Mycobacterium gastri

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Mycobacterium gastri
Scientific classification
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M. gastri
Binomial name
Mycobacterium gastri
Wayne 1966, ATCC 15754

Mycobacterium gastri is a species of the phylum Actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine content, one of the dominant phyla of all bacteria), belonging to the genus Mycobacterium .

Actinobacteria phylum of Gram-positive bacteria

The Actinobacteria are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic. They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, Actinomycetales, reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plant's saccharides. Other species, such as many members of the genus Mycobacterium, are important pathogens.

Bacteria A domain of prokaryotes – single celled organisms without a nucleus

Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised, and only about half of the bacterial phyla have species that can be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

<i>Mycobacterium</i> genus of bacteria

Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. Over 190 species are recognized in this genus. This genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis and leprosy in humans. The Greek prefix myco- means "fungus," alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mold-like fashion on the surface of cultures. It is acid fast and cannot be stained by the Gram stain procedure.

Contents

Description

Moderately long to long, Gram-positive, aerobic, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.

Colony characteristics

Middlebrook 7H10 Agar is a solid growth medium specially used for culture of Mycobacterium, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been reported that the 7H10 medium tends to grow fewer contaminants than the egg-based media commonly used for the cultivation of mycobacteria.

Physiology

Ethambutol chemical compound

Ethambutol is a medication primarily used to treat tuberculosis. It is usually given in combination with other tuberculosis medications, such as isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide. It may also be used to treat Mycobacterium avium complex, and Mycobacterium kansasii. It is taken by mouth.

Isoniazid chemical compound

Isoniazid, also known as isonicotinylhydrazide (INH), is an antibiotic used for the treatment of tuberculosis. For active tuberculosis it is often used together with rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and either streptomycin or ethambutol. For latent tuberculosis it is often used by itself. It may also be used for atypical types of mycobacteria, such as M. avium, M. kansasii, and M. xenopi. It is usually taken by mouth but may be used by injection into muscle.

Differential characteristics

Pathogenesis

Biosafety level level of the biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents

A biosafety level is a set of biocontainment precautions required to isolate dangerous biological agents in an enclosed laboratory facility. The levels of containment range from the lowest biosafety level 1 (BSL-1) to the highest at level 4 (BSL-4). In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have specified these levels. In the European Union, the same biosafety levels are defined in a directive. In Canada the four levels are known as Containment Levels. Facilities with these designations are also sometimes given as P1 through P4, as in the term "P3 laboratory".

Type strain

Strain ATCC 15754 = CCUG 20995 = CIP 104530 = DSM 43505 = JCM 12407.

Related Research Articles

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<i>Mycobacterium kansasii</i> species of bacterium

Mycobacterium kansasii is a bacterium in the Mycobacterium family. The genus includes species known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis and leprosy, but this species is generally not dangerous to healthy people.

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Mycobacterium lacus is a species of bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium known to be a causative agent in immunocompetent individuals.

Mycobacterium madagascariense
Etymology: madagascariense, relating to Madagascar where it was first isolated.

Löwenstein–Jensen medium

The Löwenstein–Jensen medium, more commonly known as LJ medium, is a growth medium specially used for culture of Mycobacterium species, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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