- Timeline
- Early Common Era
- 18th Century
- 19th Century
- 20th Century
- 1980s
- 21st Century
- See also
- References

This is a timeline of **women in mathematics**.

- Before 350: Pandrosion, a Greek Alexandrine mathematician known for an approximate solution to doubling the cube and a simplified exact solution to the construction of the geometric mean.
^{ [1] } - c. 350–370 until 415: The lifetime of Hypatia, a Greek Alexandrine Neoplatonist philosopher in Egypt who was the first well-documented woman in mathematics.
^{ [2] }

- 1748: Italian mathematician Maria Agnesi published the first book discussing both differential and integral calculus, called
*Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana*.^{ [3] }^{ [4] } - 1759: French mathematician Émilie du Châtelet's translation and commentary on Isaac Newton’s work
*Principia Mathematica*was published posthumously; it is still considered the standard French translation.^{ [5] } - c. 1787 – 1797: Self-taught Chinese astronomer Wang Zhenyi published at least twelve books and multiple articles on astronomy and mathematics.
^{ [6] }

- 1827: French mathematician Sophie Germain saw her theorem, known as Germain's Theorem, published in a footnote of a book by the mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre.
^{ [7] }^{ [8] }In this theorem Germain proved that if*x*,*y*, and*z*are integers and if*x*^{5}+*y*^{5}=*z*^{5}then either*x*,*y*, or*z*must be divisible by 5. Germain's theorem was a major step toward proving Fermat's Last Theorem for the case where n equals 5.^{ [7] } - 1829: The first public examination of an American girl in geometry was held.
^{ [9] } - 1858: Florence Nightengale became the first female member of the Royal Statistical Society.
^{ [10] } - 1873: Sarah Woodhead of Britain became the first woman to take, and to pass, the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos Exam.
^{ [11] } - 1874: Russian mathematician Sofia Kovalevskaya became the first woman in modern Europe to gain a doctorate in mathematics, which she earned from the University of Göttingen in Germany.
^{ [12] } - 1880: Charlotte Angas Scott of Britain obtained special permission to take the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos Exam, as women were not normally allowed to sit for the exam. She came eighth on the Tripos of all students taking them, but due to her sex, the title of "eighth wrangler," a high honour, went officially to a male student.
^{ [13] }At the ceremony, however, after the seventh wrangler had been announced, all the students in the audience shouted her name. Because she could not attend the award ceremony, Scott celebrated her accomplishment at Girton College where there were cheers and clapping at dinner, and a special evening ceremony where the students sang "See the Conquering Hero Comes", and she received an ode written by a staff member, and was crowned with laurels.^{ [13] } - 1885: Charlotte Angas Scott became the first British woman to receive a doctorate in mathematics, which she received from the University of London.
^{ [14] } - 1886: Winifred Edgerton Merrill became the first American woman to earn a PhD in mathematics, which she earned from Columbia University.
^{ [15] } - 1888: The Kovalevskaya top, one of a brief list of known examples of integrable rigid body motion, was discovered by Sofia Kovalevskaya.
^{ [16] }^{ [17] } - 1889: Sofia Kovalevskaya was appointed as the first female professor in Northern Europe, at the University of Stockholm.
^{ [12] }^{ [18] } - 1890: Philippa Fawcett of Britain
^{ [19] }became the first woman to obtain the top score in the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos Exam. Her score was 13 per cent higher than the second highest score. When the women's list was announced, Fawcett was described as "above the senior wrangler", but she did not receive the title of senior wrangler, as at that time only men could receive degrees and therefore only men were eligible for the Senior Wrangler title.^{ [20] }^{ [21] } - 1891: Charlotte Angas Scott of Britain became the first woman to join the American Mathematical Society, then called the New York Mathematical Society.
^{ [22] } - 1894: Charlotte Angas Scott of Britain became the first woman on the first Council of the American Mathematical Society.
^{ [23] } - 1897: Four women attended the inaugural International Congress of Mathematicians in Zurich in 1897 - Charlotte Angas Scott, Iginia Massarini, Vera von Schiff, and Charlotte Wedell.
^{ [24] }

