This is a **timeline of manifolds **, one of the major geometric concepts of mathematics. For further background see history of manifolds and varieties.

Manifolds in contemporary mathematics come in a number of types. These include:

- smooth manifolds, which are basic in calculus in several variables, mathematical analysis and differential geometry;
- piecewise-linear manifolds;
- topological manifolds.

There are also related classes, such as homology manifolds and orbifolds, that resemble manifolds. It took a generation for clarity to emerge, after the initial work of Henri Poincaré, on the fundamental definitions; and a further generation to discriminate more exactly between the three major classes. Low-dimensional topology (i.e., dimensions 3 and 4, in practice) turned out to be more resistant than the higher dimension, in clearing up Poincaré's legacy. Further developments brought in fresh geometric ideas, concepts from quantum field theory, and heavy use of category theory.

Participants in the first phase of axiomatization were influenced by David Hilbert: with Hilbert's axioms as exemplary, by Hilbert's third problem as solved by Dehn, one of the actors, by Hilbert's fifteenth problem from the needs of 19th century geometry.^{[ clarification needed ]} The subject matter of manifolds is a strand common to algebraic topology, differential topology and geometric topology.

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

18th century | Leonhard Euler | Euler's theorem on polyhedra "triangulating" the 2-sphere. The subdivision of a convex polygon with n sides into n triangles, by means of any internal point, adds n edges, one vertex and n - 1 faces, preserving the result. So the case of triangulations proper implies the general result. |

1820–3 | János Bolyai | Develops non-Euclidean geometry, in particular the hyperbolic plane. |

1822 | Jean-Victor Poncelet | Reconstructs real projective geometry, including the real projective plane.^{ [1] } |

c.1825 | Joseph Diez Gergonne, Jean-Victor Poncelet | Geometric properties of the complex projective plane.^{ [2] } |

1840 | Hermann Grassmann | General n-dimensional linear spaces. |

1848 | Carl Friedrich Gauss Pierre Ossian Bonnet | Gauss–Bonnet theorem for the differential geometry of closed surfaces. |

1851 | Bernhard Riemann | Introduction of the Riemann surface into the theory of analytic continuation.^{ [3] } Riemann surfaces are complex manifolds of dimension 1, in this setting presented as ramified covering spaces of the Riemann sphere (the complex projective line). |

1854 | Bernhard Riemann | Riemannian metrics give an idea of intrinsic geometry of manifolds of any dimension. |

1861 | Folklore result since c.1850 | First conventional publication of the Kelvin–Stokes theorem, in three dimensions, relating integrals over a volume to those on its boundary. |

1870s | Sophus Lie | The Lie group concept is developed, using local formulae.^{ [4] } |

1872 | Felix Klein | Klein's Erlangen program puts an emphasis on the homogeneous spaces for the classical groups, as a class of manifolds foundational for geometry. |

later 1870s | Ulisse Dini | Dini develops the implicit function theorem, the basic tool for constructing manifolds locally as the zero sets of smooth functions.^{ [5] } |

from 1890s | Élie Cartan | Formulation of Hamiltonian mechanics in terms of the cotangent bundle of a manifold, the configuration space.^{ [6] } |

1894 | Henri Poincaré | Fundamental group of a topological space. The Poincaré conjecture can now be formulated. |

1895 | Henri Poincaré | Simplicial homology. |

1895 | Henri Poincaré | Fundamental work Analysis situs , the beginning of algebraic topology. The basic form of Poincaré duality for an orientable manifold (compact) is formulated as the central symmetry of the Betti numbers.^{ [7] } |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1900 | David Hilbert | Hilbert's fifth problem posed the question of characterising Lie groups among transformation groups, an issue partially resolved in the 1950s. Hilbert's fifteenth problem required a rigorous approach to the Schubert calculus, a branch of intersection theory taking place on the complex Grassmannian manifolds. |

1902 | David Hilbert | Tentative axiomatisation (topological spaces are not yet defined) of two-dimensional manifolds.^{ [8] } |

1905 | Max Dehn | As a conjecture, the Dehn-Somerville equations relating numerically triangulated manifolds and simplicial polytopes.^{ [9] } |

1907 | Henri Poincaré, Paul Koebe | The uniformization theorem for simply connected Riemann surfaces. |

1907 | Max Dehn, Poul Heegaard | Survey article Analysis Situs in Klein's encyclopedia gives the first proof of the classification of surfaces, conditional on the existence of a triangulation, and lays the foundations of combinatorial topology.^{ [10] }^{ [11] }^{ [12] } The work also contained a combinatorial definition of "topological manifold", a subject in definitional flux up to the 1930s.^{ [13] } |

