|Genus:|| Jacamaralcyon |
The three-toed jacamar (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is monotypic within the genus Jacamaralcyon.
It is endemic to Brazil. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, and plantations. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The three-toed jacamar is one of 18 jacamar species in the family Galbulidae. It is in the monotypic genus Jacamaralcyon,and has no subspecies. When he first described it in 1807, French naturalist François Levaillant named the species "jacamaralcion", a combination of the words "jacamar" and "alcyon" — the latter a form of the word "halcyon", meaning "kingfisher". French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot assigned it to the large jacamar genus Galbula when he established a scientific name for it in 1817, naming it Galbula tridactyla. In 1830, French ornithologist René Primevère Lesson created the genus Jacamaralcyon, separating the three-toed jacamar from other jacamar species on the basis of its unusual foot structure; the genus name is a nod to Levaillant's earlier common name for the bird. The specific name tridactyla is a combination of the Greek words tri, meaning "three" and dactulos, meaning "toes".
Like all members of its family, the three-toed jacamar is short-legged and short-winged. It perches upright, with its tail down and its long, sharply-pointed beak uptilted. 18 cm (7.1 in) in length and weighing between 17.4 and 19.3 g (0.61 and 0.68 oz); females average heavier than males. The sexes are similarly plumaged: slaty black with a bronzy-green gloss above, and somewhat paler below. The belly and the center of the breast are white. The adult has a brownish-gray cap and a black throat, and the cap, chin and the sides of the head are finely marked with pale fulvous streaks. Its bill is black, and its feet are slaty gray.It is a medium-sized bird, measuring
Unlike other members of its family, the three-toed jacamar has three, rather than four, toes. Its small zygodactyl feet are missing a hind toe, and the front two toes are fused together at the base.
Endemic to southeastern Brazil, the three-toed jacamar is found in drier parts of the Atlantic Forest.It is now restricted to the states of Rio de Janeiro (primarily in the Paraíba do Sul valley) and eastern Minas Gerais, though populations also formerly existed in the states of Espírito Santo, São Paulo and Paraná. Although it is generally found in intact forest, it can survive in more degraded areas, such as plantations, provided that a native understory layer persists. There is some evidence that it is associated with streams, as it needs earthen banks in which to nest; it also uses banks created by road cuttings. The species is largely sedentary, though youngsters disperse after fledging, and adults sometimes move short distances.
Although it is a colonial nester, the three-toed jacamar is generally found singly or in pairs. It sometimes joins mixed species flocks.
Like all jacamars, the three-toed jacamar is an insectivore.It feeds preferentially on small, cryptically colored moths and butterflies, and Hymenoptera, but will also take flies, dragonflies, beetles, true bugs and termites. It hunts from an open perch in the forest understory or along the forest edge, sallying after prey which it often beats on a branch; this serves to stun the insect, and to remove any stinger or venom, as well as the wings.
Three-toed jacamars breed during Brazil's rainy season, with vocalizations and other courtship behaviors increasing between September and February. 6 cm (2.4 in) wide and 6–9 cm (2.4–3.5 in) high, and may extend as much as 72 cm (28 in) into the bank. The species tends to nest colonially. The female lays 2–4 eggs.During courtship, rival males sit side by side on a branch, flicking their wings and pumping their tails as they sing. Territories are defended vocally, with rivals rarely resorting to physical confrontation. The species excavates a burrow nest, using one foot at a time to dig into an earthen bank; evidence (in the form of dirty and broken beaks on female museum specimens) suggests that the female may do most or all of the nest digging. Burrows are
The three-toed jacamar's song is a shrill series of short, ascending whistles, lasting about 20 seconds. Unlike most jacamars, which typically sing alone, male three-toed jacamars tend to sing in groups of 2–6.
The three-toed jacamar is a species in trouble; habitat loss and habitat degradation have contributed significantly to its steep decline, and it is now rated as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Its total population is estimated at 350–1500 individuals, which survive in small, widely scattered pockets of appropriate habitat across southeastern Brazil.
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The jacamars are a family, Galbulidae, of near passerine birds from tropical South and Central America, extending up to Mexico. The family contains five genera and 18 species. The family is closely related to the puffbirds, another Neotropical family, and the two families are often separated into their own order, Galbuliformes, separate from the Piciformes. They are principally birds of low-altitude woodlands and forests, and particularly of forest edge and canopy.
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The black-banded owl is a species of owl in the family Strigidae. Entirely nocturnal, this midsized black and white neotropical bird is a resident species, therefore never migrates out of its native South America. Its natural habitats are varied subtropical or tropical forests ranging from lowlands to areas of medium altitude, and it has been found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela.
The brown jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest. This bird was originally described by William John Swainson in 1838. This bird is feed on insects, especially for flying insects.
Galbalcyrhynchus is a genus of birds in the Galbulidae family. Established by Marc Athanese Parfait Oeillet Des Murs in 1845, it contains the following species:
The yellow-billed jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela. It is a bird of the Amazon Basin; its range is only on the north side of the Amazon River, except at the river's outlet in a small region of northeastern Pará state, Brazil. The Andes cordillera is the western limit of the species.
Galbula is the type and largest genus of the jacamar family (Galbulidae) of piciform birds, and its suborder Galbulae. Sometimes, the Piciformes are split in two, with the Galbulae upranked to full order Galbuliformes.
The purplish jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae.
The bluish-fronted jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae.
The blue-necked jacamar or blue-cheeked jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae.
The green-tailed jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae.
The bronzy jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in north-central South America in the Amazon Basin and the Guianas.
The coppery-chested jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in far southern Colombia, Ecuador and far northern Peru. Its natural habitat is subtropical and tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
The white-chinned jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is found in the Amazon Basin of Colombia, Amazonas and northern parts of Ecuador and Peru. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical swamps.
The great jacamar is a species of bird in the family Galbulidae. It is placed in the monotypic genus Jacamerops. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela, where its natural habitat is subtropical and tropical moist lowland forests.
Galbuli is one of the two suborders of the order Piciformes and includes two families Bucconidae (puffbirds) and Galbulidae (jacamars). The other suborder Pici is a global group of piciforms, puffbirds and jacamars are only found in the Neotropics.
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