- 1911: Swedish mathematician Louise Petrén-Overton became the first woman in Sweden with a doctorate in mathematics.
^{ [25] } - 1913: American mathematician Mildred Sanderson earned her PhD for a thesis that included an important theorem about modular invariants.
^{ [26] } - 1918: German mathematician Emmy Noether published Noether's (first) theorem, which states that any differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.
^{ [27] } - 1927: American mathematician Anna Pell-Wheeler became the first woman to present a lecture at the American Mathematical Society Colloquium.
^{ [28] }^{ [29] } - 1930: Cecilia Kreiger became the first woman to earn a PhD in mathematics in Canada, at the University of Toronto.
^{ [30] } - 1930s: British mathematician Mary Cartwright proved her theorem, now known as Cartwright's theorem, which gives an estimate for the maximum modulus of an analytic function that takes the same value no more than p times in the unit disc. To prove the theorem she used a new approach, applying a technique introduced by Lars Ahlfors for conformal mappings.
^{ [31] } - 1943: Euphemia Haynes became the first African-American woman to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics, which she earned from Catholic University of America.
^{ [32] } - 1944: Helen Walker became the first female president of the American Statistical Association.
^{ [33] } - 1949: American mathematician Gertrude Mary Cox became the first woman elected into the International Statistical Institute.
^{ [34] }Also, Maria Laura Lopes obtained her PhD in Mathematics, being the first woman to obtain the title in Brazil. - 1951: Mary Cartwright of Britain became the first female president of the Mathematical Association.
^{ [35] }^{ [31] } - 1956: American mathematician Gladys West began collecting data from satellites at the Naval Surface Warfare Center Dahlgren Division. Her calculations directly impacted the development of accurate GPS systems.
^{ [36] }

- 1960 and 1966: British mathematician Lucy Joan Slater published two books about the hypergeometric functions from the Cambridge University Press.
^{ [37] }^{ [38] } - 1961: Mary Cartwright of Britain became the first woman to be President of the London Mathematical Society.
^{ [39] } - 1962: American mathematician Mina Rees became the first person to receive the Award for Distinguished Service to Mathematics from the Mathematical Association of America.
^{ [40] } - 1963: Grace Alele-Williams became the first Nigerian woman to earn a Ph.D when she defended her thesis in Mathematics Education at the University of Chicago (U.S.)
^{ [41] }^{ [42] } - 1964: Mary Cartwright of Britain became the first woman to be given the Sylvester Medal of the Royal Society.
^{ [39] }^{ [43] } - 1965: Scottish mathematician Elizabeth McHarg became the first female president of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society.
^{ [44] }^{ [45] } - 1966: American mathematician Mary L. Boas published
*Mathematical Methods in the Physical Sciences*, which was still widely used in college classrooms as of 1999.^{ [46] }^{ [47] }^{ [48] } - 1968: Mary Cartwright of Britain became the first woman to be given the De Morgan Medal, the London Mathematical Society’s premier award.
^{ [49] }^{ [43] }

