List of thrash metal bands

Last updated
Metallica expanded the limits of the genre by emphasising on speed and aggression to enhance their complex song structures. They were part of the Bay Area thrash metal scene. [1]

Various bands have played thrash metal at some point of their career. The genre evolved in the early 1980s from combining the drum beats of hardcore punk with the guitar style of the new wave of British heavy metal. [2] It emerged partially as a reaction to the more conventional and widely acceptable glam metal, a less aggressive, pop music-infused heavy metal subgenre which appeared simultaneously. [3]

Contents

Four American bands, Anthrax, Megadeth, Metallica, and Slayer, are credited with popularizing the genre, earning them the title of the "Big Four of Thrash". [4] [5] In Germany, Destruction, Kreator, Sodom, and Tankard, led the Teutonic thrash metal scene, garnering the nickname "The Big Four of Teutonic Thrash". [6] [7] The Clash of the Titans tour, which featured Megadeth, Slayer, Anthrax, Testament, and Suicidal Tendencies, is considered to be the genre's pinnacle, after which thrash metal saw a decline in popularity throughout the 1990s. [8] Thrash metal has seen a resurgence in recent times, with many of the older bands returning to their roots with their new releases. [9] A new generation of thrash metal bands emerged in the early 2000s, drawing lyrical and visual inspiration from the older groups. [10] [11]

Thrash metal was an inspiration for later extreme genres such as death metal and black metal. This list also includes certain bands which belong to the first wave of black metal. These bands essentially played thrash metal with a heavy emphasis on Satanic and occult themes in the lyrics and imagery. [12] Over the years, thrash metal has developed a few subgenres of its own, such as crossover thrash and groove metal. [13]

0–9

BandFormedOriginNote
3 Inches of Blood 1999Canada [14]
3 Inches of Blood at Reds, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2005

A

BandFormedOriginNote
Acid Drinkers 1986Poland [15]
Tomasz "Titus" Pukacki of Acid Drinkers
Acid Reign 1985United Kingdom [16]
Aftermath 1985United States [17]
Agent Steel 1984United States [18]
Airdash 1986Finland
Anacrusis 1986United States [19]
Angel Dust 1984Germany [20]
Angelus Apatrida 2000Spain [21]
Annihilator 1984Canada [22]
Jeff Waters and Dave Padden of Annihilator at Wacken Open Air, 2013
Anthrax 1981United States [23]
Anthrax at Wacken Open Air, 2013
Anvil 1978Canada [24]
Steve "Lips" Kudlow of Anvil at Wacken Open Air, 2013
Artillery 1982Denmark [25]
Artillery, 2010
Atomkraft 1979United Kingdom [26]
Atrophy 1986United States [27]
Aura Noir 1993Norway [28]
Aura Noir at Inferno Festival, Oslo, 2011
Austrian Death Machine 2008United States [29]
A Bad Idea 1978Japan [30]

B

BandFormedOriginNote
Battlecross 2003United States [31]
Battlecross at Rock im Park festival, 2014
Believer 1986United States [32]
Bio-Cancer 2010Greece [33]
Black Tide 2004United States [34]
Blind Illusion 1979United States [35]
Blood Feast 1985United States [36]
Blood Tsunami 2004Norway [37]
Pete Evil of Blood Tsunami, London, 2007
Body Count 1990United States [38]
Ice T with Body Count, Prague, 2006
Bonded by Blood 2005United States [39]
Bulldozer 1980Italy [40]
Alberto Contini of Bulldozer at Tuska Open Air, 2011

