Thread (network protocol)

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Developed byThread Group
Industry Home automation

Thread is an IPv6-based, low-power mesh networking technology for Internet of things (IoT) products, intended to be secure and future-proof. [1] The Thread protocol specification is available at no cost; however, this requires agreement and continued adherence to an End-User License Agreement (EULA), which states that "Membership in Thread Group is necessary to implement, practice, and ship Thread technology and Thread Group specifications." [2] Membership of the Thread Group is subject to an annual membership fee, except for the "Academic" tier. [3]


In July 2014, the "Thread Group" alliance was formed as a working group to aid Thread becoming an industry standard by providing Thread certification for products. [4] Initial members were ARM Holdings, Big Ass Solutions, NXP Semiconductors/Freescale, Google-subsidiary Nest Labs, OSRAM, Samsung, Silicon Labs, Somfy, Tyco International, Qualcomm, and the Yale lock company. In August 2018 Apple Inc. joined the group [5] and released its first Thread product, the HomePod Mini, in late 2020. [6]

Thread uses 6LoWPAN, which, in turn, uses the IEEE 802.15.4 wireless protocol with mesh communication, as does Zigbee and other systems. However, Thread is IP-addressable, with cloud access and AES encryption. A BSD-licensed open-source implementation of Thread, called "OpenThread", has been released by Google.

In 2019, the Connected Home over IP project (later renamed "Matter"), led by Zigbee, Google, Amazon and Apple, announced a broad collaboration to create a royalty-free standard and open-source code base to promote interoperability in home connectivity, leveraging Thread, as well as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth Low Energy. [7] [8]

Selling points and key features

Thread uses 6LoWPAN, which is based on the use of a connecting router, called an edge router. Thread calls their edge routers Border Routers. Unlike other proprietary networks, 6LoWPAN, like any network with edge routers, does not maintain any application layer state, because such networks forward datagrams at the network layer. This means that 6LoWPAN remains unaware of application protocols and changes. [9] This lowers the processing power burden on edge routers. It also means that Thread does not need to maintain an application layer. Thread states that multiple application layers can be supported, as long as they are low-bandwidth and are able to operate over IPv6. [10] (p6)

Thread touts that there is no single point of failure in its system. However, if the network is only set up with one edge router, then this can serve as a single point of failure. The edge router or another router can assume the role of Leader for certain functions. If the Leader fails, another router or edge router will take its place. This is the main way that Thread guarantees no single point of failure. [10] (p8)

Thread promises a high level of security. Only devices that are specifically authenticated can join the network. All communications through the network are secured with a network key. [10] (pp19–21)

Competing IoT protocols

Competing Internet of things (IoT) protocols include Bluetooth Low Energy (including Bluetooth Mesh), Zigbee, [11] [12] Z-Wave, [11] Wi-Fi HaLow, Bluetooth 5, Wirepas, MiraOS and VEmesh.[ citation needed ]

See also

Related Research Articles

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IEEE 802.15 is a working group of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) IEEE 802 standards committee which specifies wireless personal area network (WPAN) standards. There are 10 major areas of development, not all of which are active.

Personal area network Computer network centered on an individual persons workspace

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network for interconnecting electronic devices within an individual person's workspace. A PAN provides data transmission among devices such as computers, smartphones, tablets and personal digital assistants. PANs can be used for communication among the personal devices themselves, or for connecting to a higher level network and the Internet where one master device takes up the role as gateway.

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Wireless mesh network

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Mesh networking Computer networking using a mesh topology

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Home network

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Matter (standard) Proprietary smart home connectivity standard

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  1. "What is Thread - Overview". Thread Group. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  2. "The Thread group - Thread 1.1 Specifications". Thread Group. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  3. "The Thread group - Membership benefits". Thread Group. Retrieved 2021-06-26.
  4. Noel Randewich (15 July 2014). "Google's Nest launches network technology for connected home". Reuters . Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  5. "Apple joins 'The Thread Group,' opening up the possibility of more advanced HomeKit tech". 9to5Mac. 2018-08-06. Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  6. "Apple introduces HomePod mini: A powerful smart speaker with amazing sound". Apple (Press release). 13 October 2020.
  7. "Amazon, Apple, Google and Zigbee join forces for an open smart home standard". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  8. "Project Connected Home over IP". Project Connected Home over IP. Retrieved 2019-12-18.
  9. Olsson, Jonas (2013). 6LoWPAN Demystified (PDF) (Technical report). Texas Instruments.
  10. 1 2 3 Thread Stack Fundamentals (PDF) (Technical report). Thread Group. May 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  11. 1 2 "Samsung, ARM, and Nest launch Thread, a low-power network for the smart home". PC World . Retrieved 18 July 2014.
  12. Pannell, Tom (10 May 2018). "Bluetooth, Thread, Zigbee Mesh Compared". EETimes. Retrieved 26 June 2021.