Thyrsopteris

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Thyrsopteris
Temporal range: Cenomanian–Recent
Thyrsopteris elegans kz.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Thyrsopteridaceae
C.Presl
Genus: Thyrsopteris
Kunze
Species:
T. elegans
Binomial name
Thyrsopteris elegans
Kunze
Synonyms

(family)

  • Thyrsopteridoideae B.K.Nayar

Thyrsopteris is a predominant plant genus in the Juan Fernandez Archipelago. It is a tree fern genus with a single living species, Thyrsopteris elegans, and is the only genus in the family Thyrsopteridaceae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I). [1] Alternatively, the genus may be placed in the subfamily Thyrsopteridoideae of a more broadly defined family Cyatheaceae, [2] the family placement used in Plants of the World Online as of November 2019. [3] In 2019, a fossil species Thyrsopteris cretacea was described from the Burmese amber of Myanmar, dating to the Cenomanian of the Cretaceous period, around 99 million years ago. [4] Other fossil species include Thyrsopteris shenii from the Paleogene of King George Island, Antarctica [5]

Related Research Articles

Fern Class of vascular plants

A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers. They differ from mosses by being vascular, i.e., having specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients and in having life cycles in which the sporophyte is the dominant phase. Ferns have complex leaves called megaphylls, that are more complex than the microphylls of clubmosses. Most ferns are leptosporangiate ferns. They produce coiled fiddleheads that uncoil and expand into fronds. The group includes about 10,560 known extant species. Ferns are defined here in the broad sense, being all of the Polypodiopsida, comprising both the leptosporangiate (Polypodiidae) and eusporangiate ferns, the latter group including horsetails or scouring rushes, whisk ferns, marattioid ferns, and ophioglossoid ferns.

Aspleniaceae family of plants

The Aspleniaceae (spleenworts) are a family of ferns, included in the order Polypodiales. The composition and classification of the family have been subject to considerable changes. In particular, there is a narrow circumscription, Aspleniaceae s.s., in which the family contains only two genera, and a very broad one, Aspleniaceae s.l., in which the family includes 10 other families kept separate in the narrow circumscription, with the Aspleniaceae s.s. being reduced to the subfamily Asplenioideae. The family has a worldwide distribution, with many species in both temperate and tropical areas. Elongated unpaired sori are an important characteristic of most members of the family.

Marattiaceae family of plants

Marattiaceae is the only family of extant (living) ferns in the order Marattiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, Marattiales is the only order in the subclass Marattiidae. The family has six genera and about 110 species. Many are different in appearance from other ferns, having large fronds and fleshy rootstocks.

<i>Cibotium</i> Genus of plants

Cibotium, also known as manfern, is a genus of 11 species of tropical tree ferns. It is the only genus in family Cibotiaceae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016. Alternatively, the family may be treated as the subfamily Cibotioideae of a very broadly defined family Cyatheaceae, the family placement used for the genus in Plants of the World Online as of November 2019.

Cunoniaceae Family of woody plants

Cunoniaceae is a family of 27 genera and about 300 species of woody plants in the order Oxalidales, mostly found in the tropical and wet temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The greatest diversity of genera are in Australia and Tasmania, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The family is also present in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Malesia, the island of the South Pacific, Madagascar and surrounding islands. the family is absent from mainland Asia except from Peninsular Malaysia, and almost absent from mainland Africa apart from two species from Southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia, EucryphiaWeinmannia sect. Weinmannia.

Cyatheaceae family of plants

The Cyatheaceae are a family of tree ferns, the scaly tree ferns, one of eight families in the order Cyatheales in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016. Alternatively, the family may defined much more broadly as the only family in the Cyatheales, with the PPG I family treated as the subfamily Cyatheoideae. The narrower circumscription is used in this article.

Athyriaceae family of plants

The Athyriaceae are a family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), the family is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae, and includes two genera. Alternatively, it may be treated as the subfamily Athyrioideae of a very broadly defined family Aspleniaceae. The family has with a cosmopolitan distribution.

<i>Cyclosorus</i> genus of plants

Cyclosorus is a genus of ferns in the family Thelypteridaceae, subfamily Thelypteridoideae, in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016. Other sources sink Cyclosorus into a very broadly defined genus Thelypteris, or expand the genus to include other genera which PPG I keeps separate. Thus the online Flora of China suggests there are about 250 species compared to the two species suggested in PPG I.