C

BandFormedOriginNote
Carnal Forge 1997Sweden [41]
Carnal Forge, 2009
Carnivore 1982United States [42]
Carnivore at Wacken Open Air, 2006
Celtic Frost 1984Switzerland [43]
Celtic Frost at Tuska Open Air, 2006
Cerebral Fix 1986United Kingdom [44]
Children of Bodom 1993Finland [45]
Children of Bodom performing live in 2016
Confess 2010Iran [46]
Coroner 1983Switzerland [47]
Corrosion of Conformity 1982United States [48]
Corrosion of Conformity at Reds, Edmonton
Crash 1991South Korea [49]
Criminal 1991Chile [50]
Anton Reisenegger of Criminal, live in 2013.
Cripper 2005Germany [51]
The Crucified 1984United States [52]
Crumbsuckers 1982United States [53]
Crumbsuckers album rehearsal, 1989
Cryptic Slaughter 1984United States [54]
Cyclone Temple 1989United States [55]

D

BandFormedOriginNote
Darkane 1998Sweden [56]
Darkane lineup
Dark Angel 1981United States [57]
Ron Rinehart of Dark Angel, 2014
Dead Brain Cells 1986Canada [58]
Death Angel 1982United States [59]
Death Angel at Sauna Open Air, Tampere, Finland, 2010
Defiance 1985United States [60]
Defleshed 1991Sweden [61]
Deliverance 1985United States [62]
Demiricous 2001United States [63]
Demolition Hammer 1986United States [64]
Deströyer 666 1994Australia [65]
Deströyer 666 at Hole In The Sky, 2007
Destruction 1982Germany [6]
Destruction at Festival AlternaVigo, 2009
Dissector 2011Bangladesh [66]
Diamond Plate 2004United States [67]
Dorsal Atlântica 1981Brazil [68]
Dorso 1984Chile [69]
D.R.I. 1982United States [70]
Dystrict of Insanity 2016United States

E

BandFormedOriginNote
Early Man 2003United States [71]
Early Man, 2007
Embodyment 1993United States [72]
Enmachined 2011Bangladesh [73]
Epidemic 1986United States [74]
Evildead 1987United States [75]
Evile 2004United Kingdom [76]
Evile, Madrid, 2008
Exalter 2013Bangladesh [77]
Exciter 1978Canada [78]
Exhorder 1985United States [79]
Exodus 1979United States [80]
Exodus, 2012
The Exploited 1978United Kingdom [81]
The Exploited in 2018
Extol 1993Norway [82]
Exumer 1985Germany [83]

F

BandFormedOriginNote
Flotsam and Jetsam 1981United States [84]
Jason Ward of Flotsam and Jetsam at Metalmania, 2008
Forbidden 1985United States [85]

G

BandFormedOriginNote
Gama Bomb 2002Northern Ireland [86]
God Forbid 1996United States [87]
God Forbid at The Hague, The Netherlands, 2009
Grinder 1987Germany [88]
Gwar 1984United States [89]
Gwar at Arena Joondalup, 2010

H

BandFormedOriginNote
Hatesphere 1998Denmark [90]
Hatesphere at Hamburg Metal Days, 2014
Hatriot 2011United States
The Haunted 1996Sweden [91]
The Haunted, Karlstad, 2007
Havok 2004United States [92]
Heathen 1984United States [93]
Kragen Lum and Jason Viebrooks of Heathen at Helfest, 2013
Hellhammer 1981Switzerland [94]
Helstar 1982United States [95]
Helstar in Aschaffenburg, Germany, 2009
Hermética 1987Argentina [96]
Hirax 1982United States [97]
Hirax in Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009
Hobbs' Angel of Death 1987Australia [98]
Holocausto 1985Brazil [99]
Holy Moses 1980Germany [100]
Sabina Classen of Holy Moses, 2005
Hyades 1996Italy [101]

I

BandFormedOriginNote
Iced Earth 1984United States [102]
Infernäl Mäjesty 1986Canada [103]
Intruder 1987United States [104]
Intruder, Germany, 2004
Iron Angel 1983Germany [105]

K

BandFormedOriginNote
Kekal 1995Indonesia [106]
Jeff Arwadi of Kekal, the Netherlands, 2004
Korzus 1983Brazil [107]
Kreator 1982Germany [108]
Kreator at Kraków, Poland, 2009
Kryptos 1998India [109]
Kryptos at Harley Rock Riders Season III, Bangalore, India, 2012

