Patriots' Day

Last updated

Patriots' Day
Minute Man Statue Lexington Massachusetts.jpg
Statue of the Lexington Minuteman on the Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts
Observed by
  • Massachusetts
  • Maine
  • Wisconsin
  • Connecticut (since 2018) [1]
  • encouraged in Florida
TypeHistorical
Celebrations Boston Marathon
Observances Battles of Lexington and Concord
DateThird Monday in April
2018 dateApril 16  (2018-04-16)
2019 dateApril 15  (2019-04-15)
2020 dateApril 20  (2020-04-20)
2021 dateApril 19  (2021-04-19)
Frequencyannual
Patriots' Grave in the Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts Patriots' Grave, Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts.JPG
Patriots' Grave in the Old Burying Ground, Arlington, Massachusetts

Patriots' Day(so punctuated in several U. S. states, but Patriot's Day in Maine) [2] is an annual event, formalized as several state holidays, commemorating the Battles of Lexington and Concord, the first battles of the American Revolutionary War.

Battles of Lexington and Concord first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War

The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. The battles were fought on April 19, 1775 in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy, and Cambridge. They marked the outbreak of armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in America.

American Revolutionary War War between Great Britain and the Thirteen Colonies, which won independence as the United States of America

The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America.

Contents

Description

The holiday was originally celebrated on April 19, the actual anniversary of the battles (fought in 1775). Since 1969, it has been observed on the third Monday in April in Massachusetts [3] and in Maine [4] (which until the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was part of Massachusetts). The Monday holiday creates a three-day long weekend. It is also the first day of a vacation week for public schools in both states and a school holiday for many local colleges and universities, both public and private.[ citation needed ]

Massachusetts State of the United States of America

Massachusetts, officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, and is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime trade.

Maine State of the United States of America

Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, and the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, and the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes. It is known for its jagged, rocky coastline; low, rolling mountains; heavily forested interior; and picturesque waterways, as well as its seafood cuisine, especially lobster and clams. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland. The capital is Augusta.

Missouri Compromise legislative compromise between pro- and anti-slavery parties in the run-up to the American Civil War

The Missouri Compromise was the legislation that provided for the admission of Maine to the United States as a free state along with Missouri as a slave state, thus maintaining the balance of power between North and South in the United States Senate. As part of the compromise, slavery was prohibited north of the 36°30′ parallel, excluding Missouri. The 16th United States Congress passed the legislation on March 3, 1820, and President James Monroe signed it on March 6, 1820.

The day is a public school observance day in Wisconsin. [5] Florida law also encourages people to celebrate it, though it is not treated as a public holiday. [6] Connecticut began observance in 2018. [1]

Wisconsin A north-central state of the United States of America

Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin is the 23rd largest state by total area and the 20th most populous. The state capital is Madison, and its largest city is Milwaukee, which is located on the western shore of Lake Michigan. The state is divided into 72 counties.

Acton Minutemen and citizens marching from Acton to Concord on Patriots' Day 2012 Isaac Davis Trail March 2012.jpg
Acton Minutemen and citizens marching from Acton to Concord on Patriots' Day 2012

Observances and re-enactments of the battles occur annually at Lexington Green in Lexington, Massachusetts (around 6:00 am) and the Old North Bridge in Concord, Massachusetts (around 9:00 am). In the morning, mounted re-enactors with state police escorts retrace the Midnight Rides of Paul Revere and William Dawes, calling out warnings the whole way.[ citation needed ]

Lexington, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 31,394 at the 2010 census, in nearly 11,100 households. Settled in 1641, it is celebrated as the site of the first shots of the American Revolutionary War, in the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775. It is part of the Greater Boston Area and is the sixth wealthiest small city in the United States.

Old North Bridge footbridge

The North Bridge, often colloquially called the Old North Bridge, is a historical site in the Battle of Concord, the first day of battle in the American War of Independence. The current wooden pedestrian bridge is a replica of the one that stood at the day of the battle. It and nearby sites are now part of the Minute Man National Historical Park of the National Park Service, an extremely popular tourist destination.

Concord, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Concord is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, in the United States. At the 2010 census, the town population was 17,668. The United States Census Bureau considers Concord part of Greater Boston. The town center is near where the confluence of the Sudbury and Assabet rivers forms the Concord River.

The most significant celebration of Patriots' Day is the Boston Marathon, which has been run every Patriots' Day since April 19, 1897 to mark the then-recently established holiday, with the race linking the Athenian and American struggles for liberty. [7]

Boston Marathon marathon running race held in Boston, Untied States

The Boston Marathon is an annual long distance running event hosted by several cities in greater Boston in eastern Massachusetts, United States. It is always held on Patriots' Day, the third Monday of April. Begun in 1897, the event was inspired by the success of the first marathon competition in the 1896 Summer Olympics. The Boston Marathon is the world's oldest annual marathon and ranks as one of the world's best-known road racing events. It is one of six World Marathon Majors. Its course runs from Hopkinton in southern Middlesex County to Copley Square in Boston.

Athens Capital and largest city of Greece

Athens is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.

