, a doctor at Fort Jay concluded that Robinson's version of events was sincere. [22] He was examined by military authorities, who claimed he suffered from a mental deficiency. [23] Robinson was granted an honorable discharge on June 3, 1944. He later wrote that unfair press coverage of the incident had "branded" him as a "deserter". [24] Robinson maintained his close friendship with Louis from their time in military service, and the two went into business together after the war. They planned to start a liquor distribution business in New York City, but were denied a license due to their race. [25]

Besides the loss in the LaMotta rematch, the only other mark on Robinson's record during this period was a 10-round draw against José Basora in 1945.

Welterweight champion

Robinson in 1947 Sugar Ray Robinson 1947.jpg
Robinson in 1947

By 1946, Robinson had fought 75 fights to a 73–1–1 record, and beaten every top contender in the welterweight division. However, he refused to cooperate with the Mafia, which controlled much of boxing at the time, and was denied a chance to fight for the welterweight championship. [26] Robinson was finally given a chance to win a title against Tommy Bell on December 20, 1946. Robinson had already beaten Bell once by decision in 1945. The two fought for the title vacated by Servo, who had himself lost twice to Robinson in non-title bouts. In the fight, Robinson, who only a month before had been involved in a 10-round brawl with Artie Levine, was knocked down by Bell. The fight was called a "war", but Robinson was able to pull out a close 15-round decision, winning the vacant World Welterweight title. [27]

In 1948 Robinson fought five times, but only one bout was a title defense. Among the fighters he defeated in those non-title bouts was future world champion Kid Gavilán in a close, controversial 10-round fight. Gavilán hurt Robinson several times in the fight, but Robinson controlled the final rounds with a series of jabs and left hooks. [28] In 1949, he boxed 16 times, but again only defended his title once. In that title fight, a rematch with Gavilán, Robinson again won by decision. The first half of the bout was very close, but Robinson took control in the second half. Gavilán would have to wait two more years to begin his own historic reign as welterweight champion. The only boxer to match Robinson that year was Henry Brimm, who fought him to a 10-round draw in Buffalo.

Robinson fought 19 times in 1950. He successfully defended his welterweight title for the last time against Charley Fusari. Robinson won a lopsided 15-round decision, knocking Fusari down once. Robinson donated all but $1 of his purse for the Fusari fight to cancer research. [29] In 1950 Robinson fought George Costner, who had also taken to calling himself "Sugar" and stated in the weeks leading up to the fight that he was the rightful possessor of the name. "We better touch gloves, because this is the only round", Robinson said as the fighters were introduced at the center of the ring. "Your name ain't Sugar, mine is." [30] Robinson then knocked Costner out in 2 minutes and 49 seconds.

Jimmy Doyle incident

In June 1947, after four non-title bouts, Robinson was scheduled to defend his title for the first time in a bout against Jimmy Doyle. Robinson initially backed out of the fight because he had a dream that he was going to kill Doyle. A priest and a minister convinced him to fight. His dream was proven to be true. [31] On June 25, 1947 Robinson dominated Doyle and scored a decisive knockout in the eighth round that knocked Doyle unconscious and resulted in Doyle's death later that night. [32] Robinson said that the impact of Doyle's death was "very trying". [upper-alpha 1]

After his death, criminal charges were threatened against Robinson in Cleveland, up to and including murder, though none actually materialized. After learning of Doyle's intentions of using the bout's money to buy his mother a house, Robinson gave Doyle's mother the money from his next four bouts so she could purchase herself a home, fulfilling her son's intention. [33] [34]

Middleweight champion

It is stated in his autobiography that one of the main considerations for his move up to middleweight was the increasing difficulty he was having in making the 147 lb (67 kg) welterweight weight limit. [35] However, the move up would also prove beneficial financially, as the division then contained some of the biggest names in boxing. Vying for the Pennsylvania state middleweight title in 1950, Robinson defeated Robert Villemain. Later that year, in defense of that crown, he defeated Jose Basora, with whom he had previously drawn. Robinson's 50-second, first-round knockout of Basora set a record that would stand for 38 years. In October 1950, Robinson knocked out Bobo Olson a future middleweight title holder.

On February 14, 1951, Robinson and LaMotta met for the sixth time. The fight would become known as The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Robinson won the undisputed World Middleweight title with a 13th round technical knockout. [36] Robinson outboxed LaMotta for the first 10 rounds, then unleashed a series of savage combinations on LaMotta for three rounds, [13] finally stopping the champion for the first time in their legendary six-bout series—and dealing LaMotta his first legitimate knockout loss in 95 professional bouts. [37] LaMotta had lost by knockout to Billy Fox earlier in his career. However, that fight was later ruled to have been fixed and LaMotta was sanctioned for letting Fox win. That bout, and some of the other bouts in the six-fight Robinson-LaMotta rivalry, was depicted in the Martin Scorsese film Raging Bull . "I fought Sugar Ray so often, I almost got diabetes", LaMotta later said. [14] Robinson won five of his six bouts with LaMotta.

After winning his second world title, he embarked on a European tour which took him all over the Continent. Robinson traveled with his flamingo-pink Cadillac, which caused quite a stir in Paris, [38] and an entourage of 13 people, some included "just for laughs". [39] He was a hero in France due to his recent defeat of LaMotta—the French hated LaMotta for defeating Marcel Cerdan in 1949 and taking his championship belt (Cerdan died in a plane crash en route to a rematch with LaMotta). [13] Robinson met President of France Vincent Auriol at a ceremony attended by France's social upper crust. [40] During his fight in Berlin against Gerhard Hecht, Robinson was disqualified when he knocked his opponent with a punch to the kidney: a punch legal in the US, but not Europe. [32] The fight was later declared a no-contest. In London, Robinson lost the world middleweight title to British boxer Randolph Turpin in a sensational bout. [41] Three months later in a rematch in front of 60,000 fans at the Polo Grounds, [32] he knocked Turpin out in ten rounds to recover the title. In that bout Robinson was leading on the cards but was cut by Turpin. With the fight in jeopardy, Robinson let loose on Turpin, knocking him down, then getting him to the ropes and unleashing a series of punches that caused the referee to stop the bout. [42] Following Robinson's victory, residents of Harlem danced in the streets. [43] In 1951, Robinson was named Ring Magazine's "Fighter of the Year" for the second time. [44]

In 1952 he fought a rematch with Olson, winning by a decision. He next defeated former champion Rocky Graziano by a third-round knockout, then challenged World Light heavyweight champion Joey Maxim. [45] In the Yankee Stadium bout with Maxim, Robinson built a lead on all three judges' scorecards, but the 103 °F (39 °C) temperature in the ring took its toll. [14] The referee, Ruby Goldstein, was the first victim of the heat, and had to be replaced by referee Ray Miller. The fast-moving Robinson was the heat's next victim – at the end of round 13, he collapsed and failed to answer the bell for the next round, [14] suffering the only knockout of his career.

