Thyrsopteris

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Thyrsopteris
Temporal range: Cenomanian–Recent
Thyrsopteris elegans kz.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Division: Polypodiophyta
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Thyrsopteridaceae
C.Presl
Genus: Thyrsopteris
Kunze
Species:
T. elegans
Binomial name
Thyrsopteris elegans
Kunze
Synonyms

(family)

  • Thyrsopteridoideae B.K.Nayar
Thyrsopteris elegans01.jpg

Thyrsopteris is a genus of tree fern. It contains a single living species, Thyrsopteris elegans, endemic to the Juan Fernandez Archipelago off the coast of Chile. Thyrsopteris is the only genus in the family Thyrsopteridaceae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I). [1] Alternatively, the genus may be placed in the subfamily Thyrsopteridoideae of a more broadly defined family Cyatheaceae, [2] the family placement used in Plants of the World Online as of November 2019. [3] The oldest records of the genus are the species Thyrsopteris cretacea and Thyrsopteris cyathindusia which were described from the Burmese amber of Myanmar, dating to the Cenomanian of the Cretaceous period, around 99 million years ago. [4] [5] Other fossil species include Thyrsopteris antiqua from the Upper Cretaceous of Chile aandThyrsopteris shenii from the Paleogene of King George Island, Antarctica [6] [5] A thyrsopterid rachis is also known from the Upper Cretaceous of Japan. [7]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thelypteridaceae</span> Family of ferns

Thelypteridaceae is a family of about 900 species of ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, it is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae. Alternatively, the family may be submerged in a very broadly defined family Aspleniaceae as the subfamily Thelypteridoideae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Osmundaceae</span> Family of ferns

Osmundaceae is a family of ferns containing four to six extant genera and 18–25 known species. It is the only living family of the order Osmundales in the class Polypodiopsida (ferns) or in some classifications the only order in the class Osmundopsida. This is an ancient and fairly isolated group that is often known as the "flowering ferns" because of the striking aspect of the ripe sporangia in Claytosmunda, Osmunda, Osmundastrum, and Plensium. In these genera the sporangia are borne naked on non-laminar pinnules, while Todea and Leptopteris bear sporangia naked on laminar pinnules. Ferns in this family are larger than most other ferns.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Marattiaceae</span> Family of ferns

Marattiaceae is the only family of extant (living) ferns in the order Marattiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, Marattiales is the only order in the subclass Marattiidae. The family has six genera and about 110 species. Many are different in appearance from other ferns, having large fronds and fleshy rootstocks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cyatheales</span> Order of ferns

The order Cyatheales, which includes most tree ferns, is a taxonomic order of the fern class, Polypodiopsida. No clear morphological features characterize all of the Cyatheales, but DNA sequence data indicate the order is monophyletic. Some species in the Cyatheales have tree-like growth forms from a vertical rhizome, others have shorter or horizontal expanding rhizomes.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cunoniaceae</span> Family of woody plants

Cunoniaceae is a family of 27 genera and about 335 species of woody plants in the order Oxalidales, mostly found in the tropical and wet temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The greatest diversity of genera are in Australia and Tasmania, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The family is also present in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Malesia, the islands of the South Pacific, Madagascar and surrounding islands. the family is absent from mainland Asia except from Peninsular Malaysia, and almost absent from mainland Africa apart from two species from Southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia, EucryphiaWeinmannia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dicksoniaceae</span> Family of ferns

Dicksoniaceae is a group of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate ferns, treated as a family in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, and counting 30-40 species. Alternatively, the family may be sunk into a very broadly defined family Cyatheaceae sensu lato as the subfamily Dicksonioideae. Most of the genera in the family are terrestrial ferns or have very short trunks compared to tree ferns of the family Cyatheaceae sensu stricto. However, some of the larger species can reach several metres in height. A number of others are epiphytes. They are found mostly in tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as southern New Zealand. Larger tree ferns in the genus Cibotium were formerly included in Dicksoniaceae, but are now segregated as the family Cibotiaceae.

<i>Claytosmunda</i> Genus of ferns

Claytosmunda is a genus of fern. It has only one extant species, Claytosmunda claytoniana, the interrupted fern, native to Eastern Asia, Eastern United States, and Eastern Canada.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pteridaceae</span> Family of ferns

Pteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales, including some 1150 known species in ca 45 genera, divided over five subfamilies. The family includes four groups of genera that are sometimes recognized as separate families: the adiantoid, cheilanthoid, pteridoid, and hemionitidoid ferns. Relationships among these groups remain unclear, and although some recent genetic analyses of the Pteridales suggest that neither the family Pteridaceae nor the major groups within it are all monophyletic, as yet these analyses are insufficiently comprehensive and robust to provide good support for a revision of the order at the family level.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lindsaeaceae</span> Family of ferns

Lindsaeaceae is a pantropical family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It contains six or seven genera with about 220 known species, some of which also extend into the more temperate regions of eastern Asia, New Zealand, and South America.