1908 | Heinrich Franz Friedrich Tietze | Habilitationschrift for the University of Vienna, proposes another tentative definition, by combinatorial means, of "topological manifold".^{ [13] }^{ [11] }^{ [14] } |

1908 | Ernst Steinitz, Tietze | The Hauptvermutung , a conjecture on the existence of a common refinement of two triangulations. This was an open problem, for manifolds, to 1961. |

1910 | L. E. J. Brouwer | Brouwer's theorem on invariance of domain has the corollary that a connected, non-empty manifold has a definite dimension. This result had been an open problem for three decades.^{ [15] } In the same year Brouwer gives the first example of a topological group that is not a Lie group.^{ [16] } |

1912 | L. E. J. Brouwer | Brouwer publishes on the degree of a continuous mapping, foreshadowing the fundamental class concept for orientable manifolds.^{ [17] }^{ [18] } |

1913 | Hermann Weyl | Die Idee der Riemannschen Fläche gives a model definition of the idea of manifold, in the one-dimensional complex case. |

1915 | Oswald Veblen | The "method of cutting", a combinatorial approach to surfaces, presented in a Princeton seminar. It is used for the 1921 proof of the classification of surfaces by Henry Roy Brahana.^{ [19] } |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1923 | Hermann Künneth | Künneth formula for homology of product of spaces. |

1926 | Hellmuth Kneser | Defines "topological manifold" as a second countable Hausdorff space, with points having neighbourhoods homeomorphic to open balls; and "combinatorial manifold" in an inductive fashion depending on a cell complex definition and the Hauptvermutung.^{ [20] } |

1926 | Élie Cartan | Classification of symmetric spaces, a class of homogeneous spaces. |

1926 | Tibor Radó | Two-dimensional topological manifolds have triangulations.^{ [21] } |

1926 | Heinz Hopf | Poincaré–Hopf theorem, the sum of the indexes of a vector field with isolated zeroes on a compact differential manifold M is equal to the Euler characteristic of M. |

1926−7 | Otto Schreier | Definitions of topological group and of "continuous group" (traditional term, ultimately Lie group) as a locally Euclidean topological group. He also introduces the universal cover in this context.^{ [22] } |

1928 | Leopold Vietoris | Definition of h-manifold, by combinatorial means, by proof analysis applied to Poincaré duality.^{ [23] } |

1929 | Egbert van Kampen | In his dissertation, by means of star-complexes for simplicial complexes, recovers Poincaré duality in a combinatorial setting.^{ [23] } |

1930 | Bartel Leendert van der Waerden | Pursuing the goal of foundations for the Schubert calculus in enumerative geometry, he examined the Poincaré-Lefschetz intersection theory for its version of intersection number, in a 1930 paper (given the triangulability of algebraic varieties).^{ [24] } In the same year, he published a note Kombinatorische Topologie on a talk for the Deutsche Mathematiker-Vereinigung, in which he surveyed definitions for "topological manifold" so far given, by eight authors.^{ [25] } |

c.1930 | Emmy Noether | Module theory and general chain complexes are developed by Noether and her students, and algebraic topology begins as an axiomatic approach grounded in abstract algebra. |

1931 | Georges de Rham | De Rham's theorem: for a compact differential manifold, the chain complex of differential forms computes the real (co)homology groups.^{ [26] } |

1931 | Heinz Hopf | Introduces the Hopf fibration, . |

1931–2 | Oswald Veblen, J. H. C. Whitehead | Whitehead's 1931 thesis, The Representation of Projective Spaces, written with Veblen as advisor, gives an intrinsic and axiomatic view of manifolds as Hausdorff spaces subject to certain axioms. It was followed by the joint book Foundations of Differential Geometry (1932). The "chart" concept of Poincaré, a local coordinate system, is organised into the atlas; in this setting, regularity conditions may be applied to the transition functions.^{ [27] }^{ [28] }^{ [8] } This foundational point of view allows for a pseudogroup restriction on the transition functions, for example to introduce piecewise linear structures.^{ [29] } |

1932 | Eduard Čech | Čech cohomology. |

1933 | Solomon Lefschetz | Singular homology of topological spaces. |

1934 | Marston Morse | Morse theory relates the real homology of compact differential manifolds to the critical points of a Morse function.^{ [30] } |