On June 25, 1952, after the Maxim bout, Robinson gave up his title and retired with a record of 131–3–1–1. He began a career in show business, singing and tap dancing. After about three years, the decline of his businesses and the lack of success in his performing career made him decide to return to boxing. He resumed training in 1954.

Comeback

In 1955 Robinson returned to the ring. Although he had been inactive for two and a half years, his work as a dancer kept him in peak physical condition: in his autobiography, Robinson states that in the weeks leading up to his debut for a dancing engagement in France, he ran five miles every morning, and then danced for five hours each night. Robinson even stated that the training he did in his attempts to establish a career as a dancer were harder than any he undertook during his boxing career. [46] He won five fights in 1955, before losing a decision to Ralph 'Tiger' Jones. He bounced back, however, and defeated Rocky Castellani by a split decision, then challenged Bobo Olson for the world middleweight title. He won the middleweight championship for the third time with a second-round knockout—his third victory over Olson. After his comeback performance in 1955, Robinson expected to be named fighter of the year. However, the title went to welterweight Carmen Basilio. Basilio's handlers had lobbied heavily for it on the basis that he had never won the award, and Robinson later described this as the biggest disappointment of his professional career. "I haven't forgotten it to this day, and I never will", Robinson wrote in his autobiography. [47] Robinson and Olson fought for the last time in 1956, and Robinson closed the four-fight series with a fourth-round knockout.

In 1957 Robinson lost his title to Gene Fullmer. Fullmer used his aggressive, forward moving style to control Robinson, and knocked him down in the fight. [48] Robinson, however, noticed that Fullmer was vulnerable to the left hook. Fullmer headed into their May rematch as a 3–1 favorite. [49] In the first two rounds Robinson followed Fullmer around the ring, however in the third round he changed tactics and made Fullmer come to him. [49] At the start of the fourth round Robinson came out on the attack and stunned Fullmer, and when Fullmer returned with his own punches, Robinson traded with him, as opposed to clinching as he had done in their earlier fight. The fight was fairly even after four rounds. [49] But in the fifth, Robinson was able to win the title back for a fourth time by knocking out Fullmer with a lightning fast, powerful left hook. [49] Boxing critics have referred to the left-hook which knocked out Fullmer as "the perfect punch". [50] It marked the first time in 44 career fights that Fullmer had been knocked out, and when someone asked Robinson after the fight how far the left hook had travelled, Robinson replied: "I can't say. But he got the message." [49]

Later that year, he lost his title to Basilio in a rugged 15 round fight in front of 38,000 at Yankee Stadium, [51] but regained it for a record fifth time when he beat Basilio in the rematch. Robinson struggled to make weight, and had to go without food for nearly 20 hours leading up to the bout. He badly damaged Basilio's eye early in the fight, and by the seventh round it was swollen shut. [52] The two judges gave the fight to Robinson by wide margins: 72–64 and 71–64. The referee scored the fight for Basilio 69–64, and was booed loudly by the crowd of 19,000 when his decision was announced. [52] The first fight won the "Fight of the Year" award from The Ring magazine for 1957 and the second fight won the "Fight of the Year" award for 1958.

Decline

Robinson, Madison Square Garden, 1966 Sugar Ray Robinson 1966.jpg
Robinson, Madison Square Garden, 1966
Robinson on Land of the Giants in 1969 Sugar Ray Robinson 1969.jpg
Robinson on Land of the Giants in 1969

Robinson knocked out Bob Young in the second round in Boston in his only fight in 1959. A year later, he defended his title against Paul Pender. Robinson entered the fight as a 5–1 favorite, but lost a split decision in front of 10,608 at Boston Garden. [53] The day before the fight Pender commented that he planned to start slowly, before coming on late. He did just that and outlasted the aging Robinson, who, despite opening a cut over Pender's eye in the eighth round, was largely ineffective in the later rounds. [53] An attempt to regain the crown for an unheard of sixth time proved beyond Robinson. Despite Robinson's efforts, Pender won by decision in that rematch. On December 3 of that year, Robinson and Fullmer fought a 15-round draw for the WBA middleweight title, which Fullmer retained. In 1961, Robinson and Fullmer fought for a fourth time, with Fullmer retaining the WBA middleweight title by a unanimous decision. The fight would be Robinson's last title bout.

Robinson spent the rest of the 1960s fighting 10-round contests. In October 1961 Robinson defeated future world champion Denny Moyer by a unanimous decision. A 12–5 favorite, the 41-year-old Robinson defeated the 22-year-old Moyer by staying on the outside, rather than engaging him. [54] In their rematch four months later, Moyer defeated Robinson on points, as he pressed the action and made Robinson back up throughout the fight. Moyer won 7–3 on all three judges scorecards. [55] Robinson lost twice more in 1962, before winning six consecutive fights against mostly lesser opposition. In February 1963 Robinson lost by a unanimous decision to former world champion and fellow Hall of Famer Joey Giardello. Giardello knocked Robinson down in the fourth round, and the 43-year-old took until the count of nine to rise to his feet. [56] Robinson was also nearly knocked down in the sixth round, but was saved by the bell. He rallied in the seventh and eight rounds, before struggling in the final two. [56] He then embarked on an 18-month boxing tour of Europe.

Robinson's second no-contest bout came in September 1965 in Norfolk, Virginia in a match with an opponent who turned out to be an impostor. Boxer Neil Morrison, at the time a fugitive and accused robber, signed up for the fight as Bill Henderson, a capable club fighter. The fight was a fiasco, with Morrison being knocked down twice in the first round and once in the second before the disgusted referee, who said "Henderson put up no fight", walked out of the ring. Robinson was initially given a TKO in 1:20 of the second round after the "obviously frightened" Morrison laid himself down on the canvas. Robinson fought for the final time in November 1965. He lost by a unanimous decision to Joey Archer. [57] Famed sports author Pete Hamill mentioned that one of the saddest experiences of his life was watching Robinson lose to Archer. He was even knocked down and Hamill pointed out that Archer had no knockout punch at all; Archer admitted afterward that it was only the second time he had knocked an opponent down in his career. The crowd of 9,023 at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh gave Robinson several standing ovations, even while he was being thoroughly outperformed by Archer. [57]

On November 11, 1965, Robinson announced his retirement from boxing, saying: "I hate to go too long campaigning for another chance." [58] Robinson retired from boxing with a record of 173–19–6 (2 no contests) with 109 knockouts in 200 professional bouts, ranking him among the all-time leaders in knockouts.