L

BandFormedOriginNote
Lȧȧz Rockit 1982United States [110]
Lamb Of God 1994United States [111]
Lawnmower Deth 1987United Kingdom [112]
Lazarus A.D. 2005United States [113]
Legion of the Damned 2004Netherlands [114]
Harold Gielen of Legion of the Damned at Metalcamp, 2009
Living Death 1980Germany [115]
Living Sacrifice 1989United States [116]
Loudblast 1986France [117]
Lost Society 2010Finland [117]
Lyzanxia 1996France [118]
Lich King 2007United States [119]

M

BandFormedOriginNote
Machine Head 1991United States [120]
Phil Demmel of Machine Head, 2009
Malefice 2003United Kingdom [121]
Dale Butler (left) of Malefice, with a fan, 2010
Mantic Ritual 2004United States [122]
Massakre 1982Chile [123]
Master 1987Russia [124]
Megadeth 1983United States [125]
Megadeth, 2010
Mekong Delta 1985Germany [126]
Mekong Delta at Kilkim žaibu XII festival, Lithuania, 2011
Merciless Death2003United States [127]
Meshuggah 1987Sweden [128]
Fredrik Thordendal of Meshuggah in Prague, Czech Republic, 2008
Messiah 1984Switzerland [129]
Metal Church 1980United States [130]
Kurdt Vanderhoof of Metal Church, Germany, 2005
Metallica 1981United States [1]
Kirk Hammett and James Hetfield of Metallica at London, England, 2008
M.O.D. 1986United States [131]
Mokoma 1996Finland [132]
Santtu Hämäläinen and Marko Annala of Mokoma at Myötätuulirock, Finland, 2011
Morbid Saint 1982United States [133]
Mordred 1984United States [134]
Mortal Sin 1985Australia [135]
Mortal Sin at Jalometalli Metal Music Festival, Finland, 2008
Mortification 1987Australia [136]
Municipal Waste 2001United States [137]
Municipal Waste at Finnish Metal Expo, Helsinki, Finland 2008
Mutilator 1985Brazil [138]

N

BandFormedOriginNote
Nailbomb 1994United States [139]
Nailbomb, 2011
Nasty Savage 1983United States [140]
Necrodeath 1985Italy [141]
Necrodeath at Korxefest, Genoa, Italy, 2010
Necronomicon 1983Germany [142]
Necronomicon promotional photo, 2013
Necrosis 1985Chile [143]
Nevermore 1991United States [144]
Warrel Dane of Nevermore in Dinkelsbühl, 2005
Nuclear 1998Chile [145]
Nuclear Assault 1984United States [146]

O

BandFormedOriginNote
One Bad Pig 1985United States [147]
Onslaught 1983United Kingdom [148]
Outrage 1982Japan [149]
Overkill 1980United States [150]
Overkill at Metalmania, 2008

P

BandFormedOriginNote
Pantera 1981United States [151]
Dimebag Darrell of Pantera, 2003
Paralysis 2010Long Valley NJparalysisnj.bigcartel.com
Paradox 1986Germany [152]
Pentagram Chile 1985Chile [153]
Pestilence 1986Netherlands [154]
Patrick Mameli and Jeroen Paul Thesseling of Pestilence, 2011
Possessed 1983United States [155]
Possessed at Jalometalli Metal Music Festival, 2008
Prong 1986United States [156]
Tommy Victor of Prong, 2008
Prototype 1994United States [157]

R

BandFormedOriginNote
Rage 1984Germany [158]
Victor Smolski, Peavy Wagner, and André Hilgers of Rage, 2008, Milan, Italy
Ratos de Porão 1981Brazil [159]
Ratos de Porão at Virada Cultural, 2007
Raven 1974United Kingdom [160]
Raven, 2008
Razor 1984Canada [161]
Razor in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2008
Realm 1985United States [162]
Revocation 2006United States [163]
Rigor Mortis 1983United States [164]
Running Wild 1976Germany
Running Wild live in concert, Bonn 2005