- 1970: American mathematician Mina Rees became the first female president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
^{ [50] } - 1971: American mathematician Mary Ellen Rudin constructed the first Dowker space.
^{ [51] }^{ [52] } - 1971: The Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) was founded. It is a professional society whose mission is to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences, and to promote equal opportunity for and the equal treatment of women and girls in the mathematical sciences. It is incorporated in the state of Massachusetts.
^{ [53] } - 1971: The American Mathematical Society established its Joint Committee on Women in the Mathematical Sciences (JCW), which later became a joint committee of multiple scholarly societies.
^{ [54] } - 1973: American mathematician Jean Taylor published her dissertation on "Regularity of the Singular Set of Two-Dimensional Area-Minimizing Flat Chains Modulo 3 in R3" which solved a long-standing problem about length and smoothness of soap-film triple function curves.
^{ [55] } - 1974: American mathematician Joan Birman published the book
*Braids, Links, and Mapping Class Groups*. It has become a standard introduction, with many of today's researchers having learned the subject through it.^{ [56] } - 1975: American mathematician Julia Robinson became the first female mathematician elected to the National Academy of Sciences.
^{ [57] }^{ [58] } - 1975: Stella Cunliffe became the first female president of the Royal Statistical Society.
^{ [10] } - 1976-1977: Marjorie Rice, an amateur American mathematician, discovered four new types of tessellating pentagons in 1976 and 1977.
^{ [59] }^{ [60] }^{ [61] } - 1979: American mathematician Dorothy Lewis Bernstein became the first female president of the Mathematical Association of America.
^{ [62] } - 1979: American mathematician Mary Ellen Rudin became the first woman to present the Mathematical Association of America’s Earle Raymond Hedrick Lectures, intended to showcase skilled expositors and enrich the understanding of instructors of college-level mathematics.
^{ [52] }^{ [28] }

- 1980: Joséphine Guidy Wandja, from the Ivory Coast, became the first African woman to earn a doctorate in mathematics.
^{ [63] }^{ [64] } - 1981: Canadian-American mathematician Cathleen Morawetz became the first woman to give the Gibbs Lecture of the American Mathematical Society.
^{ [65] } - 1981: American mathematician Doris Schattschneider became the first female editor of
*Mathematics Magazine*, a refereed bimonthly publication of the Mathematical Association of America.^{ [66] }^{ [67] } - 1982: Rebecca Walo Omana became the first female mathematics professor in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
^{ [68] }^{ [69] } - 1983: American mathematician Julia Robinson was elected the first female president of the American Mathematical Society for the term of 1983-1984 (but was unable to complete her term as she was suffering from leukemia),
^{ [58] }^{ [70] }and became the first female mathematician to be awarded a MacArthur Fellowship.^{ [28] } - 1986: European Women in Mathematics (EWM) was founded as an organization in 1986 by Bodil Branner, Caroline Series, Gudrun Kalmbach, Marie-Françoise Roy, and Dona Strauss, inspired by the activities of the Association for Women in Mathematics in the USA.
^{ [71] }It is the "first and best known" of several organizations devoted to women in mathematics in Europe.^{ [72] } - 1987: Eileen Poiani became the first female president of Pi Mu Epsilon.
^{ [73] } - 1988: American mathematician Doris Schattschneider became the first woman to present the Mathematical Association of America’s J. Sutherland Frame Lectures.
^{ [28] }^{ [74] }

- 1992: Australian mathematician Cheryl Praeger became the first female President of the Australian Mathematical Society.
^{ [75] } - 1992: American mathematician Gloria Gilmer became the first woman to deliver a major National Association of Mathematicians lecture (it was the Cox-Talbot address).
^{ [76] } - 1995: American mathematician Margaret Wright became the first female president of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
^{ [28] }^{ [77] } - 1995: Israeli-Canadian mathematician Leah Edelstein-Keshet became the first female president of the Society for Mathematical Biology.
^{ [78] } - 1995: Ina Kersten became the president of the German Mathematical Society, which meant she was the first woman to head the society.
^{ [79] }^{ [80] } - 1996: American mathematician Joan Birman became the first woman to receive the Mathematical Association of America’s Chauvenet Prize.
^{ [81] }^{ [28] } - 1996: Katherine Heinrich became the first female President of the Canadian Mathematical Society.
^{ [82] } - 1996: Ioana Dumitriu, a New York University sophomore from Romania, became the first woman to be named a Putnam Fellow.
^{ [83] }Putnam Fellows are the top five (or six, in case of a tie) scorers on The William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition.^{ [84] }^{ [85] } - 1998: Melanie Wood became the first female American to make the U.S. International Math Olympiad Team. She won silver medals in the 1998 and 1999 International Mathematical Olympiads.
^{ [86] }