Professional boxing record

Professional record summary
200 fights173 wins19 losses
By knockout1091
By decision6418
By disqualification00
Draws6
No contests2
No.ResultRecordOpponentTypeRound, timeDateLocationNotes
200Loss173–19–6 (2) Flag of the United States.svg Joey Archer UD10Nov 10, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
199Win173–18–6 (2) Flag of Belize.svg Rudolph BentTKO3 (10), 2:20Oct 20, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Community Arena, Steubenville, Ohio, U.S.
198Win172–18–6 (2) Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Peter SchmidtUD10Oct 1, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Cambria County War Memorial Arena, Johnstown, Pennsylvania, U.S.
197Win171–18–6 (2) Flag of the United States.svg Harvey McCulloughUD10Sep 23, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Athletic Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
196NC170–18–6 (2) Flag of the United States.svg Neil MorrisonNC2 (10), 1:20Sep 15, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Norfolk Arena, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
195Loss170–18–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Stan HarringtonUD10Aug 10, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Honolulu International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
194Win170–17–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Harvey McCulloughUD10Jul 27, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Richmond Arena, Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
193Loss169–17–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Ferd HernandezSD10Jul 12, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Hacienda, Paradise, Nevada, U.S.
192Win169–16–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Harvey McCulloughUD10Jun 24, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Washington Coliseum, Washington, D.C., U.S.
191Loss168–16–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Stan HarringtonUD10Jun 1, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Honolulu International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.
190Loss168–15–6 (1) Flag of Mexico.svg Memo AyónUD10May 24, 1965 Flag of Mexico.svg Plaza de Toros El Toreo, Tijuana, Mexico
189Win168–14–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Rocky RandellKO3 (10), 0:58Apr 28, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Norfolk Municipal Auditorium, Norfolk, Virginia, U.S.
188Win167–14–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Earl BastingsKO1 (10), 2:34Apr 3, 1965 Flag of the United States.svg Sports Center, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
187Win166–14–6 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy BeechamKO2 (10), 1:48Mar 6, 1965 Flag of Jamaica.svg National Stadium, Kingston, Jamaica
186Draw165–14–6 (1) Flag of France.svg Fabio BettiniPTS10Nov 27, 1964 Flag of Italy.svg Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, Italy
185Win165–14–5 (1) Flag of France.svg Jean BeltrittiPTS10Nov 14, 1964 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports de Marseille, Marseille, France
184Win164–14–5 (1) Flag of France.svg Jean Baptiste RollandPTS10Nov 7, 1964 Flag of France.svg Stade Helitas, Caen, France
183Win163–14–5 (1) Flag of France.svg Jackie CailleauPTS10Oct 24, 1964 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Nice, France
182Win162–14–5 (1) Flag of Nigeria.svg Johnny AngelTKO6 (8)Oct 12, 1964 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg London Hilton, London, England
181Win161–14–5 (1) Flag of France.svg Yoland Leveque PTS10Sep 28, 1964 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
180Loss160–14–5 (1) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Mick Leahy PTS10Sep 3, 1964 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Paisley Ice Rink, Paisley, Scotland
179Draw160–13–5 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Art HernándezMD10Jul 27, 1964 Flag of the United States.svg Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
178Win160–13–4 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Clarence RileyTKO6 (10), 2:40Jul 8, 1964 Flag of the United States.svg Wahconah Park, Pittsfield, Massachusetts, U.S.
177Win159–13–4 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Gaylord BarnesUD10May 19, 1964 Flag of the United States.svg Portland Exposition Building, Portland, Maine, U.S.
176Win158–13–4 (1) Flag of France.svg Armand VanucciPTS10Dec 9, 1963 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
175Win157–13–4 (1) Flag of France.svg Andre DavierPTS10Nov 29, 1963 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Grenoble, France
174Win156–13–4 (1) Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Emiel SarensKO8 (10)Nov 16, 1963 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Palais des Sports, Brussels, Belgium
173Draw155–13–4 (1) Flag of France.svg Fabio BettiniPTS10Nov 9, 1963 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports de Gerland, Lyon, France
172Win155–13–3 (1) Flag of France.svg Armand VanucciPTS10Oct 14, 1963 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
171Loss154–13–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Joey Giardello UD10Jun 24, 1963 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
170Win154–12–3 (1) Flag of Morocco.svg Maurice RobletKO3 (10)May 4, 1963 Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg Palais des Sports Léopold-Drolet, Quebec, Canada
169Win153–12–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Billy ThorntonKO3 (10), 0:50Mar 11, 1963 Flag of the United States.svg Lewiston Armory, Lewiston, Maine, U.S.
168Win152–12–3 (1) Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Bernie ReynoldsKO4 (10)Feb 25, 1963 Flag of the Dominican Republic.svg Estadio Quisqueya, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
167Win151–12–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Ralph Dupas SD10Jan 30, 1963 Flag of the United States.svg Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida, U.S.
166Win150–12–3 (1) Flag of France.svg Georges EstatoffTKO6 (10)Nov 10, 1962 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports de Gerland, Lyon, France
165Win149–12–3 (1) Flag of Spain.svg Diego InfantesKO2 (10), 1:15Oct 17, 1962 Flag of Austria.svg Wiener Stadthalle, Vienna, Austria
164Loss148–12–3 (1) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Terry Downes PTS10Sep 25, 1962 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Empire Pool, London, England
163Loss148–11–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Phil MoyerSD10Jul 9, 1962 Flag of the United States.svg Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
162Win148–10–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Bobby LeeKO2 (10), 2:38Apr 27, 1962 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg National Stadium, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
161Loss147–10–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Denny Moyer UD10Feb 17, 1962 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
160Win147–9–3 (1) Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg Wilf Greaves KO8 (10), 0:43Dec 8, 1961 Flag of the United States.svg Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
159Win146–9–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Al HauserTKO6 (10), 1:59Nov 20, 1961 Flag of the United States.svg Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
158Win145–9–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Denny Moyer UD10Oct 21, 1961 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
157Win144–9–3 (1) Canadian Red Ensign (1957-1965).svg Wilf Greaves SD10Sep 25, 1961 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Arena, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
156Loss143–9–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer UD15Mar 4, 1961 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.For NBA middleweight title
155Draw143–8–3 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer SD15Dec 3, 1960 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.For NBA middleweight title
154Loss143–8–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Paul Pender SD15Jun 10, 1960 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.For NYSAC and The Ring middleweight titles
153Win143–7–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Tony BaldoniKO1 (10), 1:40Apr 2, 1960 Flag of the United States.svg Baltimore Coliseum, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
152Loss142–7–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Paul Pender SD15Jan 22, 1960 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.Lost NYSAC and The Ring middleweight titles
151Win142–6–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Bob YoungKO2 (10), 1:18Dec 14, 1959 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
150Win141–6–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Carmen Basilio SD15Mar 25, 1958 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Won NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
149Loss140–6–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Carmen Basilio SD15Sep 23, 1957 Flag of the United States.svg Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.Lost NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
148Win140–5–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer KO5 (15), 1:27May 1, 1957 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Won NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
147Loss139–5–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer UD15Jan 2, 1957 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.Lost NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
146Win139–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Bob ProvizziUD10Nov 10, 1956 Flag of the United States.svg New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
145Win138–4–2 (1) Flag of Hawaii.svg Bobo Olson KO4 (15), 2:51May 18, 1956 Flag of the United States.svg Wrigley Field, Los Angeles, California, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
144Win137–4–2 (1) Flag of Hawaii.svg Bobo Olson KO2 (15), 2:51Dec 9, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Won NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
143Win136–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Rocky Castellani SD10Jul 22, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Cow Palace, Daly City, California, U.S.
142Win135–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Garth PanterUD10May 4, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
141Win134–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Ted OllaTKO3 (10), 2:15Apr 14, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.
