Timeline of the South China Sea dispute

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South China Sea claims and agreements. South China Sea Claims and Boundary Agreements 2012.jpg
South China Sea claims and agreements.
Territorial claims in the South China Sea South China Sea claims map.svg
Territorial claims in the South China Sea

The article covers events that are related to the South China Sea dispute. In the South China Sea, historically China, Japan and France have disputed over Spratly and Paracel Islands. Presently, the Paracel Islands are disputed among China (PRC), Taiwan (ROC), and Vietnam, while Pratas Island is contested between China and Taiwan. Additionally, the Spratly Islands are subject to intertwined claims by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei. Because of this, numerous countries with territorial disputes have had conflicts in the South China Sea since the past.

Contents

1000 BCE–2nd century CE

The Sa Huỳnh culture flourished in coastal South China Sea, especially in southern to central Vietnam, from Mekong Delta to Quảng Bình province. The people that support Sa Huỳnh civilization were sea faring Austronesian-speaking people. The Sa Huỳnh relics can be found in several sites on the coasts of South China Sea, from Palawan in the Philippines to Orchid Island near Taiwan, suggesting that they sailed, settled and traded around the coasts of South China Sea. [1]

3rd century BCE

It has been claimed by the People's Republic of China on the argument that since 200 BCE Chinese fishermen have used the Spratly islands. [2]

3rd century

Two Chinese books authored by Wan Zhen of the Eastern Wu dynasty (222–280 CE) and a work titled Guangzhou Ji (Chronicles of Guangzhou) authored by Pei Yuan of the Jin dynasty (266–420 CE) described the Paracel and Spratly islands. [3] The local government of the Jin dynasty exercised jurisdiction over the islands by sending patrolling naval boats to the surrounding sea areas. [4]

5th–13th centuries

Naval forces of the Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE) patrolled the Paracel and Spratly islands. [5] In the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE), the islands were placed under the administration and authority of the Qiongzhou Prefecture (now Hainan Province). [5] The Chinese administration of the South China Sea continued into the Song dynasty (960–1279 CE). [5]

Archaeologists have found Chinese made potteries porcelains and other historical relics from the Southern dynasties (420–589 CE), the Sui dynasty (581–619 CE), the Tang dynasty, the Song dynasty, the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368 CE), the Ming dynasty (1368–1644 CE) and later eras up to modern times on the South China Sea islands. [5]

6th–15th centuries

The South China Sea was known as the "Osean sea" by ShauShau the explorer and traders in the region. It was named after a Hindu thalassocratic empire Champa that flourished in modern-day central Vietnam around that period. [1]

In 1596, the Spanish Colonial Government declared that each island in the Kalayaan Islands, now known as the Spratly Islands, had Barangay or Barrio status.

19th century

French soldiers and local townsfolk pose for the camera in front of a temple in Makung in the Pescadores Islands. French Soldiers in Pescadores.jpg
French soldiers and local townsfolk pose for the camera in front of a temple in Makung in the Pescadores Islands.
Paklung, Fangchenggang on an 1888 map Paklung413.jpg
Paklung, Fangchenggang on an 1888 map
Ka Long old bridge on Ka Long river in Mong Cai, actual Nord-East border of China and Vietnam Ka Long River 2.JPG
Ka Long old bridge on Ka Long river in Móng Cái, actual Nord-East border of China and Vietnam
Guangzhouwan, actual Zhanjiang KouangTcheouWang.JPG
Guangzhouwan, actual Zhanjiang

1901–1937

World War II

1945–1959

China 1947 map 1947 Nanhai Zhudao.png
China 1947 map
Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phuoc Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon) Bia VNCH Truong Sa - Republic of Vietnam Spratly Islands Territorial Marker.JPG
Territorial monument of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) on Southwest Cay, Spratly Islands, defining the cay as part of Vietnamese territory (to Phước Tuy Province). Used since 22 August 1956 until 1975, when replaced by another one from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (successor state after the Fall of Saigon)

1970s

1980s

1990s

2000s

2001

2002

2005

2009

2010

2011

"China's systematic action is aimed at turning the undisputed area belonging to Vietnam into an area under dispute in order to materialize China's nine-dotted line claim in the East Sea. This is unacceptable"

Vietnamese spokeswoman Pham Phuong Nga, following the June 9th incident

2012

Dongguan aground on the Half Moon Shoal. Chinese frigate Dongguan aground on Half Moon Shoal.jpg
Dongguan aground on the Half Moon Shoal.

