Thyrsopteris

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Thyrsopteris
Temporal range: Cenomanian–Recent
Thyrsopteris elegans kz.jpg
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Class: Polypodiopsida
Order: Cyatheales
Family: Thyrsopteridaceae
C.Presl
Genus: Thyrsopteris
Kunze
Species:
T. elegans
Binomial name
Thyrsopteris elegans
Kunze
Synonyms

(family)

  • Thyrsopteridoideae B.K.Nayar

Thyrsopteris is a genus of tree fern. It contains a single living species, Thyrsopteris elegans, endemic to the Juan Fernandez Archipelago off the coast of Chile. Thyrsopteris is the only genus in the family Thyrsopteridaceae in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I). [1] Alternatively, the genus may be placed in the subfamily Thyrsopteridoideae of a more broadly defined family Cyatheaceae, [2] the family placement used in Plants of the World Online as of November 2019. [3] In 2019, a fossil species Thyrsopteris cretacea was described from the Burmese amber of Myanmar, dating to the Cenomanian of the Cretaceous period, around 99 million years ago. [4] Other fossil species include Thyrsopteris shenii from the Paleogene of King George Island, Antarctica [5]

Related Research Articles

Thelypteridaceae

Thelypteridaceae is a family of about 900 species of ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, it is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae. Alternatively, the family may be submerged in a very broadly defined family Aspleniaceae as the subfamily Thelypteridoideae.

Aspleniaceae

The Aspleniaceae (spleenworts) are a family of ferns, included in the order Polypodiales. The composition and classification of the family have been subject to considerable changes. In particular, there is a narrow circumscription, Aspleniaceae s.s., in which the family contains only two genera, and a very broad one, Aspleniaceae s.l., in which the family includes 10 other families kept separate in the narrow circumscription, with the Aspleniaceae s.s. being reduced to the subfamily Asplenioideae. The family has a worldwide distribution, with many species in both temperate and tropical areas. Elongated unpaired sori are an important characteristic of most members of the family.

Marattiaceae

Marattiaceae is the only family of extant (living) ferns in the order Marattiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, Marattiales is the only order in the subclass Marattiidae. The family has six genera and about 110 species. Many are different in appearance from other ferns, having large fronds and fleshy rootstocks.

Cunoniaceae Family of woody plants

Cunoniaceae is a family of 27 genera and about 300 species of woody plants in the order Oxalidales, mostly found in the tropical and wet temperate regions of the Southern Hemisphere. The greatest diversity of genera are in Australia and Tasmania, New Guinea, and New Caledonia. The family is also present in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Malesia, the island of the South Pacific, Madagascar and surrounding islands. the family is absent from mainland Asia except from Peninsular Malaysia, and almost absent from mainland Africa apart from two species from Southern Africa. Several of the genera have remarkable disjunct ranges, found on more than one continent, e.g. Cunonia, EucryphiaWeinmannia sect. Weinmannia.

Dicksoniaceae

Dicksoniaceae is a group of tropical, subtropical and warm temperate ferns, treated as a family in the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016. Alternatively, the family may be sunk into a very broadly defined family Cyatheaceae sensu lato as the subfamily Dicksonioideae. Most of the genera in the family are terrestrial ferns or have very short trunks compared to tree ferns of the family Cyatheaceae sensu stricto. However, some of the larger species can reach several metres in height. A number of others are epiphytes. They are found mostly in tropical regions in the Southern Hemisphere, as far south as southern New Zealand. Larger tree ferns in the genus Cibotium were formerly included in Dicksoniaceae, but are now segregated as the family Cibotiaceae.

Pteridaceae

Pteridaceae is a family of ferns in the order Polypodiales, including some 1150 known species in ca 45 genera, divided over five subfamilies. The family includes four groups of genera that are sometimes recognized as separate families: the adiantoid, cheilanthoid, pteridoid, and hemionitidoid ferns. Relationships among these groups remain unclear, and although some recent genetic analyses of the Pteridales suggest that neither the family Pteridaceae nor the major groups within it are all monophyletic, as yet these analyses are insufficiently comprehensive and robust to provide good support for a revision of the order at the family level.

Athyriaceae

The Athyriaceae are a family of terrestrial ferns in the order Polypodiales. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016 (PPG I), the family is placed in the suborder Aspleniineae, and includes two genera. Alternatively, it may be treated as the subfamily Athyrioideae of a very broadly defined family Aspleniaceae. The family has with a cosmopolitan distribution.

Lindsaeaceae

Lindsaeaceae is a pantropical family of ferns in the order Polypodiales. It contains six or seven genera with about 220 known species, some of which also extend into the more temperate regions of eastern Asia, New Zealand, and South America.