140Win133–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Johnny LombardoSD10Mar 29, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Cincinnati Gardens, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.
139Loss132–4–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Ralph Jones UD10Jan 19, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
138Win132–3–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Joe RindoneKO6 (10), 1:37Jan 5, 1955 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
137Loss131–3–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Joey Maxim RTD13 (15)Jun 25, 1952 Flag of the United States.svg Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.For NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring light heavyweight titles
136Win131–2–2 (1) Flag of the United States.svg Rocky Graziano KO3 (15), 1:53Apr 14, 1952 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
135Win130–2–2 (1) Flag of Hawaii.svg Bobo Olson UD15Mar 13, 1952 Flag of the United States.svg San Francisco Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, California, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
134Win129–2–2 (1) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Randolph Turpin TKO10 (15), 2:52Sep 12, 1951 Flag of the United States.svg Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S.Won NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
133Loss128–2–2 (1) Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Randolph Turpin PTS15Jul 10, 1951 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Earls Court Arena, London, EnglandLost NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
132Win128–1–2 (1) Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Cyrille Delannoit RTD3 (10)Jul 1, 1951 Flag of Italy.svg Palazzo Dello Sport, Turin, Italy
131NC127–1–2 (1) Flag of Germany.svg Gerhard Hecht NC2 (10)Jun 24, 1951 Flag of Germany.svg Waldbühne, Berlin, Germany
130Win127–1–2 Flag of France.svg Jean WalzackTKO6 (10)Jun 16, 1951 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Palais des Sports, Liège, Belgium
129Win126–1–2 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Jan de BruinTKO8 (10)Jun 10, 1951 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Sportpaleis, Antwerp, Belgium
128Win125–1–2 Flag of France.svg Jean WanesUD10May 26, 1951 Flag of Switzerland.svg Hallenstadion, Zürich, Switzerland
127Win124–1–2 Flag of Algeria.svg Kid MarcelTKO5 (10)May 21, 1951 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
126Win123–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Don EllisKO1 (10), 1:36Apr 9, 1951 Flag of the United States.svg Municipal Auditorium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.
125Win122–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Holly Mims UD10Apr 5, 1951 Flag of the United States.svg Miami Stadium, Miami, Florida, U.S.
124Win121–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Jake LaMotta TKO13 (15), 2:04Feb 14, 1951 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Won NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring middleweight titles
123Win120–1–2 Flag of Germany.svg Hans StretzTKO5 (10)Dec 25, 1950 Flag of Germany.svg Haus der Technik, Frankfurt, Germany
122Win119–1–2 Flag of France.svg Robert Villemain TKO9 (10)Dec 22, 1950 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
121Win118–1–2 Flag of France.svg Jean WalzackUD10Dec 16, 1950 Flag of Switzerland.svg Palais des Expositions, Geneva, Switzerland
120Win117–1–2 Flag of the Netherlands.svg Luc van DamKO4 (10)Dec 9, 1950 Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Palais des Sports, Brussels, Belgium
119Win116–1–2 Flag of France.svg Jean StockTKO2 (10)Nov 27, 1950 Flag of France.svg Palais des Sports, Paris, France
118Win115–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby DykesMD10Nov 8, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
117Win114–1–2 Flag of Hawaii.svg Bobo Olson KO12 (15), 1:19Oct 26, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.Retained Pennsylvania State middleweight title
116Win113–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Joe RindoneTKO6 (10), 0:55Oct 16, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
115Win112–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Billy BrownUD10Sep 4, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Coney Island Velodrome, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
114Win111–1–2 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg José BasoraKO1 (15), 0:55Aug 25, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Scranton Stadium, Scranton, Pennsylvania, U.SRetained Pennsylvania State middleweight title
113Win110–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Charley Fusari PTS15Aug 9, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.SRetained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
112Win109–1–2 Flag of France.svg Robert Villemain UD15Jun 5, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.SWon vacant Pennsylvania State middleweight title
111Win108–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Ray BarnesUD10Apr 28, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
110Win107–1–2 Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg Cliff BeckettTKO3 (10), 1:45Apr 21, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Memorial Hall, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
109Win106–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg George Costner KO1 (10), 2:49Mar 22, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
108Win105–1–2 Flag of France.svg Jean WalzackUD10Feb 27, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
107Win104–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Aaron Wade KO3 (10)Feb 22, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
106Win103–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Johnny DudleyKO2 (12), 0:40Feb 18, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Municipal Stadium, Orlando, Florida, U.S.
105Win102–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Al MobleyTKO6 (10)Feb 13, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg Coliseum Arena, Miami, Florida, U.S.
104Win101–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg George LaRoverTKO4 (10), 1:38Jan 30, 1950 Flag of the United States.svg New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.
103Win100–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Vern LesterKO5 (10), 0:12Nov 13, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
102Win99–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Don LeeUD10Nov 9, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Denver Auditorium Arena, Denver, Colorado, U.S.
101Win98–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Charley DodsonKO3 (10), 0:20Sep 12, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Houston City Auditorium, Houston, Texas, U.S.
100Win97–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Benny EvansTKO5 (10), 2:56Sep 9, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
99Win96–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Steve BelloiseRTD7 (10)Aug 24, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.
98Win95–1–2 Flag of Cuba.svg Kid Gavilán UD15Jul 11, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
97Win94–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Cecil HudsonKO5 (10)Jun 20, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island, U.S.
96Win93–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Freddie FloresTKO3 (10), 2:41Jun 7, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Page Arena, New Bedford, Massachusetts, U.S.
95Win92–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Earl TurnerTKO8 (10), 1:51Apr 20, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Oakland Auditorium, Oakland, California, U.S.
94Win91–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Don LeeUD10Apr 11, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Omaha City Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska, U.S.
93Win90–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby LeeUD10Mar 25, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
92Draw89–1–2 Flag of the United States.svg Henry Brimm SD10Feb 15, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
91Win89–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Young Gene BuffaloKO1 (10), 2:55Feb 10, 1949 Flag of the United States.svg Kingston Armory, Kingston, Pennsylvania, U.S.
90Win88–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby LeeUD10Nov 15, 1948 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
89Win87–1–1 Flag of Cuba.svg Kid Gavilán UD10Sep 23, 1948 Flag of the United States.svg Yankee Stadium, Bronx New York, U.S.
88Win86–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Bernard DocusenUD15Jun 28, 1948 Flag of the United States.svg Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
87Win85–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Henry Brimm UD10Mar 16, 1948 Flag of the United States.svg Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
86Win84–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Ossie HarrisUD10Mar 4, 1948 Flag of the United States.svg Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio, U.S.
85Win83–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Chuck TaylorTKO6 (15), 2:07Dec 19, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
84Win82–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Billy NixonTKO6 (10), 2:10Dec 10, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
83Win81–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg California Jackie WilsonTKO7 (10), 1:35Oct 28, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
82Win80–1–1 Flag of the Philippines.svg Flashy SebastianKO1 (10), 1:02Aug 29, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
81Win79–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Sammy SecreetKO1 (10), 1:50Aug 21, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Rubber Bowl, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
80Win78–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy Doyle TKO8 (15)Jun 24, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.Retained NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
Doyle died of injuries sustained from the fight [59]
79Win77–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Georgie Abrams SD10May 16, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
78Win76–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Eddie FinazzoTKO4 (10), 2:30Apr 8, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Memorial Hall, Kansas City, Kansas, U.S.
77Win75–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Freddie WilsonTKO3 (10), 1:10Apr 3, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Akron Armory, Akron, Ohio, U.S.
76Win74–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Bernie MillerTKO3 (10), 1:32Mar 27, 1947 Flag of the United States.svg Dorsey Park, Miami, Florida, U.S.
