A thyroxine-binding protein is any of several transport proteins that bind thyroid hormone and carry it around the bloodstream. Examples include:
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A hormone is any member of a class of signaling molecules, produced by glands in multicellular organisms, that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behavior. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of three classes:
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. It can cause a number of symptoms, such as poor ability to tolerate cold, a feeling of tiredness, constipation, slow heart rate, depression, and weight gain. Occasionally there may be swelling of the front part of the neck due to goiter. Untreated cases of hypothyroidism during pregnancy can lead to delays in growth and intellectual development in the baby or congenital iodine deficiency syndrome.
Iodothyronine deiodinases (EC 126.96.36.199 and EC 188.8.131.52) are a subfamily of deiodinase enzymes important in the activation and deactivation of thyroid hormones. Thyroxine (T4), the precursor of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) is transformed into T3 by deiodinase activity. T3, through binding a nuclear thyroid hormone receptor, influences the expression of genes in practically every vertebrate cell. Iodothyronine deiodinases are unusual in that these enzymes contain selenium, in the form of an otherwise rare amino acid selenocysteine.
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) is a globulin protein that in humans is encoded by the SERPINA7 gene. TBG binds thyroid hormones in circulation. It is one of three transport proteins (along with transthyretin and serum albumin) responsible for carrying the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) in the bloodstream. Of these three proteins, TBG has the highest affinity for T4 and T3 but is present in the lowest concentration relative to transthyretin and albumin, which also bind T3 and T4 in circulation. Despite its low concentration, TBG carries the majority of T4 in the blood plasma. Due to the very low concentration of T4 and T3 in the blood, TBG is rarely more than 25% saturated with its ligand. Unlike transthyretin and albumin, TBG has a single binding site for T4/T3. TBG is synthesized primarily in the liver as a 54-kDa protein. In terms of genomics, TBG is a serpin; however, it has no inhibitory function like many other members of this class of proteins.
Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is a thyroid hormone. It affects almost every physiological process in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, body temperature, and heart rate.
Transthyretin (TTR or TBPA) is a transport protein in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid that carries the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) and retinol-binding protein bound to retinol. This is how transthyretin gained its name: transports thyroxine and retinol. The liver secretes transthyretin into the blood, and the choroid plexus secretes TTR into the cerebrospinal fluid.
TBG may refer to:
Levothyroxine, also known as L-thyroxine, is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4). It is used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency, including the severe form known as myxedema coma. It may also be used to treat and prevent certain types of thyroid tumors. It is not indicated for weight loss. Levothyroxine is taken by mouth or given by injection into a vein. Maximum effect from a specific dose can take up to six weeks to occur.
Alpha globulins are a group of globular proteins in plasma that are highly mobile in alkaline or electrically charged solutions. They inhibit certain blood proteases and show significant inhibitor activity.
Liothyronine is a manufactured form of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3). It is most commonly used to treat hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. It is generally less preferred than levothyroxine. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.
Thyroid function tests (TFTs) is a collective term for blood tests used to check the function of the thyroid.
Albumin is a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins. All the proteins of the albumin family are water-soluble, moderately soluble in concentrated salt solutions, and experience heat denaturation. Albumins are commonly found in blood plasma and differ from other blood proteins in that they are not glycosylated. Substances containing albumins are called albuminoids.
A binding protein is any protein that acts as an agent to bind two or more molecules together.
Vitamin K-dependent carboxylation/gamma-carboxyglutamic (GLA) domain is a protein domain that contains post-translational modifications of many glutamate residues by vitamin K-dependent carboxylation to form γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla). Proteins with this domain are known informally as Gla proteins. The Gla residues are responsible for the high-affinity binding of calcium ions.
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). They are tyrosine-based hormones that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine. A deficiency of iodine leads to decreased production of T3 and T4, enlarges the thyroid tissue and will cause the disease known as simple goitre. The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. In humans, the ratio of T4 to T3 released into the blood is approximately 14:1. T4 is converted to the active T3 (three to four times more potent than T4) within cells by deiodinases (5′-iodinase). These are further processed by decarboxylation and deiodination to produce iodothyronamine (T1a) and thyronamine (T0a). All three isoforms of the deiodinases are selenium-containing enzymes, thus dietary selenium is essential for T3 production.
The liver plays the major role in producing proteins that are secreted into the blood, including major plasma proteins, factors in hemostasis and fibrinolysis, carrier proteins, hormones, prohormones and apolipoprotein:
Thyroid hormone binding ratio (THBR) is a Thyroid Function Test that measures the "uptake" of T3 or T4 tracer by Thyroid Binding Globulin (TBG) in a given serum sample. This provides an indirect and reciprocal estimate of the available binding sites on TBG within the sample.
Kenneth J. Sterling was a medical doctor and prominent researcher on the topic of thyroid hormone and human metabolism. He made significant discoveries on thyroid hormone activation and treated patients at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center for over thirty years.
Beverley E. Pearson Murphy is a Canadian endocrinologist and professor emeritus at McGill University. In the 1950s, she discovered new methods for measuring steroid hormones. She was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1989.
Jacob Robbins was an American endocrinologist known for his research on the thyroid gland. He established the "free thyroxine hypothesis", which holds that thyroxine is only active when not bound to protein, and performed long-term research on the incidence of thyroid cancer caused by radiation in survivors of nuclear fallout.