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2020

2021

2022

  • 16 July - A U.S. Navy warship challenged Chinese claims to disputed islands in the South China Sea. [184]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paracel Islands</span> Islands in the South China Sea

The Paracel Islands, also known as the Xisha Islands and the Hoàng Sa Archipelago, are a disputed archipelago in the South China Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spratly Islands</span> Disputed archipelago in the South China Sea

The Spratly Islands are a disputed archipelago in the South China Sea. Composed of islands, islets, cays, and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, the archipelago lies off the coasts of the Philippines, Malaysia, and southern Vietnam. Named after the 19th-century British whaling captain Richard Spratly who sighted Spratly Island in 1843, the islands contain less than 2 km2 of naturally occurring land area, which is spread over an area of more than 425,000 km2 (164,000 sq mi).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South China Sea</span> Marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean

The South China Sea is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean. It is bounded in the north by South China, in the west by the Indochinese Peninsula, in the east by the islands of Taiwan and northwestern Philippines, and in the south by the Indonesian islands of Borneo, eastern Sumatra and the Bangka Belitung Islands, encompassing an area of around 3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). It communicates with the East China Sea via the Taiwan Strait, the Philippine Sea via the Luzon Strait, the Sulu Sea via the straits around Palawan, and the Java Sea via the Karimata and Bangka Straits. The Gulf of Thailand and the Gulf of Tonkin are part of the South China Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South China Sea Islands</span> Islands in the South China Sea

The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs and seamounts in the South China Sea. The islands are mostly low and small and have few inhabitants. The islands and surrounding seas are subject to overlapping territorial claims by the countries bordering the South China Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Macclesfield Bank</span>

Macclesfield Bank is an elongated sunken atoll of underwater reefs and shoals in the South China Sea. It lies east of the Paracel Islands, southwest of Pratas Island and north of the Spratly Islands. It is about 130 km (81 mi) long from southwest to northeast, and about 70 km (43 mi) wide at its broadest part. With an ocean area of 6,448 km2 (2,490 sq mi) it is one of the largest atolls of the world. The Macclesfield Bank is part of what China calls the Zhongsha Islands, which includes a number of geographically separate submarine features, and also refers to a county-level administrative division.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Taiping Island</span> Disputed island in the South China Sea

Taiping Island, also known as Itu Aba, and various other names, is the largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. The island is elliptical in shape being 1.4 kilometres (0.87 mi) in length and 0.4 kilometres (0.25 mi) in width, with an area of 46 hectares. It is located on the northern edge of the Tizard Bank. The runway of the Taiping Island Airport is easily the most prominent feature on the island, running its entire length.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scarborough Shoal</span> Disputed atoll in the South China Sea

Scarborough Shoal, also known as Bajo de Masinloc, Huangyan Island, Minzhu Jiao and Panatag Shoal, are two skerries (rocks) located between Macclesfield Bank to the west and Luzon to the east. Luzon is 220 kilometres (119 nmi) away and the nearest landmass. The atoll is a disputed territory claimed by the Republic of the Philippines through the 1734 Velarde map, while the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China (Taiwan) claim it through the disputed nine-dash line. The atoll's status is often discussed in conjunction with other territorial disputes in the South China Sea such as those involving the Spratly Islands, and the 2012 Scarborough Shoal standoff. The 2012 standoff was initiated by the Philippines through the use of warships against Chinese fishing boats engaged in illegal fishing, followed by a stand-off with Chinese Marine Surveillance ships, resulting in effective capture by the Chinese maritime forces.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thitu Island</span> Island in the Spratly islands

Pag-asa Island, also known as Thitu Island, Đảo Thị Tứ and Zhongye Dao, having an area of 37.2 hectares, it is the second largest of the naturally occurring island in Spratly Islands. It lies about 500 kilometers (310 mi) west of Puerto Princesa. Its neighbors are the North Danger Reef to the north, Subi Reef to the west, and the Loaita and Tizard Banks to the south. As the poblacion of the Kalayaan municipality of Palawan province in the Philippines, it also administers nearly a dozen other islets, cays and reefs in the Spratly Islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Johnson South Reef skirmish</span> 1988 Chinese naval victory over Vietnam

The Johnson South Reef skirmish took place on 14 March 1988 between military forces of the People's Republic of China and Vietnam, on the Johnson South Reef in the Union Banks region of the Spratly Islands, in the South China Sea.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sansha</span> Prefecture-level city in Hainan, Peoples Republic of China