S

BandFormedOriginNote
Sabbat 1985United Kingdom [165]
Andy Sneap and Simon "Jack Hammer" Jones of Sabbat at London Scala, London, 2008
Sacrament 1989United States [166]
Sacrilege 2012Bangladesh [167]
Soulfly 1997Brazil [168]
Soulfiy in 2005
Symbollica 2015Bangladesh [169]
Sacred Reich at Metal Ensemble, 2017
Sacred Reich 1985United States [170]
Sacred Reich at Rock Hard Festival, 2014
Sacrifice 1983Canada [171]
Sacrifice in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2009
Sadus 1984United States [172]
Sarcófago 1985Brazil [173]
Sepultura 1984Brazil [174]
Andreas Kisser of Sepultura at Virada Cultural, 2008
Seventh Angel 1987United Kingdom [175]
Ian Arkley of Seventh Angel at Blast of Eternity, 2012
Sex Machineguns 1989Japan [176]
Shadows Fall 1995United States [177]
Brian Fair of Shadows Fall at Turock Open Air, Essen, Germany, 2014
Short Sharp Shock 2005United Kingdom [178]
Skeletonwitch 2003United States [179]
Skeletonwitch in Munich, 2014
Skin Chamber 1991United States [180]
Slayer 1981United States [181]
Slayer at Hellfest, 2007
Sodom 1981Germany [182]
Tom Angelripper of Sodom at Hole In The Sky, 2009
Soziedad Alkoholika 1988Spain
Stam1na 1996Finland
Stone 1985Finland
Stormtroopers of Death 1985United States [183]
Suicidal Angels 2001Greece [184]
Nick Melissourgos of Suicidal Angels, 2012
Suicidal Tendencies 1981United States [185]
Mike Muir of Suicidal Tendencies, 2011
Surtur 2012Bangladesh [186]
Susperia 1998Norway [187]
Cyrus and Elvorn of Susperia, 2011
Swashbuckle 2005United States [188]
Commodore Redrum of Swashbuckle at Paganfest America 2009
Sylosis 2000United Kingdom [189]
Sylosis at Victoria Hall, Stoke-on-Trent, 2009

T

BandFormedOriginNote
Tankard 1982Germany [190]
Tankard at "South of Heaven", Betong, Oslo, Norway
Testament 1983United States [191]
Testament at Sweden Rock Festival, 2008
Thanatos 1984Netherlands [192]
Thrash 2011Bangladesh [193]
Tonic Breed 2006Norway [194]
Patrik Svendsen of Tonic Breed, 2012
Tourniquet 1989United States [195]
Ted Kirkpatrick of Tourniquet, 2007
Torturer 1989Chile [196]
Toxic Holocaust 1999United States [197]
Phil Zeller of Toxic Holocaust, Zal Ozhidaniya, Saint Petersburg, Russia, 2014
Toxik 1985United States [198]
Trivium 2000United States [199]
Matt Heafy of Trivium at With Full Force festival, 2011
Turn Hostile 2014Bangladesh [200]

U

BandFormedOriginNote
Ultimatum 1992United States [201]
United 1981Japan [202]

V

BandFormedOriginNote
Vektor 2002United States [203]
Vektor in Hamilton, Ontario, 2012
Vengeance Rising 1987United States [204]
Venom 1979United Kingdom [205]
Venom at Hellfest, 2008
Violator 2002Brazil [206]
Vio-lence 1985United States [207]
Violent Force1984Germany
Virus 1986United Kingdom [208]
Voivod 1982Canada [209]
Voivod at Masters of Rock, Vizovice, Poland, 2009
Vulcano 1981Brazil [210]

W

BandFormedOriginNote
Warbringer 2004United States [211]
Warbringer in Rostock, Germany, 2012
Watchtower 1982United States [212]
Wehrmacht 1985United States [213]
Whiplash 1984United States [214]
Witchery 1997Sweden [215]

X

BandFormedOriginNote
Xentrix 1985United Kingdom [216]
Paul MacKenzie of Xentrix at Headbangers Open Air, 2014