75Win73–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Tommy Bell UD15Dec 20, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.Won vacant NBA, NYSAC, and The Ring welterweight titles
74Win72–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Artie Levine KO10 (10), 2:41Nov 6, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
73Win71–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Cecil HudsonKO6 (10), 2:58Nov 1, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
72Win70–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Ossie HarrisUD10Oct 7, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Forbes Field, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
71Win69–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Sidney MillerKO3 (10), 1:52Sep 25, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Twin City Bowl, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
70Win68–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Vinnie VinesKO6 (10), 2:46Aug 15, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Hawkins Stadium, Albany, New York, U.S.
69Win67–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Joe CurcioKO2 (10), 0:10Jul 12, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
68Win66–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Norman RubioPTS10Jun 25, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Roosevelt Stadium, Union City, New Jersey, U.S.
67Win65–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Freddie WilsonKO2 (10), 2:00Jun 12, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Worcester Auditorium, Worcester, Massachusetts, U.S.
66Win64–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Freddie FloresKO5 (10), 2:52Mar 21, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Golden Gate Arena, New York City, New York, U.S.
65Win63–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Izzy Jannazzo UD10Mar 14, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
64Win62–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Sammy Angott UD10Mar 4, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
63Win61–1–1 Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg Cliff BeckettKO4 (10), 0:40Feb 27, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg St. Louis Arena, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.
62Win60–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg O'Neil BellKO2 (10), 1:10Feb 15, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
61Win59–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Tony RiccioTKO4 (10), 2:16Feb 5, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey, U.S.
60Win58–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Dave ClarkTKO2 (10), 2:22Jan 14, 1946 Flag of the United States.svg Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
59Win57–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Vic DellicurtiUD10Dec 4, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
58Win56–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy MandellTKO5 (10), 1:31Sep 18, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York, U.S.
57Win55–1–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy McDanielsKO2 (10), 1:23Jun 15, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
56Draw54–1–1 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg José BasoraSD10May 14, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
55Win54–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jake LaMotta UD10Feb 23, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
54Win53–1 Flag of the United States.svg George Costner KO1 (10), 2:55Feb 14, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
53Win52–1 Flag of the United States.svg Tommy Bell UD10Jan 16, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
52Win51–1 Flag of the United States.svg Billy FurroneTKO2 (10), 2:28Jan 10, 1945 Flag of the United States.svg Uline Arena, Washington, D.C., U.S.
51Win50–1 Flag of the United States.svg George MartinTKO7 (10), 3:00Dec 22, 1944 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
50Win49–1 Flag of the United States.svg Sheik RangelTKO2 (10), 2:50Dec 12, 1944 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
49Win48–1 Flag of the United States.svg Vic DellicurtiUD10Nov 24, 1944 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
48Win47–1 Flag of the United States.svg Lou WoodsTKO9 (10), 2:10Oct 27, 1944 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
47Win46–1 Flag of the United States.svg Izzy Jannazzo KO2 (10), 1:10Oct 13, 1944 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
46Win45–1 Flag of the United States.svg Henry Armstrong UD10Aug 27, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
45Win44–1 Flag of the United States.svg Ralph ZannelliUD10Jul 1, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
44Win43–1 Flag of the United States.svg Freddie CabralKO1 (10), 2:20Apr 30, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
43Win42–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jake LaMotta UD10Feb 26, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
42Win41–1 Flag of the United States.svg California Jackie WilsonMD10Feb 19, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
41Loss40–1 Flag of the United States.svg Jake LaMotta UD10Feb 5, 1943 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
40Win40–0 Flag of the United States.svg Al NettlowTKO3 (10)Dec 14, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
39Win39–0 Flag of the United States.svg Izzy Jannazzo KO8 (10), 2:43Dec 1, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
38Win38–0 Flag of the United States.svg Vic DellicurtiUD10Nov 6, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
37Win37–0 Flag of the United States.svg Izzy Jannazzo UD10Oct 19, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
36Win36–0 Flag of the United States.svg Jake LaMotta UD10Oct 2, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
35Win35–0 Flag of the United States.svg Tony MotisiKO1 (10), 2:41Aug 27, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
34Win34–0 Flag of the United States.svg Reuben ShankKO2 (10), 2:26Aug 21, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
33Win33–0 Flag of the United States.svg Sammy Angott UD10Jul 31, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
32Win32–0 Flag of the United States.svg Marty Servo SD10May 28, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
31Win31–0 Flag of the United States.svg Dick BannerKO2 (10), 0:32Apr 30, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Minneapolis Armory, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
30Win30–0 Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg Harvey DubsTKO6 (10), 2:45Apr 17, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
29Win29–0 Flag of the United States.svg Norman RubioTKO7 (12), 3:00Mar 20, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
28Win28–0 Canadian Red Ensign (1921-1957).svg Maxie Berger TKO2 (12), 1:43Feb 20, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
27Win27–0 Flag of the United States.svg Fritzie Zivic TKO10 (12), 0:31Jan 16, 1942 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
26Win26–0 Flag of the United States.svg Fritzie Zivic UD10Oct 31, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
25Win25–0 Flag of the United States.svg Marty Servo UD10Sep 25, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Convention Hall, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
24Win24–0 Flag of the United States.svg Maxie ShapiroTKO3 (10), 2:04Sep 19, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
23Win23–0 Flag of France.svg Maurice ArnaultTKO1 (8), 1:29Aug 29, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Atlantic City Convention Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
22Win22–0 Flag of the United States.svg Carl GugginoTKO3 (8), 2:47Aug 27, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Queensboro Arena, Queens, New York U.S.
21Win21–0 Flag of the United States.svg Sammy Angott UD10Jul 21, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
20Win20–0 Flag of the United States.svg Pete LelloTKO4 (8), 1:48Jul 2, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S.
19Win19–0 Flag of the United States.svg Mike EvansKO2 (8), 0:52Jun 16, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
18Win18–0 Flag of the United States.svg Nick CastiglioneKO1 (10), 1:21May 19, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
17Win17–0 Flag of the United States.svg Victor TroiseTKO1 (8), 2:39May 10, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
16Win16–0 Flag of the United States.svg Joe GhnoulyTKO3 (8), 2:07Apr 30, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Uline Arena, Washington, D.C., U.S.
15Win15–0 Flag of the United States.svg Charley BurnsKO1 (10), 2:35Apr 24, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City, New Jersey, U.S.
14Win14–0 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy TyghTKO1 (10), 1:51Apr 14, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
13Win13–0 Flag of the United States.svg Jimmy TyghKO8 (10), 1:13Mar 3, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
12Win12–0 Flag of the United States.svg Gene SpencerRTD4 (6)Feb 27, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
11Win11–0 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby McIntireUD6Feb 21, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
10Win10–0 Flag of the United States.svg Benny CartagenaKO1 (6), 1:33Feb 8, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
9Win9–0 Flag of the United States.svg George ZengarasPTS6Jan 31, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
8Win8–0 Flag of the United States.svg Frankie WallaceTKO1 (6), 2:10Jan 13, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
7Win7–0 Flag of the United States.svg Tony IacovacciKO1 (6), 0:40Jan 4, 1941 Flag of the United States.svg Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
6Win6–0 Flag of the United States.svg Oliver WhiteTKO3 (4)Dec 13, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
5Win5–0 Flag of the United States.svg Norment QuarlesTKO4 (8), 0:56Dec 9, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
4Win4–0 Flag of the United States.svg Bobby WoodsKO1 (6), 1:31Nov 11, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
3Win3–0 Flag of Greece.svg Mitsos GrisposUD6Oct 22, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg New York Coliseum, Bronx, New York, U.S.
2Win2–0 Flag of the United States.svg Silent StaffordTKO2 (4)Oct 8, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia, U.S.
1Win1–0 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Joe Echevarria TKO2 (4), 0:51Oct 4, 1940 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.