- 2002: Susan Howson became the first woman to be given the Adams Prize, given annually by the University of Cambridge to a British mathematician under the age of 40.
^{ [87] } - 2002: Melanie Wood became the first American woman and second woman overall to be named a Putnam Fellow in 2002. Putnam Fellows are the top five (or six, in case of a tie) scorers on William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition.
^{ [84] }^{ [85] } - 2004: American Melanie Wood became the first woman to win the Frank and Brennie Morgan Prize for Outstanding Research in Mathematics by an Undergraduate Student. It is an annual award given to an undergraduate student in the US, Canada, or Mexico who demonstrates superior mathematics research.
^{ [88] }^{ [86] } - 2004: American Alison Miller became the first female gold medal winner on the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad Team.
^{ [89] }^{ [90] } - 2006: Polish-Canadian mathematician Nicole Tomczak-Jaegermann became the first woman to win the CRM-Fields-PIMS prize.
^{ [91] }^{ [92] }^{ [93] } - 2006: Stefanie Petermichl, a German mathematical analyst then at the University of Texas at Austin, became the first woman to win the Salem Prize, an annual award given to young mathematicians who have worked in Raphael Salem's field of interest, chiefly topics in analysis related to Fourier series.
^{ [94] }^{ [28] }She shared the prize with Artur Avila.^{ [95] }^{ [28] } - 2006: When Olga Gil Medrano became president of the Royal Spanish Mathematical Society in 2006, she was the first woman elected to that position.
^{ [96] }

- 2011: Belgian mathematician Ingrid Daubechies became the first female president of the International Mathematical Union.
^{ [97] } - 2012: Latvian mathematician Daina Taimina became the first woman to win the Euler Book Prize, for her 2009 book
*Crocheting Adventures with Hyperbolic Planes.*^{ [98] }^{ [99] } - 2012: The Working Committee for Women in Mathematics, Chinese Mathematical Society (WCWM-CMS) was founded; it is a national non-profit academic organization in which female mathematicians who are engaged in research, teaching, and applications of mathematics can share their scientific research through academic exchanges both in China and abroad.
^{ [100] }It is one of the branches of the Chinese Mathematical Society (CMS).^{ [100] } - 2013: The African Women in Mathematics Association was founded. This professional organization with over 300 members promotes mathematics to African women and girls and supports female mathematicians.
^{ [101] }^{ [102] } - 2014: Maryam Mirzakhani became the first woman as well as the first Iranian to be awarded the Fields Medal, which she was awarded for "her outstanding contributions to the dynamics and geometry of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces."
^{ [103] }^{ [104] }^{ [105] }That year the Fields Medal was also awarded to Martin Hairer, Manjul Bhargava, and Artur Avila.^{ [106] }It is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, and is often viewed as the greatest honor a mathematician can receive.^{ [107] }^{ [108] } - 2016: French mathematician Claire Voisin received the CNRS Gold medal, the highest scientific research award in France.
^{ [109] } - 2016: The London Mathematical Society's Women in Mathematics Committee was awarded the Royal Society's inaugural Athena Prize.
^{ [110] } - 2017: Nouzha El Yacoubi became the first female president of the African Mathematical Union.
^{ [111] } - 2019: American mathematician Karen Uhlenbeck became the first woman to win the Abel Prize, with the award committee citing "the fundamental impact of her work on analysis, geometry and mathematical physics."
^{ [112] } - 2019: Marissa Kawehi Loving became the first Native Hawaiian woman to earn a PhD in mathematics when she graduated from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign in 2019. In addition to being Native Hawaiian, she is also black, Japanese, and Puerto Rican.
^{ [113] }

- 2022: Maryna Viazovska was awarded the Fields Medal in July 2022, making her the second woman (after Maryam Mirzakhani) and the first Ukrainian to be awarded it.
^{ [114] }^{ [115] }That year the Fields Medal was also awarded to Hugo Duminil-Copin, June Huh, and James Maynard.^{ [115] }The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, and is often viewed as the greatest honor a mathematician can receive.^{ [107] }^{ [108] } - 2023: Ingrid Daubechies was awarded the Wolf Prize in Mathematics in February 2023, becoming the first woman to receive this award.
^{ [116] }

The **Fields Medal** is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years. The name of the award honours the Canadian mathematician John Charles Fields.

**Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya**, born **Korvin-Krukovskaya**, was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics. She was a pioneer for women in mathematics around the world – the first woman to obtain a doctorate in mathematics, the first woman appointed to a full professorship in northern Europe and one of the first women to work for a scientific journal as an editor. According to historian of science Ann Hibner Koblitz, Kovalevskaya was "the greatest known woman scientist before the twentieth century".

The **American Mathematical Society** (**AMS**) is an association of professional mathematicians dedicated to the interests of mathematical research and scholarship, and serves the national and international community through its publications, meetings, advocacy and other programs.

The **De Morgan Medal** is a prize for outstanding contribution to mathematics, awarded by the London Mathematical Society. The Society's most prestigious award, it is given in memory of Augustus De Morgan, who was the first President of the society.

**Baroness Ingrid Daubechies** is a Belgian physicist and mathematician. She is best known for her work with wavelets in image compression.

**Melanie Matchett Wood** is an American mathematician at Harvard University who was the first woman to qualify for the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad Team. She completed her PhD in 2009 at Princeton University and is currently Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University, after being Chancellor's Professor of Mathematics at UC Berkeley and Vilas Distinguished Achievement Professor of Mathematics at the University of Wisconsin, and spending 2 years as Szegö Assistant Professor at Stanford University.

**Dame Mary Lucy Cartwright** was a British mathematician. She was one of the pioneers of what would later become known as chaos theory. Along with J. E. Littlewood, Cartwright saw many solutions to a problem which would later be seen as an example of the butterfly effect.

**Ruth Moufang** was a German mathematician.

**Gertrude Mary Cox** was an American statistician and founder of the department of Experimental Statistics at North Carolina State University. She was later appointed director of both the Institute of Statistics of the Consolidated University of North Carolina and the Statistics Research Division of North Carolina State University. Her most important and influential research dealt with experimental design; In 1950 she published the book *Experimental Designs,* on the subject with W. G. Cochran, which became the major reference work on the design of experiments for statisticians for years afterwards. In 1949 Cox became the first woman elected into the International Statistical Institute and in 1956 was President of the American Statistical Association.

* Mathematics Magazine* is a refereed bimonthly publication of the Mathematical Association of America. Its intended audience is teachers of collegiate mathematics, especially at the junior/senior level, and their students. It is explicitly a journal of mathematics rather than pedagogy. Rather than articles in the terse "theorem-proof" style of research journals, it seeks articles which provide a context for the mathematics they deliver, with examples, applications, illustrations, and historical background. Paid circulation in 2008 was 9,500 and total circulation was 10,000.

**Maryam Mirzakhani** was an Iranian mathematician and a professor of mathematics at Stanford University. Her research topics included Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory, and symplectic geometry. On 13 August 2014, Mirzakhani was honored with the Fields Medal, the most prestigious award in mathematics, becoming the first woman to win the prize, as well as the first Iranian. The award committee cited her work in "the dynamics and geometry of Riemann surfaces and their moduli spaces".

**Mina Spiegel Rees** was an American mathematician. She was the first female President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1971) and head of the mathematics department of the Office of Naval Research of the United States. Rees was a pioneer in the history of computing and helped establish funding streams and institutional infrastructure for research. Rees was also the founding president and president emerita of the Graduate School and University Center at CUNY. She received the Public Welfare Medal, the highest honor of the National Academy of Sciences; the King's Medal for Service in the Cause of Freedom (UK) and at least 18 honorary doctorates.