Y

BandFormedOriginNote
Yyrkoon 1995France [217]

Z

BandFormedOriginNote
Znowhite 1982United States [217]

See also

References

  1. 1 2 Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Metallica Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  2. McIver, Joel (April 29, 2010). "A History of Thrash Metal". Total Guitar . MusicRadar . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  3. Weinstein, Deena (2000). Heavy Metal: The Music and Its Culture. Da Capo Press. p. 48. ISBN   978-0-306-80970-5.
  4. Sharpe-Young, Garry (2002). A to Z of Thrash Metal. Cherry Red Books. p. 450. ISBN   1-901447-09-X.
  5. Grow, Kory (August 22, 2011). "The Story of the Big Four: The Clash of the Titans". Revolver . Retrieved June 19, 2014.
  6. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. Destruction Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  7. Rivadavia, Eduardo (August 15, 2013). "10 Best Thrash Metal Bands of All Time". Loudwire . Townsquare Media . Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  8. Bienstock, Richard (August 31, 2011). "The History of Thrash Metal". Guitar Player . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  9. "Thrash Metal Revival". Decibel . Archived from the original on February 23, 2008. Retrieved March 6, 2008.
  10. Thomson, Jamie (July 22, 2010). "Thrash Is Back on the Menu with the Big Four". The Guardian . Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  11. Ramirez, Carlos (July 22, 2010). "Top 10 New School Thrash Bands". Noisecreep . Retrieved January 26, 2014.
  12. Dunn, Sam (August 5, 2005). Metal: A Headbanger's Journey (motion picture). Canada: Dunn, Sam.
  13. Wallach, Jeremy; Berger, Harris M.; Greene, Paul D., eds. (2011). Metal Rules the Globe: Heavy Metal Music Around the World. Duke University Press. p. 30. ISBN   978-0-8223-4733-0.
  14. Rivadavia, Eduardo. 3 Inches of Blood Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  15. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Acid Drinkers Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  16. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Acid Reign Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  17. Rivadavia, Eduardo.[ https://www.allmusic.com/class-artist/mn0000600360/biography Aftermath Biography] at AllMusic . Retrieved September 5, 2015.
  18. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Agent Steel Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  19. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Anacrusis Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  20. Huey, Steve. Angel Dust Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  21. Prunes, Mariano. Angelus Apatrida Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  22. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Annihilator Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  23. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Anthrax Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  24. Huey, Steve. Anvil Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved April 1, 2012.
  25. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Artillery Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  26. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Atomkraft Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  27. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Atrophy Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  28. Huey, Steve. Aura Noir Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  29. Henderson, Alex. Total Brutal - Austrian Death Machine at AllMusic . Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  30. {allsongsarecool|class=artist|id=mw0000790986|tab=overview|;label=Total Brutal - A Bad Idea |first=Jack|last=keanbvdc|accessdate=May 18, 2014))
  31. Heaney, Gregory. Battlecross Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  32. Bush, John. Believer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  33. Simms, Kelley (March 25, 2015). "Bio-Cancer - Tormenting The Innocent". Brave Words & Bloody Knuckles . Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  34. Lymangrover, Jason. Black Tide Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  35. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Blind Illusion Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  36. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Blood Feast Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  37. Henderson, Alex. Blood Tsunami Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  38. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Body Count Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  39. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Bonded by Blood Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  40. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Bulldozer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  41. Huey, Steve. Carnal Forge Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  42. Prato, Greg. Carnivore Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  43. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Celtic Frost Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  44. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Cerebral Fix Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  45. Ankeny, Jason. "Children of Bodom". Allmusic. Retrieved October 14, 2017.
  46. "Iranian heavy metal band face execution on blasphemy charges" . Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  47. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Coroner Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  48. Huey, Steve. Corrosion of Conformity Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  49. Christe, Ian (February 21, 2013). "South Korean Heavy Metal: 10 Bands You Should Check Out". Noisecreep . Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  50. Huey, Steve. Criminal Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  51. Huey, Steve. Cripper Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  52. Rivadavia, Eduardo. The Crucified Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  53. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Crumbsuckers Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  54. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Cryptic Slaughter Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  55. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Cyclone Temple Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  56. Huey, Steve. Darkane Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  57. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Dark Angel Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  58. Wagner, Jeff (2010). Mean Deviation: Four Decades of Progressive Heavy Metal . Bazillion Points Books. p. 151. ISBN   978-0-9796163-3-4.