Later life

In his autobiography, Robinson states that by 1965 he was broke, having spent all of the $4 million in earnings he made inside and out of the ring during his career. [60] A month after his last fight, Robinson was honored with a Sugar Ray Robinson Night on December 10, 1965, in New York's Madison Square Garden. During the ceremony, he was honored with a massive trophy. However, there was not a piece of furniture in his small Manhattan apartment with legs strong enough to support it. Robinson was elected to the Ring Magazine boxing Hall of Fame in 1967, two years after he retired and the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. In the late 1960s he acted in some television shows, like Mission: Impossible . An episode of Land of the Giants called "Giants and All That Jazz" had Sugar as a washed up boxer opening a nightclub. [61] He also appeared in a few films including the Frank Sinatra cop movie The Detective (1968), the cult classic Candy (1968), and the thriller The Todd Killings (1971) as a police officer. In 1969, he founded the Sugar Ray Robinson Youth Foundation for the inner-city Los Angeles area. The foundation does not sponsor a boxing program. [62] He was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin. [63]

Death

In Robinson's last years he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. [63] He died in Los Angeles on April 12, 1989 at the age of 67. Robinson is buried at Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California. [64]

Personal life

Sugar Ray Robinson with Edna Mae Holly in 1956 Sugar Ray Robinson with wife 1956.jpg
Sugar Ray Robinson with Edna Mae Holly in 1956

Robinson married Marjorie Joseph in 1938; the marriage was annulled the same year. Their son, Ronnie Smith, was born in 1939. Robinson met his second wife Edna Mae Holly, a noted dancer who performed at the Cotton Club and toured Europe with Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway. According to Robinson, he met her at a local pool he frequented after his boxing workouts. In an attempt to get her attention he pushed her into the pool one day, and said it was an accident. [65] After this attempt was met with disdain, he appeared at the nightclub she danced at and introduced himself. Soon the couple were dating and they married in 1944. [66] They had one son, Ray Robinson Jr. (born 1949) before their acrimonious divorce in 1962. [67] She appeared on the first cover of Jet magazine in 1951. [68]

In April 1959, Robinson's eldest sister, Marie, died of cancer at the age of 41. [69]

In December 1959, Barbara Johnson (aka Barbara Trevigne) of South Ozone Park, a beautiful singer and dancer, brought a paternity suit in New York against the former champ, claiming Sugar Ray Robinson was the father of her son Paul born in 1953. On May 18, 1963, Jet reported that the court had ruled in Robinson's favor. Robinson is quoted exulting at the win saying "Justice triumphed." [70]

In 1965, Robinson married Millie Wiggins Bruce and the couple settled in Los Angeles. [32] When Robinson was sick with his various ailments, his son accused the elder Robinson's wife of keeping him under the influence of medication to manipulate him. According to Ray Robinson Jr., when Robinson Sr's mother died, he could not attend his mother's funeral because Millie was drugging and controlling him. [71] However, Robinson had been hospitalized the day before his mother's death due to agitation which caused his blood pressure to rise. Robinson Jr. and Edna Mae also said they were kept away from Robinson by Millie during the last years of his life. [71]

Robinson was a Freemason, a membership shared with a number of other athletes, including fellow boxer Jack Dempsey. [72] [73] Robinson guest-starred in Season 2, Episode 6 of Irwin Allen's Land of the Giants .[ citation needed ]

Boxing style

Rhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble.

Ray Robinson [74]

Robinson was the modern definition of a boxer puncher. He was able to fight almost any style: he could come out one round brawling, the next counterpunching, and the next fighting on the outside flicking his jab. Robinson would use his formless style to exploit his opponents' weaknesses. He also possessed great speed and precision. He fought in a very conventional way with a firm jab, but threw hooks and uppercuts in flurries in an unconventional way. [75] He possessed tremendous versatility—according to boxing analyst Bert Sugar, "Robinson could deliver a knockout blow going backward." [76] Robinson was efficient with both hands, and he displayed a variety of effective punches—according to a Time article in 1951, "Robinson's repertoire, thrown with equal speed and power by either hand, includes every standard punch from a bolo to a hook—and a few he makes up on the spur of the moment." [13] Robinson commented that once a fighter has trained to a certain level, their techniques and responses become almost reflexive. "You don't think. It's all instinct. If you stop to think, you're gone." [77]

Legacy

Robinson being held aloft by Gene Fullmer and Carmen Basilio in 1965 Sugar Ray Robinson 1965.jpg
Robinson being held aloft by Gene Fullmer and Carmen Basilio in 1965