Sansha City is a prefecture-level city under the Hainan province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and is the southernmost and least populated prefecture in China, with the smallest land area but the largest maritime territory. The city's seat is located on Yongxing Island in the South China Sea, and administers several island groups, atolls, seamounts and a number of other ungrouped maritime features within the nine-dash line, although the PRC's de facto control over the area varies. The name "Sansha", literally meaning "three sands", refers to the three archipelago districts of Xisha, Zhongsha and Nansha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippines and the Spratly Islands</span> Philippine policies, actions and history in the Spratly Islands

Philippines and the Spratly Islands – this article discusses the policies, activities and history of the Republic of the Philippines in the Spratly Islands from the Philippine perspective. Non-Philippine viewpoints regarding Philippine occupation of several islands are currently not included in this article.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northeast Cay</span> Island of Spratly Islands that is under Philippines control

Northeast Cay, also known as Parola Island, with a land area of 12.7 hectares, is the fifth largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands and the third largest of the Philippine-occupied islands. It is part of the North Danger Reef and is located to the northwest of Dangerous Ground.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spratly Island</span> One of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea

Spratly Island,, also known as Storm Island, is the fourth largest of the naturally occurring Spratly Islands in the South China Sea with an area of 15 hectares, and the largest of the Vietnamese-administered Spratly islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Spratly Islands dispute</span> Territorial dispute between China and Southeast Asian countries.

The Spratly Islands dispute is an ongoing territorial dispute among Brunei, China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam concerning "ownership" of the Spratly Islands, a group of islands and associated "maritime features" located in the South China Sea. The dispute is characterized by diplomatic stalemate and the employment of military pressure techniques in the advancement of national territorial claims. All except Brunei occupy some of the maritime features.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nine-dash line</span> Contested Chinese map of South China Sea

The nine-dash line, also referred to as the eleven-dash line by Taiwan, is a set of line segments on various maps that accompanied the claims of the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China in the South China Sea. The contested area includes the Paracel Islands, the Spratly Islands, the Pratas Island and the Vereker Banks, the Macclesfield Bank, and the Scarborough Shoal. Certain places have undergone land reclamation by the PRC, ROC, and Vietnam. The People's Daily of the PRC uses the term Duànxùxiàn (断续线) or Nánhǎi Duànxùxiàn, while the ROC government uses the term Shíyīduàn xiàn.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Territorial disputes in the South China Sea</span> Disputes over ownership of islands in the South China Sea

Territorial disputes in the South China Sea involve conflicting island and maritime claims in the South China Sea by several sovereign states, namely the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam and Indonesia. The disputes involve the islands, reefs, banks, and other features of the region, including the Spratly Islands, Paracel Islands, Scarborough Shoal, and various boundaries in the Gulf of Tonkin. The waters near the Indonesian Natuna Islands, which some regard as geographically part of the South China Sea, are disputed as well.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Philippines–Vietnam relations</span> Bilateral relations

The Philippines–Vietnam relations refers to the bilateral relations of the Republic of the Philippines and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, relations between the two countries have warmed significantly. Vietnam is sometimes referred to as the only communist military ally of the Philippines. Both nations have cooperated in the fields of education, tourism, agriculture, aquaculture, trade, and defense. Additionally, both nations have similar positions on the South China Sea issue, with Vietnam backing the Philippine victory in the ICC against China, and the Philippines backing to a certain extent the claim of Vietnam in the Paracels. Both nations have overlapping claims in the Spratlys, but have never made military confrontations as both view each other as diplomatic allies and ASEAN brethren.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Second Thomas Shoal</span> Attoll in the South China Sea

Second Thomas Shoal, also known as Ayungin Shoal, Bãi Cỏ Mây (Vietnamese) and Rén'ài Jiāo, is a submerged reef in the Spratly Islands of the South China Sea, 105 nautical miles west of Palawan, Philippines. It is a disputed territory and claimed by several nations. The reef is occupied by Philippine Navy personnel aboard a ship, the BRP Sierra Madre (LT-57), that was intentionally grounded on the reef in 1999 and has been periodically replenished since then.

The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines mandated by UNCLOS consists of four subzones. It covers 2,263,816 square kilometers (874,064 sq mi) of sea. The Philippines has 7,641 islands comprising the Philippine archipelago. The coordinates are between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude. It is bordered by the Philippine Sea to the east and north, the South China Sea to the west, and the Celebes Sea to the south.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Exclusive economic zone of Vietnam</span> Economic zone exclusive to Vietnam

Vietnam claims an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 1,395,096 km2 (538,650 sq mi) with 200 nautical miles from its shores.

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