  59. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Death Angel Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  60. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Defiance Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  61. Huey, Steve. Defleshed Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  62. Bush, John. Deliverance Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  63. Lymangrover, Jason. Demiricous Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  64. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Demolition Hammer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  65. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Deströyer 666 Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  66. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Dissector Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  67. Heaney, Gregory. Diamond Plate Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  68. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Dorsal Atlântica Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  69. González C., Carla (June 5, 2014). "Sociólogo analiza los orígenes del thrash metal en Chile". Rock Nvivo. Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  70. Huey, Steve. D.R.I. Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  71. Monger, James Christopher. Early Man Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  72. Authier, Amber (March 2002). "Embodyment - Hold Your Breath". Exclaim! . Ian Danzig. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  73. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Enmachined Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  74. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Epidemic Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  75. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Evildead Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  76. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Evile Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  77. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Exalter Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  78. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Exciter Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  79. Torreano, Bradley. Exhorder Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  80. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Exodus Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  81. "The Exploited - Biography, Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  82. Ramirez, Carlos. "Top 10 Christian Metal Bands". Noisecreep . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  83. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Exumer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  84. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Flotsam and Jetsam Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  85. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Forbidden Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  86. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Gama Bomb Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  87. Downey, Ryan. God Forbid Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  88. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Grinder Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  89. Huey, Steve. Gwar Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  90. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Hatesphere Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  91. Birchmeier, Jason. The Haunted Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  92. Jeffries, David. Havok Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  93. Book, John. Heathen Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  94. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Hellhammer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  95. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Helstar Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  96. Bonacich, Drago. Hermética Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  97. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Hirax Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  98. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Hobbs' Angel of Death Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  99. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Holocausto Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  100. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Holy Moses Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  101. "Hyades, la tracklist del nuovo album". Metal Hammer Italy. March 25, 2015. Archived from the original on March 27, 2015. Retrieved March 3, 2016.
  102. {{https://www.allmusic.com/artist/iced-earth-mn0000769486/biography}}
  103. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Infernäl Majesty Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  104. Book, John. Intruder Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  105. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Iron Angel Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  106. King, Chris (July 31, 1999). "Beyond the Glimpse of Dreams". The Phantom Tollbooth. Shari Lloyd, Linda LaFianza. Retrieved June 18, 2014.
  107. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Korzus Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  108. Buchanan, John D.. Kreator Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  109. Kurup, Deepa (July 8, 2008). "Break On Thru'". The Hindu . Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  110. Book, John. Lääz Rockit Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  111. "of God Biography-first=Eduardo-last=Rivadavia-accessdate=May 15,2015" . Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  112. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Lawnmower Deth Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  113. Monger, James Christopher. Lazarus A.D. Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  114. True, Chris. Legion of the Damned Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  115. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Living Death Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  116. Downey, Ryan. Living Sacrifice Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  117. 1 2 Duboc, Olivier. Loudblast Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  118. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Lyzanxia Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  119. "Lich King | Album Discography | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2015-09-13.
  120. Monger, James Christopher. Machine Head Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  121. Prato, Greg. "Dawn of Reprisal review". Allmusic . Retrieved 2009-11-27.
  122. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mantic Ritual Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  123. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Massakre Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  124. "Мастер - Encyclopaedia Metallum: The Metal Archives". www.metal-archives.com. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  125. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. Megadeth Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  126. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mekong Delta Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  127. True, Chris. Merciless Death Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  128. Deneau, Max (March 17, 2008). "obZen". Exclaim! . Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved March 2, 2016.
  129. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Messiah Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  130. Huey, Steve. Metal Church Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  131. Huey, Steve. M.O.D. Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  132. True, Chris. Mokoma Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  133. Book, John. Morbid Saint Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  134. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mordred Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  135. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mortal Sin Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  136. Dombek, Kirk. Mortification Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  137. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Municipal Waste Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  138. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Mutilator Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  139. Mathew, Leslie. Point Blank - Nailbomb at AllMusic . Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  140. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Nasty Savage Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  141. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Necrodeath Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  142. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Necronomicon Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  143. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Necrosis Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  144. Downey, Ryan. Nevermore Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  145. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Nuclear Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 2014.