**Charlotte Angas Scott** was a British mathematician who made her career in the United States and was influential in the development of American mathematics, including the mathematical education of women. Scott played an important role in Cambridge changing the rules for its famous Mathematical Tripos exam.

**Margaret H. Wright** is an American computer scientist and mathematician. She is a Silver Professor of Computer Science and former Chair of the Computer Science department at Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, with research interests in optimization, linear algebra, and scientific computing. She was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1997 for development of numerical optimization algorithms and for leadership in the applied mathematics community. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 2005. She was the first woman to serve as President of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

**Sylvia Margaret Wiegand** is an American mathematician.

**Doris J. Schattschneider** is an American mathematician, a retired professor of mathematics at Moravian College. She is known for writing about tessellations and about the art of M. C. Escher, for helping Martin Gardner validate and popularize the pentagon tiling discoveries of amateur mathematician Marjorie Rice, and for co-directing with Eugene Klotz the project that developed The Geometer's Sketchpad.

There is a long history of **women in mathematics in the United States**. All women mentioned here are American unless otherwise noted.

The **Louise Hay Award** is a mathematics award planned in 1990 and first issued in 1991 by the Association for Women in Mathematics in recognition of contributions as a math educator. The award was created in honor of Louise Hay.

**Nadeschda Gernet**, also **Nadezhda**, Russian: **Надежда Николаевна Гернет**,, was a Russian mathematician. Gernet was the second woman in Russia to earn a doctorate. She extended the calculus of variations to further functions on the basis developed by her instructor, David Hilbert, and was one of the first to include inequalities in the calculus of variations.

The **AWM-SIAM Sonia Kovalevsky Lecture** is an award and lecture series that "highlights significant contributions of women to applied or computational mathematics." The Association for Women in Mathematics (AWM) and the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) planned the award and lecture series in 2002 and first awarded it in 2003. The lecture is normally given each year at the SIAM Annual Meeting. Award winners receive a signed certificate from the AWM and SIAM presidents.