Robinson has been ranked as one of the greatest boxers of all time by sportswriters, fellow boxers, and trainers. [12] [78] [79] The phrase "pound for pound" was created by sportswriters for him during his career as a way to compare boxers irrespective of weight. [14] [30] Hall of Fame fighters Muhammad Ali, Joe Louis, Roberto Durán and Sugar Ray Leonard have ranked Robinson as the greatest pound-for-pound boxer in history. [76] [80] [81] In 1997, The Ring ranked him as the best pound-for-pound fighter in history, [14] and in 1999 he was named "welterweight of the century", "middleweight of the century", and overall "fighter of the century" by the Associated Press. [82] In 2007 ESPN.com featured the piece "50 Greatest Boxers of All Time", in which it named Robinson the top boxer in history. [78] In 2003, The Ring ranked him number 11 in the list of all-time greatest punchers. [83] Robinson was also ranked as the number 1 welterweight and the number 1 pound-for-pound boxer of all time by the International Boxing Research Organization. [84] He was inducted into the Madison Square Garden Walk of Fame at its inception in 1992. [85]

Robinson was one of the first African Americans to establish himself as a star outside sports. He was an integral part of the New York social scene in the 1940s and 1950s. [14] His glamorous restaurant, Sugar Ray's, hosted stars including Frank Sinatra, Jackie Gleason, Nat King Cole, Joe Louis, and Lena Horne. [86] [87] Robinson was known as a flamboyant personality outside the ring. He combined striking good looks [88] with charisma and a flair for the dramatic. He drove a flamingo-pink Cadillac and was an accomplished singer and dancer, who once pursued a career in the entertainment industry. [89] According to ESPN's Ron Flatter: "He was the pioneer of boxing's bigger-than-life entourages, including a secretary, barber, masseur, voice coach, a coterie of trainers, beautiful women, a dwarf mascot and lifelong manager George Gainford." [14] When Robinson first traveled to Paris, a steward referred to his companions as his "entourage". Although Robinson said he did not like the word's literal definition of "attendants", since he felt they were his friends, he liked the word itself and began to use it in regular conversation when referring to them. [90] In 1962, in an effort to persuade Robinson to return to Paris—where he was still a national hero—the French promised to bring over his masseur, his hairdresser, a man who would whistle while he trained, and his trademark Cadillac. [91] This larger-than-life persona made him the idol of millions of African American youths in the 1950s. Robinson inspired several other fighters who took the nickname "Sugar" in homage to him: Sugar Ray Leonard, Sugar Shane Mosley, and MMA fighter "Suga" Rashad Evans. [92] [93] [94]

See also

Footnotes

  1. Before that fight, Robinson had a dream that he was going to accidentally kill Doyle in the ring. As a result, he decided to pull out of the fight. However, a priest and a minister convinced him to go ahead with the bout. "Sugar Ray Robinson – Dreams Come True". YouTube. Retrieved March 3, 2013.