Cystodium is a fern in its own family, Cystodiaceae. It contains a single species: Cystodium sorbifolium(Sm.) J.Sm. 1841. Because it looks like a small tree fern, it had previously been placed in the tree fern family Dicksoniaceae. Subsequent analysis had moved it to the Lindsaeaceae, but the most recent phylogenetic studies have placed it in its own separate family, Cystodiaceae, with a sister relationship to the current Lindsaeaceae. A fossil species of the genus Cystodium sorbifolioides is known from the Cenomanian aged Burmese amber in Myanmar.

Hemidictyum is a genus of ferns with a single species, Hemidictyum marginatum, commonly known as the marginated half net fern. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, it is the only genus in the family Hemidictyaceae. Alternatively, the family, along with Aspleniaceae sensu stricto, may be placed in a much more broadly defined family Aspleniaceae as the subfamily Asplenioideae.

Rhachidosorus is a genus of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It is the only genus in the family Rhachidosoraceae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016. Alternatively, the genus may be placed in the subfamily Rhachidosoroideae of a more broadly defined family Aspleniaceae, the family placement used in Plants of the World Online as of November 2019.

This article contains papers in paleobotany that were published in 2015.

Burmese amber Late Cretaceous amber from Northern Myanmar

Burmese amber, also known as Burmite or Kachin amber, is amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. The amber is dated to around 99 million years old, during the earliest part of the Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous. The amber is of significant palaeontological interest due to the diversity of flora and fauna contained as inclusions, particularly arthropods including insects and arachnids but also birds, lizards, snakes, frogs and fragmentary dinosaur remains. The amber has been known and commercially exploited since the first century AD, and has been known to science since the mid-nineteenth century. Research on the deposit has attracted controversy due to its role in funding internal conflict in Myanmar and hazardous working conditions in the mines where it is collected.

This article records new taxa of plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2017, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that are scheduled to occur in the year 2017.

This article records new taxa of plants that were described during the year 2014, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that occurred in the year 2014.

This list of fossil insects described in 2019 is a list of new taxa of fossil insects that are scheduled to be described during the year 2019, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to insect paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2019.

This article records new taxa of fossil plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2020, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that are scheduled to occur in the year 2020.

Burmese amber is fossil resin dating to the early Late Cretaceous Cenomanian age recovered from deposits in the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar. It is known for being one of the most diverse Cretaceous age amber paleobiotas, containing rich arthropod fossils, along with uncommon vertebrate fossils and even rare marine inclusions. A mostly complete list of all taxa described up until 2018 can be found in Ross 2018; its supplement Ross 2019b covers most of 2019.

This list of fossil insects described in 2020 is a list of new taxa of fossil insects, that are scheduled to be described during the year 2020, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to insect paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2020.

Burmese amber is fossil resin dating to the early Late Cretaceous Cenomanian age recovered from deposits in the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar. It is known for being one of the most diverse Cretaceous age amber paleobiotas, containing rich arthropod fossils, along with uncommon vertebrate fossils and even rare marine inclusions. A mostly complete list of all taxa described up until 2018 can be found in Ross 2018; its supplement Ross 2019b covers most of 2019.

References

  1. PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229.
  2. Christenhusz, Maarten J.M. & Chase, Mark W. (2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (9): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC   3936591 . PMID   24532607.
  3. "ThyrsopterisKunze". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  4. Li, Chunxiang; Moran, Robbin C.; Ma, Junye; Wang, Bo; Hao, Jiasheng; Yang, Qun (2020-01-01). "A mid-Cretaceous tree fern of Thyrsopteridaceae (Cyatheales) preserved in Myanmar amber". Cretaceous Research. Non-marine and Marine Cretaceous in China: Stratigraphy, Palaeobiogeography, Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimates. 105: 104050. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2019.01.002. ISSN   0195-6671.
  5. Zhaonai, Li; Xiaohan, Liu; Ruxiang, Shang (2009-05-29). "The Characteristics and Mechanism of Island-Arc Volcanism on the Central and Southern Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica". Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition. 5 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.1992.mp5001003.x. ISSN   1000-9515.