  146. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Nuclear Assault Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 2014.
  147. Mansfield, Brian. One Bad Pig Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  148. Anderson, Jason. Onslaught Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  149. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Outrage Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  150. Huey, Steve. Overkill Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  151. Birchmeier, Jason. Pantera Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  152. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Paradox Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  153. Pentagram Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved May 10, 2016.
  154. Serba, John. Pestilence Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  155. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Possessed Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  156. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Prong Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved July 4, 2014.
  157. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Prototype Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  158. Prato, Greg. Rage Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  159. Neuman, Julia (April 1, 2014). "Icon: Brazilian Originals Ratos de Porão Thrash On". MTV . Retrieved June 20, 2014.
  160. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Raven Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  161. Sharpe-Young, Garry. "Razor Biography". MusicMight. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  162. Monger, James Christopher. Realm Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  163. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Revocation Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  164. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Rigor Mortis Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  165. Huey, Steve. Sabbat Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  166. Powell, Mark Allan (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music (first ed.). Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. p. 785. ISBN   978-1-56563-679-8.
  167. Rivadavia, Eduardo. sacrilege Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  168. "Savages - Soulfly - Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
  169. Jackson, Albert. Underground review at AllMusic . Retrieved June, 2015.
  170. Henderson, Alex. The American Way review at AllMusic . Retrieved June 28, 2014.
  171. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Sacrifice Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved January 22, 2012.
  172. Prato, Greg. Sadus Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  173. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Sarcofago Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  174. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Sepultura Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  175. Powell, Mark Allan (2002). Encyclopedia of Contemporary Christian Music (first ed.). Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. pp. 810–811. ISBN   978-1-56563-679-8.
  176. Eremenko, Alexey. Sex Machineguns Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  177. Huey, Steve. Shadows Fall Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  178. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Short Sharp Shock Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  179. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Skeletonwitch Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  180. Henderson, Alex. Wound review at AllMusic . Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  181. Huey, Steve. Slayer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  182. Huey, Steve. Sodom Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  183. Huey, Steve. Stormtroopers of Death Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  184. Monger, James Christopher. Suicidal Angels Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  185. Prato, Greg. Suicidal Tendencies Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  186. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Surtur Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  187. Bonacich, Drago. Susperia Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  188. Freeman, Phil. Swashbuckle Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  189. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Sylosis Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  190. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Tankard Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  191. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Testament Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  192. Odle, Kevin. Thanatos Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  193. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Thrash Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  194. Monger, James. Tonic Breed Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  195. Prato, Greg. Tourniquet Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  196. Prato, Greg. Torturer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  197. Prato, Greg. Toxic Holocaust Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  198. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Toxik Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  199. Loftus, Johnny. Trivium Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  200. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Turn Hostile Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  201. H, Dale (February 7, 2009). "Ultimatum – Into The Pit". Indie Vision Music. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  202. "Japan's United to Release New Album". Blabbermouth.net. March 21, 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  203. Freeman, Phil. Vektor Discography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  204. Torreano, Bradley. Vengeance Rising Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  205. Ankeny, Jason. Venom Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  206. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Violator Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  207. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Vio-lence Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  208. Exley, Mike (December 13, 1987). "Live Reviews: Megadeth at Queens Hall, Leeds, England". Metal Forces . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  209. Prato, Greg. Voivod Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  210. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Vulcano Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  211. True, Chris. Warbringer Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  212. Prato, Greg. Watchtower Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  213. Book, John. Wehrmacht Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  214. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Whiplash Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  215. Odle, Kevin. Witchery Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  216. Rivadavia, Eduardo. Xentrix Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.
  217. 1 2 Rivadavia, Eduardo. Yyrkoon Biography at AllMusic . Retrieved June 17, 2014.