Cystodium is a fern in its own family, Cystodiaceae. It contains a single species: Cystodium sorbifolium(Sm.) J.Sm. 1841. Because it looks like a small tree fern, it had previously been placed in the tree fern family Dicksoniaceae. Subsequent analysis had moved it to the Lindsaeaceae, but the most recent phylogenetic studies have placed it in its own separate family, Cystodiaceae, with a sister relationship to the current Lindsaeaceae. A fossil species of the genus Cystodium sorbifolioides is known from the Cenomanian aged Burmese amber in Myanmar.

Hemidictyum is a genus of ferns with a single species, Hemidictyum marginatum, commonly known as the marginated half net fern. In the Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group classification of 2016, it is the only genus in the family Hemidictyaceae. Alternatively, the family, along with Aspleniaceae sensu stricto, may be placed in a much more broadly defined family Aspleniaceae as the subfamily Asplenioideae.

Eucnemidae Family of beetles

The Eucnemidae, false click beetles, are a family of polyphagan beetles including about 1700 species distributed worldwide.

This article contains papers in paleobotany that were published in 2015.

Burmese amber Late Cretaceous amber from Northern Myanmar

Burmese amber, also known as Burmite or Kachin amber, is amber from the Hukawng Valley in northern Myanmar. The amber is dated to around 99 million years old, during the earliest part of the Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous. The amber is of significant palaeontological interest due to the diversity of flora and fauna contained as inclusions, particularly arthropods including insects and arachnids but also birds, lizards, snakes, frogs and fragmentary dinosaur remains. The amber has been known and commercially exploited since the first century AD, and has been known to science since the mid-nineteenth century. Research on the deposit has attracted controversy due to its alleged role in funding internal conflict in Myanmar and hazardous working conditions in the mines where it is collected.

Psyllipsocidae

Psyllipsocidae is a family of cave barklice in the order Psocodea. There are about 7 genera and more than 70 described species in Psyllipsocidae.

This list of fossil insects described in 2019 is a list of new taxa of fossil insects that are scheduled to be described during the year 2019, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to insect paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2019.

This article records new taxa of fossil plants that are scheduled to be described during the year 2020, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to paleobotany that are scheduled to occur in the year 2020.

Burmese amber is fossil resin dating to the early Late Cretaceous Cenomanian age recovered from deposits in the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar. It is known for being one of the most diverse Cretaceous age amber paleobiotas, containing rich arthropod fossils, along with uncommon vertebrate fossils and even rare marine inclusions. A mostly complete list of all taxa described up until 2018 can be found in Ross 2018; its supplement Ross 2019b covers most of 2019.

This list of fossil insects described in 2020 is a list of new taxa of fossil insects, that are scheduled to be described during the year 2020, as well as other significant discoveries and events related to insect paleontology that are scheduled to occur in the year 2020.

Burmese amber is fossil resin dating to the early Late Cretaceous Cenomanian age recovered from deposits in the Hukawng Valley of northern Myanmar. It is known for being one of the most diverse Cretaceous age amber paleobiotas, containing rich arthropod fossils, along with uncommon vertebrate fossils and even rare marine inclusions. A mostly complete list of all taxa described up until 2018 can be found in Ross 2018; its supplement Ross 2019b covers most of 2019.

<i>Coniopteris</i>

Coniopteris is an extinct genus of Mesozoic fern leaves. It was widespread over both hemispheres during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, with over 130 species having been described. While traditionally assumed to have been a member of Dicksoniaceae or a close relative of Thyrsopteris, recent research has reinterpreted it a stem group of Polypodiales. Most species of Coniopteris probably had a herbaceous habit. The genus is technically a junior synonym of the little used Polystichites, but was conserved by the ICZN in 2013.

References

  1. PPG I (2016). "A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns". Journal of Systematics and Evolution. 54 (6): 563–603. doi:10.1111/jse.12229. S2CID   39980610.
  2. Christenhusz, Maarten J.M. & Chase, Mark W. (2014). "Trends and concepts in fern classification". Annals of Botany. 113 (9): 571–594. doi:10.1093/aob/mct299. PMC   3936591 . PMID   24532607.
  3. "ThyrsopterisKunze". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  4. Li, Chunxiang; Moran, Robbin C.; Ma, Junye; Wang, Bo; Hao, Jiasheng; Yang, Qun (2020-01-01). "A mid-Cretaceous tree fern of Thyrsopteridaceae (Cyatheales) preserved in Myanmar amber". Cretaceous Research. Non-marine and Marine Cretaceous in China: Stratigraphy, Palaeobiogeography, Palaeoecology and Palaeoclimates. 105: 104050. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2019.01.002. ISSN   0195-6671.
  5. Zhaonai, Li; Xiaohan, Liu; Ruxiang, Shang (2009-05-29). "The Characteristics and Mechanism of Island-Arc Volcanism on the Central and Southern Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica". Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition. 5 (1): 39–57. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.1992.mp5001003.x. ISSN   1000-9515.