Mycobacterium madagascariense

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Mycobacterium madagascariense
Scientific classification
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M. madagascariense
Binomial name
Mycobacterium madagascariense
Ausina et al. 1992, ATCC 49865

Mycobacterium madagascariense
Etymology: madagascariense, relating to Madagascar where it was first isolated.

Madagascar island nation off the coast of Southeast Africa, in the Indian Ocean

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar, and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. Following the prehistoric breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, Madagascar split from the Indian subcontinent around 88 million years ago, allowing native plants and animals to evolve in relative isolation. Consequently, Madagascar is a biodiversity hotspot; over 90% of its wildlife is found nowhere else on Earth. The island's diverse ecosystems and unique wildlife are threatened by the encroachment of the rapidly growing human population and other environmental threats.

Contents

Description

Polymorphic, gram-positive, nonmotile and acid-fast rods.

Polymorphism (biology) Occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms in the population of a species

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species. To be classified as such, morphs must occupy the same habitat at the same time and belong to a panmictic population.

Colony characteristics

Physiology

Middlebrook 7H10 Agar is a solid growth medium specially used for culture of Mycobacterium, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been reported that the 7H10 medium tends to grow fewer contaminants than the egg-based media commonly used for the cultivation of mycobacteria.

Differential characteristics

Mycobacterium aurum is a species of the phylum Actinobacteria, belonging to the genus Mycobacterium.

Mycobacterium obuense is a species of Mycobacterium. Heat-killed Mycobacterium obuense is immunomodulatory and has been used to direct the immune response in the treatment of cancers - notably pancreatic cancer and malignant melanoma. Recent trials have been directed towards the treatment of colorectal cancer.

Pathogenesis

Type strain

<i>Sphagnum</i> genus of mosses, peat moss

Sphagnum is a genus of approximately 380 accepted species of mosses, commonly known as "peat moss". Accumulations of Sphagnum can store water, since both living and dead plants can hold large quantities of water inside their cells; plants may hold 16–26 times as much water as their dry weight, depending on the species. The empty cells help retain water in drier conditions. Hence, as sphagnum moss grows, it can slowly spread into drier conditions, forming larger mires, both raised bogs and blanket bogs. Thus, Sphagnum can influence the composition of such habitats, with some describing Sphagnum as 'habitat manipulators'. These peat accumulations then provide habitat for a wide array of peatland plants, including sedges and ericaceous shrubs, as well as orchids and carnivorous plants. Sphagnum and the peat formed from it do not decay readily because of the phenolic compounds embedded in the moss's cell walls. In addition, bogs, like all wetlands, develop anaerobic soil conditions, which produces slower anaerobic decay rather than aerobic microbial action. Peat moss can also acidify its surroundings by taking up cations, such as calcium and magnesium, and releasing hydrogen ions. Under the right conditions, peat can accumulate to a depth of many meters. Different species of Sphagnum have different tolerance limits for flooding and pH, so any one peatland may have a number of different Sphagnum species.

Strain P2 = ATCC 49865 = CIP 104538 = JCM 13574.

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