Notes

  1. Sugar Ray Robinson. International Boxing Hall of Fame.
  2. Dan (May 12, 2020). "Sugar Ray Robinson Again Named Greatest Boxer of All Time". IBRO. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  3. "Sugar Ray Robinson's record". BoxRec. Retrieved May 21, 2013.
  4. Jackson, Ron. "Most consecutive unbeaten streak". Archived from the original on April 6, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
  5. Eisele, Andrew. "Ring Magazine's 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years". About.com Sports.
  6. "BoxRec ratings: world, pound-for-pound, active and inactive". BoxRec. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  7. "Sugar Ray Robinson". Biography . Retrieved January 30, 2020.
  8. United States Postal Service Stamp Announcements
  9. 1 2 Robinson and Anderson, p. 7.
  10. Robinson and Anderson, pp. 8–9.
  11. Robinson and Anderson, p. 5.
  12. 1 2 3 "Sugar Ray Robinson Returns to the Ring to a 'Stamping Ovation' of 100 Million" (Press release). U.S.Postal Service. April 7, 2006. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Businessman Boxer, Time , June 25, 1951, Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Flatter, Ron. "The sugar in the sweet science". ESPN. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  15. Schwartz, Larry. "A brooding genius". ESPN. Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  16. 1 2 3 Nichols, Joseph C. (November 1, 1941). Harlem Fighter Still Unbeaten, The New York Times . Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  17. 1 2 Dawson, James P. (January 17, 1942). "Robinson Knocks Out Zivic in Tenth Round to Score 27th Victory in Row". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  18. Nichols, Joseph C. (October 3, 1942). "Robinson Takes Unanimous Decision Over La Motta in Garden 10-Round Bout". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  19. 1 2 3 Robinson's Streak Ended by LaMotta, The New York Times, Associated Press. February 6, 1943. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  20. Robinson and Anderson, p. 110.
  21. Robinson and Anderson, pp. 120–129.
  22. Robinson and Anderson, pp. 126–130.
  23. Ray Robinson, FBI . Retrieved June 6, 2007.[ failed verification ]
  24. Robinson and Anderson, p. 130.
  25. Boyd and Robinson II. pp. 94
  26. "Sugar: Too sweet for Raging Bull". BBC News . July 13, 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  27. "The Lineal Welterwweight Champs". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  28. Boyd and Robinson II. p. 93
  29. Boyd and Robinson II. pp. 105–06
  30. 1 2 Anderson, Dave (April 13, 1989). "Sports of the Times; The Original Sugar Ray 'Never Lost'". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
  31. "Sugar Ray Robinson – Dreams Come True". YouTube. Retrieved March 3, 2013.
  32. 1 2 3 4 Sugar Ray Robinson, Contemporary Black Biography, The Gale Group, 2006 ISBN   0-7876-7927-5, via Answers.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  33. Robinson's biographer Wil Haygood stated during a September 25, 2010 book festival appearance that Doyle was pushing himself to fight to "buy his mother a house" and after Doyle's death in 1947, Robinson gave the earnings of his next four fights to Doyle's mother, so she could buy that house."
  34. Wil Haygood, Book TV, September 2010
  35. Robinson and Anderson, p. 165.
  36. "The Lineal Middleweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  37. "Jake LaMotta". BoxRec. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived April 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  38. Robinson and Anderson, pp. 187–88.
  39. Dethroned in London, The New York Times, July 15, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  40. Sugar Ray Gives Mme. Auriol Kiss; Boxer as Cancer Fund 'Envoy,' Busses French Chief's Wife Twice on Each Cheek, The New York Times, May 17, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  41. "Sugar's Lumps". Time. July 23, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  42. Daley, Arthur (September 12, 1951). "Sports of The Times; For the Championship". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  43. Harlem Hails Robinson; More Than 10,000 Cheer Verdict, Sing and Dance in Street, The New York Times, September 13, 1951. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  44. Rose, Murray (December 27, 1951). "Sugar Ray Robinson Named Fighter Of Year". St. Petersburg Times . Associated Press. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  45. "The Lineal Light Heavyweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  46. Robinson and Anderson. p. 227
  47. Robinson and Anderson. p. 266
  48. Nichols, Joseph C. (May 1, 1957). "Utah 160-Pounder to Defend Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  49. 1 2 3 4 5 Nichols, Joseph C. (May 2, 1957). "Robinson Knocks Out Fullmer in Fifth Round to Regain Middleweight Crown". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  50. Fitzgerald and Hudson. p. 40
    *Gene Fullmer, ibhof.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived December 30, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  51. "Basilio Takes Title By Beating Robinson". The New York Times. September 24, 1957. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  52. 1 2 Nichols, Joseph C. (March 26, 1958). "Robinson Outpoints Basilio and Wins World Middleweight Title Fifth Time". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  53. 1 2 Nichols, Joseph C. (January 23, 1960). "5–1 Choice Loses A Split Decision", The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  54. Conkilin, William R. (October 22, 1961) "Robinson Beats Moyer in Ten-Rounder Here". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  55. Teague, Robert L. (February 18, 1962). "Denny Moyer Defeats Robinson". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  56. 1 2 Left Hook Floors Sugar Ray in 4th, The New York Times, June 25, 1963. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  57. 1 2 "Robinson Beaten in Archer Fight". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 11, 1965. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  58. "Robinson Declares Bout With Archer Was His Last Fight". The New York Times. Associated Press. November 12, 1965. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  59. https://boxrec.com/media/index.php/Jimmy_Doyle
  60. Robinson and Anderson, p. 4.
  61. Mission Impossible Archived October 8, 2009, at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved October 14, 2010.
  62. Wiley. p. 223
  63. 1 2 Pace, Frank (August 1976). "Keeping Pace with Sugar Ray Robinson". LA Sports Magazine. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 5, 2007 via Hall of Fame Magazine.
  64. "Sugar Ray Robinson". Find a Grave . November 6, 1998. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  65. Robinson and Anderson, pp. 91–2.
  66. Wiley, Ralph (July 13, 1987). "Bittersweet Twilight for Sugar". Sports Illustrated Vault.
  67. "Remembering Sugar Ray: Edna Mae Robinson recalls the glitter and pain of her past". Ebony . XLV (2): 74, 76, 78. December 1989.
  68. Chenault. p. 31
  69. "Ray Robinson's' Sister Dies". The New York Times, April 21, 1959. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  70. "Sugar Beats Paternity Suit On His 40th Birthday". Jet. XX (4): 54. May 18, 1961. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  71. 1 2 Wiley. p. 221
  72. "Famous Free Masons: Athletes". U.S. News & World Report . May 14, 2013. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  73. "Well Known Freemasons". Grand Lodge of British Columbia A.F. & A. M. Retrieved February 13, 2013.
  74. Robinson and Anderson, p. 75.
  75. Boyd and Robinson II. p. 271
  76. 1 2 Sugar Ray Robinson quotes, cgmworldwide.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007. Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  77. Hauser. p. 29
  78. 1 2 Mulvaney, Kieran. Who's the Greatest?, ESPN. Retrieved March 18, 2009.
  79. Sugar Ray Bio Archived November 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine , cgmworldwide.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
    *Review Joe and Teddy Pick Their Top Fighters [ dead link ], espn.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
    * Smith, Michael David (May 13, 2007). ESPN Greatest Boxers List: Sugar Ray Robinson No. 1 Archived June 3, 2012, at archive.today , AOL News . Retrieved June 6, 2007.
    * Wiley. p. 226
    *Anderson, Dave (April 13, 1989). "Sugar Ray Robinson, Boxing's 'Best,' Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2008.
    * Trickett, Alex, and Dirs, Ben. Who is the greatest of them all?, bbc.co.uk, June 13, 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 4, 2008. Retrieved August 31, 2006.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  80. Kehoe, Patrick. Ray Robinson: The champions' champion Archived December 15, 2007, at the Wayback Machine . secondsout.com. Retrieved June 4, 2007.
  81. Hauser. p. 212
  82. Sugar Ray named century's best, ESPN, Associated Press. December 8, 1999. Retrieved March 4, 2009.
  83. Ring Magazine's 100 Greatest Punchers, The Ring , (2003), available online at about.com. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  84. "IBRO Rankings" . Retrieved February 12, 2012.
  85. "Madison Square Garden Gets Walk Of Fame". The Seattle Times . Associated Press. September 12, 1992. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2019.
  86. Boyd and Robinson II. p. 105
  87. Kilgannon, Corey (November 25, 2009). "Sugar Ray's Harlem: Back in the Day". The New York Times. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  88. Goldman, Albert (October 8, 1968). "Sugar Ray: Is He a Black Gable?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
    * Sammons. p. xii
    *"The Man Who Comes Back". Time, April 7, 1958. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  89. Fitzgerald and Hudson. pp. 205–06
  90. Robinson and Anderson, p. 169.
  91. Daley, Robert (May 13, 1962). "Sugar Ray Is Still Young in Paris; Age Hasn't Dimmed Robinson's Skills in Frenchmen's Eyes". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2007.
  92. Anderson, Dave (June 18, 1980). "For Some People there is only One Sugar Ray". The New York Times. Retrieved August 24, 2010 via The Miami News.[ dead link ]
  93. Schuyler, Ed (September 21, 1998). Article: Sugar Shane wants to look sweet for Sugar Ray, Associated Press . Retrieved August 24, 2010.
  94. Iole, Kevin (September 6, 2008). "Few pegged Rashad Evans' main-event status". MMAjunkie.com . Retrieved August 24, 2010.

Sources

Sporting positions
World titles
Preceded by
Marty Servo
Vacated
World Welterweight champion
December 20, 1946 – December 25, 1950
Vacated
Vacant
Title next held by
Kid Gavilán
Preceded by
Jake LaMotta
World Middleweight champion
January 14, 1951 – July 10, 1951
Succeeded by
Randy Turpin
Preceded by
Randy Turpin
World Middleweight champion
September 12, 1951 – December 1952
Retired
Vacant
Title next held by
Carl Olson
Preceded by
Carl Olson
World Middleweight champion
May 18, 1956 – January 2, 1957
Succeeded by
Gene Fullmer
Preceded by
Gene Fullmer
World Middleweight champion
May 1, 1957 – September 23, 1957
Succeeded by
Carmen Basilio
Preceded by
Carmen Basilio
NBA Middleweight champion
March 25, 1958 – 1959
Stripped
Vacant
Title next held by
Gene Fullmer
World Middleweight champion
March 25, 1958 – January 2, 1960
Succeeded by
Paul Pender
Records
Preceded by
Stanley Ketchel
2
Most world title reigns
in middleweight division
5

March 25, 1958 – present
Incumbent

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