History

In 1894 the Lexington Historical Society petitioned the Massachusetts State Legislature to proclaim April 19 as "Lexington Day." Concord countered with "Concord Day." Governor Frederic T. Greenhalge opted for a compromise: Patriots' Day. Patriots' Day was first proclaimed in Massachusetts in 1894 by Gov. Greenhalge replacing Fast Day as a public holiday. [2] The idea was introduced to the Governor by the statesman from Lowell, Isaac Henry Paige. It was established on April 19, commemorating the date of the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, and consolidating the longstanding municipal observances of Lexington Day and Concord Day. It also marked the first bloodshed of the American Civil War in the Baltimore riot of 1861, during which four members of the Massachusetts militia were slain and 36 injured. The dual commemoration, Greenhalge explained, celebrated "the anniversary of the birth of liberty and union." In 1938, with the generation that had fought in the Civil War largely off the voter rolls, the Massachusetts legislature passed a bill establishing the holiday "in commemoration of the opening events of the War of the Revolution." [7]

Frederic T. Greenhalge American politician

Frederic Thomas Greenhalge was a British-born lawyer and politician in the United States state of Massachusetts. He served in the United States House of Representatives and was the state's 38th governor. He was elected three consecutive times, but died early in his third term. He was the state's first foreign-born governor.

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U.S. history. Primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Baltimore riot of 1861

The Baltimore riot of 1861 was a civil conflict on Friday, April 19, 1861, on Pratt Street, in Baltimore, Maryland, between antiwar "Copperhead" Democrats and other Southern/Confederate sympathizers on one side, and members of the primarily Massachusetts and some Pennsylvania state militia regiments en route to the national capital at Washington called up for federal service, on the other. The fighting began at the President Street Station, spreading throughout President Street and subsequently to Howard Street, where it ended at the Camden Street Station. The riot produced the first deaths by hostile action in the American Civil War and is nicknamed the "First Bloodshed of the Civil War".

Maine followed Massachusetts in 1907 and replaced its Fast Day with Patriot's Day. [2] On June 10, 2017, Governor Dannel Malloy signed a bill establishing Patriots' Day as a statewide unpaid holiday in Connecticut. [1] On April 16, 2018 Connecticut became the 4th state to recognize the holiday. [8] [9]

Sporting events

The Boston Marathon is run on Patriots' Day every year, since its inception in 1897, even during the World War years. [7] Therefore, sometimes the holiday is referred to as "Marathon Monday". [10]

The Boston Red Sox have been scheduled to play at home in Fenway Park on Patriots' Day every year since 1959. The game was postponed due to weather in 1959, 1961, 1965, 1967, 1984, and 2018, and was canceled in 1995 because of the baseball strike. [11] The game was played in 2013 despite the Boston Marathon bombing because it had finished before the bombs went off. [12] From 1968 to 2006 the games started early, in the morning, around 11:00 am. The early start to these games usually resulted in the game ending just as the marathon is heading through Kenmore Square. However, since 2007 the marathon has started between 9:30 am and 10:00 am, resulting in the racers going through Kenmore towards the middle of the Red Sox game. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

Arlington, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Arlington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, six miles (10 km) northwest of Boston. The population was 42,844 at the 2010 census.

Joseph Warren American doctor

Joseph Warren was an American physician who played a leading role in American Patriot organizations in Boston in the early days of the American Revolution, eventually serving as President of the revolutionary Massachusetts Provincial Congress. Warren enlisted Paul Revere and William Dawes on April 18, 1775, to leave Boston and spread the alarm that the British garrison in Boston was setting out to raid the town of Concord and arrest rebel leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams. Warren participated in the next day's Battles of Lexington and Concord, which are commonly considered to be the opening engagements of the American Revolutionary War.

Samuel Prescott was a Massachusetts Patriot during the American Revolutionary War. He is best remembered for his role in Paul Revere's "midnight ride" to warn the townspeople of Concord of the impending British army move to capture guns and gunpowder kept there at the beginning of the American Revolution. He was the only participant in the ride to reach Concord.

Samuel Whittemore was an American farmer and soldier. He was 78 years of age when he became the oldest known colonial combatant in the American Revolutionary War (1775–83).

Massachusetts Avenue (metropolitan Boston)

Massachusetts Avenue is a major thoroughfare in Boston, Massachusetts, and several cities and towns northwest of Boston. According to Boston magazine, "Its 16 miles of blacktop run from gritty industrial zones to verdant suburbia, passing gentrified brownstones, college campuses and bustling commercial strips."

Boston campaign opening campaign of the American Revolutionary War

The Boston campaign was the opening campaign of the American Revolutionary War, taking place primarily in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The campaign began with the Battles of Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775, in which the local colonial militias interdicted a British government attempt to seize military stores and leaders in Concord, Massachusetts. The entire British expedition suffered significant casualties during a running battle back to Charlestown against an ever-growing number of militia.

John Parker (captain) American colonial farmer, mechanic and soldier

John Parker was an American colonial farmer, mechanic, soldier, and colonial militia officer who commanded the Lexington, Patriot, colonial militia at the Battle of Lexington on April 19, 1775.