<i>Tempskya</i> Extinct genus of ferns

Tempskya is an extinct genus of tree fern that lived during the Cretaceous period. Fossils have been found across both the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The growth habit of Tempskaya was unlike that of any living fern or any other living plant, consisting of multiple conjoined dichotomous branching stems enmeshed within roots that formed a "false trunk".

Cystodium is a fern in its own family, Cystodiaceae. It contains a single species: Cystodium sorbifolium(Sm.) J.Sm. 1841. Because it looks like a small tree fern, it had previously been placed in the tree fern family Dicksoniaceae. Subsequent analysis had moved it to the Lindsaeaceae, but the most recent phylogenetic studies have placed it in its own separate family, Cystodiaceae, with a sister relationship to the current Lindsaeaceae. A fossil species of the genus Cystodium sorbifolioides is known from the Cenomanian aged Burmese amber in Myanmar.

This article contains papers in paleobotany that were published in 2016.

This article records new taxa of plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that are scheduled to occur in the year 2017.

This article records new taxa of plants that were described during the year 2014, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that occurred in the year 2014.

2018 in paleoentomology is a list of new fossil insect taxa that were described during the year 2018, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleoentomology that were scheduled to occur during the year.

<i>Plenasium</i> Genus of ferns

Plenasium is a genus of ferns in the family Osmundaceae. It is recognized in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), but kept within a more broadly circumscribed genus Osmunda by other sources. The genus is known from Early Cretaceous to present.

This article records new taxa of fossil plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2020, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that are scheduled to occur in the year 2020.

2017 in paleoentomology is a list of new fossil insect taxa that were described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleoentomology that were scheduled to occur during the year.

Burmese amber is fossil resin dating to the early Late Cretaceous Cenomanian age recovered from deposits in the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar. It is known for being one of the most diverse Cretaceous age amber paleobiotas, containing rich arthropod fossils, along with uncommon vertebrate fossils and even rare marine inclusions. A mostly complete list of all taxa described up until 2018 can be found in Ross 2018; its supplement Ross 2019b covers most of 2019.

<i>Coniopteris</i> Extinct genus of ferns

Coniopteris is an extinct genus of Mesozoic fern leaves with a fossil range from the Early Jurassic to the Cenomanian stage of the Late Cretaceous. It was widespread over both hemispheres during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, with over 130 species having been described. While traditionally assumed to have been a member of Dicksoniaceae or a close relative of Thyrsopteris, recent research has reinterpreted it a stem group of Polypodiales. Most species of Coniopteris probably had a herbaceous habit. The genus is technically a junior synonym of the little used Polystichites, but was conserved by the ICZN in 2013.

References

  1. PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID   39980610.
  2. Christenhusz, Maarten J.M. & Chase, Mark W. (2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (9): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC   3936591 . PMID   24532607.
  3. "Thyrsopteris Kunze". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  4. Li, Chunxiang; Moran, Robbin C.; Ma, Junye; Wang, Bo; Hao, Jiasheng; Yang, Qun (2020-01-01). "A mid-Cretaceous tree fern of Thyrsopteridaceae (Cyatheales) preserved in Myanmar amber". Cretaceous Research. Non-marine and Marine Cretaceous in China: Stratigraphy, Palaeobiogeography, Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimates. 105: 104050. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2019.01.002. ISSN   0195-6671.
  5. 1 2 Zhang, Hong-Rui; Shi, Chao; Long, Xiao-Xuan; Feng, Qi; Cai, Hao-Hong; Lü, Ying-Tao; Wang, Shuo (2021-09-16). "A new fossil record of Thyrsopteridaceae (Cyatheales) from the mid-Cretaceous amber of Myanmar". Palaeoworld. doi:10.1016/j.palwor.2021.09.002. ISSN   1871-174X.
  6. Zhaonai, Li; Xiaohan, Liu; Ruxiang, Shang (2009-05-29). "The Characteristics and Mechanism of Island-Arc Volcanism on the Central and Southern Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica". Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition. 5 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.1992.mp5001003.x. ISSN   1000-9515.
  7. Nishida, Harufumi; Nishida, Makoto (September 1979). "Thyrsopterorachis, gen. nov., a tree fern rachis from the upper cretaceous of Hokkaido, Japan". The Botanical Magazine Tokyo. 92 (3): 187–195. doi:10.1007/BF02497930. ISSN   0006-808X.