- ↑ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Pandrosion of Alexandria",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive*, University of St Andrews - ↑ Scholasticus, Socrates.
*Ecclesiastical History*. Archived from the original on 2009-04-18. - ↑ According to Dirk Jan Struik, Agnesi is "the first important woman mathematician since Hypatia (fifth century A.D.)".
- ↑ "Epigenesys - Maria Gaetana Agnesi | Women in science". epigenesys.eu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*Notable Women of China*. doi:10.4324/9781315702063. ISBN 9781315702063. - 1 2 "Sophie Germain". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*History of Woman Suffrage: 1848–1861, Volume 1*. Susan B. Anthony. p. 36 . Retrieved 2011-04-18. - 1 2 "History".
*RSS*. - ↑ Jensen-Vallin, Jacqueline A.; Beery, Janet L.; Mast, Maura B.; Greenwald, Sarah J., eds. (2018).
*Women in Mathematics: Celebrating the Centennial of the Mathematical Association of America*. Springer. p. "Sarah+woodhead"+tripos+1873&pg=PA8 8. ISBN 978-3-319-88303-8. - 1 2 "Sofya Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Russian mathematician) -- Encyclopædia Britannica". britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- 1 2 Patricia Clark Kenschaft (1987).
*"Charlotte Angas Scott (1858–1931)" in Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook*. New York: Greenwood Press. pp. 193–203. ISBN 0-313-24849-4. - ↑ 🖉 "Charlotte Angas Scott".
*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ Susan E. Kelly & Sarah A. Rozner (28 February 2012). "Winifred Edgerton Merrill:"She Opened the Door"" (PDF).
*Notices of the AMS*.**59**(4). Retrieved 25 January 2014. - ↑ S. Kovalevskaya, Sur Le Probleme De La Rotation D'Un Corps Solide Autour D'Un Point Fixe, Acta Mathematica 12 (1889) 177–232.
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- ↑ "COOL, CREATIEF, HIP met ICT - Innovative women". chai-x.nl. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*www.maths.cam.ac.uk*. - ↑ "Philippa Garrett Fawcett". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*Encyclopedia of World Scientists, Revised Edition*. Infobase Publishing. p. 655. ISBN 9781438118826. - ↑ Chaplin, Stephanie (1997). "Biographies of Women Mathematicians: Charlotte Angas Scott". Agnes Scott College . Retrieved 22 October 2012.
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*Mathematicians of the World, Unite!: The International Congress of Mathematicians—A Human Endeavor*, CRC Press, p. 16, ISBN 9781439865125 - ↑ Larsson, Lisbeth, "Hedvig Louise Beata Petrén-Overton",
*Svenskt kvinnobiografiskt lexikon*[*Biographical Dictionary of Swedish Women*] (in Swedish), retrieved 2019-01-13 - ↑ "Mildred Leonora Sanderson". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- ↑ Noether E (1918). "Invariante Variationsprobleme".
*Nachr. D. König. Gesellsch. D. Wiss. Zu Göttingen, Math-phys. Klasse*.**1918**: 235–257. - 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Prizes, Awards, and Honors for Women Mathematicians". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ Zuschlag, Anna. "Cecilia Krieger".
*The Canadian Encyclopedia*. Retrieved 2018-08-22. - 1 2 "Cartwright biography". -history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*The New York Times*. 18 January 1983. Retrieved 1 December 2014. - ↑ "Gertrude Mary Cox". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
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*The Mathematical Gazette*,**50**(373): 243–254, doi:10.2307/3614669, JSTOR 3614669, S2CID 186846165 - ↑ "How Gladys West uncovered the 'Hidden Figures' of GPS".
*GPS World*. 2018-03-19. Retrieved 2018-09-22. - ↑ Slater, Lucy Joan (1960), Confluent hypergeometric functions, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
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- 1 2 O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. "Dame Mary Lucy Cartwright". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
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*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ "Grace Alele Williams" . Retrieved 2021-01-18.
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*Pulse Nigeria*. 0100. Retrieved 2021-01-18. - 1 2 "Mary Lucy Cartwright".
*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ "Edinburgh Mathematical Society – Presidents",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics archive*, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, retrieved 2018-10-12 - ↑ Hoyles, Celia (December 2017), "Female Presidents for Three Maths Societies",
*Mathematics Today*, Institute of Mathematics and its Applications - ↑ Mary L. Boas (1966).
*Mathematical methods in the physical sciences*. Wiley. ISBN 9780471084174. - ↑ Spector, Donald (1999). "Book Reviews".
*American Journal of Physics*.**67**(2): 165–169. doi:10.1119/1.19216. - ↑ "DePaul Department of Physics". Archived from the original on June 19, 2010.
- ↑ 🖉 "Prizes, Awards, and Honors for Women Mathematicians".
*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ "Mina Rees". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- ↑ "New Zealand Mathematical Societu Newsletter Number 84, April 2002". Massey.ac.nz. Retrieved 2017-06-20.
- 1 2 "Mary Ellen Rudin - Biography".
*Maths History*. - ↑ "About AWM - AWM Association for Women in Mathematics" . Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- ↑ "JCW-Math | Joint Committee on Women in the Mathematical Sciences". jcwmath.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- ↑ "Jean Taylor". agnesscott.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- ↑ "Interview with Joan Birman" (PDF).
*Notices of the AMS*.**54**(1). 4 December 2006. Retrieved 25 January 2014. - ↑ "Profiles of Women in Mathematics: Julia Robinson". awm-math.org. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- 1 2 "Julia Bowman Robinson".
*mathwomen.agnesscott.org*. - ↑ Schattschneider, Doris (1978), "Tiling the plane with congruent pentagons",
*Mathematics Magazine*,**51**(1): 29–44, doi:10.2307/2689644, ISSN 0025-570X, JSTOR 2689644, MR 0493766 - ↑ Marjorie Rice, "Tessellations",
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*Wolf Foundation*.

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