Jason Russell House Historic house

The Jason Russell House is a historic house in Arlington, Massachusetts, the site of the bloodiest fighting on the first day of the American Revolutionary War, April 19, 1775. The house was purchased in 1923 by the Arlington Historical Society which restored it in 1926, and now operates it as a museum from mid-April through the end of September, together with the adjoining Smith Museum, built in 1981 to house changing exhibitions of life in Arlington.

In the United States, Tax Day is a colloquial term for the day on which individual income tax returns are due to be submitted to the federal government. The term may also refer to the same day for individual states, even where the tax return due date is a different day.

Two popular American sports were invented in New England. Basketball was invented by James Naismith in Springfield, Massachusetts, in 1891. Volleyball was invented by William G. Morgan in Holyoke, Massachusetts, in 1895. Also, the first organized ice hockey game in the United States is widely believed to have been played in Concord, New Hampshire in 1883.

Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad

The Lexington and West Cambridge Railroad was a railroad company chartered in 1845 and opened in 1846, that operated in eastern Massachusetts, U.S.A. It and its successors provided passenger service until 1977 and freight service until 1980 or early 1981.

Cambridge Grant Historic District

The Cambridge Grant Historic District is a 322-acre (1.30 km2) historic district located on Russell Hill Road and Wilker Road in Ashburnham, Massachusetts, at an elevation of 1240–1300 feet above sea level. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001.

Capt. Benjamin Locke House building in Massachusetts, United States

The Capt. Benjamin Locke House is a historic house at 21 Appleton Street in Arlington, Massachusetts. Built c. 1720, this 2.5 story wood frame house is one of the oldest buildings in Arlington, with a distinctive place in its history. It was the home of Benjamin Locke, a captain of the Menotomy Minutemen, and a skirmish of the 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord took place near the house. Locke sold the house in 1780 to a Baptist congregation, and it was used by them for services until 1790, when Locke bought it back. The building was the subject of legal action dealing with the separation of church and state, and was later the home of Locke's son, Lieutenant Benjamin Locke.

The following are minor or locally celebrated holidays related to the American Revolution.

Prince Estabrook was an enslaved black man and Minutemen Private who fought and was wounded at the Battle of Lexington and Concord, the first battle of the American Revolutionary War. An undated broadside from the time identified him as "a Negro Man", spelled his name Easterbrooks, and listed him among the wounded from Lexington, Massachusetts. Born around 1741, he was a slave belonging to the family of Benjamin Estabrook from whom he most likely took his name. He was freed.

Cotton Tufts was a Massachusetts physician. He was a cousin of John Adams.

Battle off Fairhaven

The Battle off Fairhaven was the first naval engagement of the American Revolutionary War. It took place on May 14, 1775, in Buzzards Bay off Fairhaven, Massachusetts and resulted in Patriot militia retrieving two vessels that had been captured by HMS Falcon. The patriots also captured 13 crew of the Royal Navy, the first naval prisoners of the war.

The towns of Concord and Lexington, Massachusetts are the site of Minute Man National Historical Park, a park governed by the National Park Service. The most highly-attended event in the park is the annual reenactment of the first shots of the Battles of Lexington and Concord, performed by the Lexington Minute Men Company and His Majesty's Tenth Regiment of Foot.

References

  1. 1 2 3 Sampson, Rob (July 13, 2017). "Patriots' Day Becomes Official Statewide Holiday!". State Representative Rob Sampson. Wolcott, Southington, Connecticut. Retrieved November 27, 2017.
  2. 1 2 3 McMillan, Susan (April 20, 2014). "Patriot's Day or Patriots' Day? Punctuation confusion continues". Kennebec Journal. Retrieved April 21, 2014.
  3. "Massachusetts Legal Holidays". Citizen Information Service. Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  4. "Holidays". Human Resources Policy and Practices Manual. Maine Bureau of Human Resources. Retrieved April 11, 2007.
  5. "Wisconsin Public School Observance Days". Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2007.
  6. §683.14, Fla. Stat. (2013) http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=0600-0699/0683/0683.html
  7. 1 2 3 "The History of the Boston Marathon: A Perfect Way to Celebrate Patriot's Day". The Atlantic. Retrieved April 23, 2013.
  8. Patrick, Mike (July 3, 2017). "Patriots Day Coming to Connecticut". Waterbury Republican-American. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
  9. Kinney, Jim (15 April 2018). "Patriots' Day 2018: What's open, what's closed, details on extended tax deadline, Boston Marathon, MBTA service and more". MassLive. Advance Local. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  10. "Who To Watch on Marathon Monday". April 17, 2015.
  11. "1995. Boston Red Sox Box Scores". Baseball-reference.com. Retrieved October 14, 2012.
  12. "MLB Scores, Standings, Box Scores for Monday, April 15, 2013". Baseball-Reference.com.
  13. "Patriots' Day game may start earlier". Boston Red Sox. June 19, 2012. Archived from the original on October 8, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2012.