1935 | Hassler Whitney | Proof of the embedding theorem, stating that a smooth manifold of dimension n may be embedded in Euclidean space of dimension 2n.^{ [31] } |

1941 | Witold Hurewicz | First fundamental theorem of homological algebra: Given a short exact sequence of spaces there exist a connecting homomorphism such that the long sequence of cohomology groups of the spaces is exact. |

1942 | Lev Pontryagin | Publishing in full in 1947, Pontryagin founded a new theory of cobordism with the result that a closed manifold that is a boundary has vanishing Stiefel-Whitney numbers. From Stokes's theorem cobordism classes of submanifolds are invariant for the integration of closed differential forms; the introduction of algebraic invariants gave the opening for computing with the equivalence relation as something intrinsic.^{ [32] } |

1943 | Werner Gysin | Gysin sequence and Gysin homomorphism. |

1943 | Norman Steenrod | Homology with local coefficients. |

1944 | Samuel Eilenberg | "Modern" definition of singular homology and singular cohomology. |

1945 | Beno Eckmann | Defines the cohomology ring building on Heinz Hopf's work. In the case of manifolds, there are multiple interpretations of the ring product, including wedge product of differential forms, and cup product representing intersecting cycles. |

**Terminology**: By this period manifolds are generally assumed to be those of Veblen-Whitehead, so locally Euclidean Hausdorff spaces, but the application of countability axioms was also becoming standard. Veblen-Whitehead did not assume, as Kneser earlier had, that manifolds are second countable.^{ [33] } The term "separable manifold", to distinguish second countable manifolds, survived into the late 1950s.^{ [34] }

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1945 | Saunders Mac Lane–Samuel Eilenberg | Foundation of category theory: axioms for categories, functors, and natural transformations. |

1945 | Norman Steenrod–Samuel Eilenberg | Eilenberg–Steenrod axioms for homology and cohomology. |

1945 | Jean Leray | Founds sheaf theory. For Leray a sheaf was a map assigning a module or a ring to a closed subspace of a topological space. The first example was the sheaf assigning to a closed subspace its p-th cohomology group. |

1945 | Jean Leray | Defines sheaf cohomology. |

1946 | Jean Leray | Invents spectral sequences, a method for iteratively approximating cohomology groups. |

1948 | Cartan seminar | Writes up sheaf theory. |

c.1949 | Norman Steenrod | The Steenrod problem, of representation of homology classes by fundamental classes of manifolds, can be solved by means of pseudomanifolds (and later, formulated via cobordism theory).^{ [35] } |

1950 | Henri Cartan | In the sheaf theory notes from the Cartan seminar he defines: Sheaf space (étale space), support of sheaves axiomatically, sheaf cohomology with support. "The most natural proof of Poincaré duality is obtained by means of sheaf theory."^{ [36] } |

1950 | Samuel Eilenberg–Joseph A. Zilber | Simplicial sets as a purely algebraic model of well behaved topological spaces. |

1950 | Charles Ehresmann | Ehresmann's fibration theorem states that a smooth, proper, surjective submersion between smooth manifolds is a locally trivial fibration. |

1951 | Henri Cartan | Definition of sheaf theory, with a sheaf defined using open subsets (rather than closed subsets) of a topological space. Sheaves connect local and global properties of topological spaces. |

1952 | René Thom | The Thom isomorphism brings cobordism of manifolds into the ambit of homotopy theory. |

1952 | Edwin E. Moise | Moise's theorem established that a 3-dimension compact connected topological manifold is a PL manifold (earlier terminology "combinatorial manifold"), having a unique PL structure. In particular it is triangulable.^{ [37] } This result is now known to extend no further into higher dimensions. |

1956 | John Milnor | The first exotic spheres were constructed by Milnor in dimension 7, as -bundles over . He showed that there are at least 7 differentiable structures on the 7-sphere. |

1960 | John Milnor and Sergei Novikov | The ring of cobordism classes of stably complex manifolds is a polynomial ring on infinitely many generators of positive even degrees. |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1961 | Stephen Smale | Proof of the generalized Poincaré conjecture in dimensions greater than four. |

1962 | Stephen Smale | Proof of the h-cobordism theorem in dimensions greater than four, based on the Whitney trick. |

1963 | Michel Kervaire–John Milnor | The classification of exotic spheres: the monoid of smooth structures on the n-sphere is the collection of oriented smooth n-manifolds which are homeomorphic to , taken up to orientation-preserving diffeomorphism, with connected sum as the monoid operation. For , this monoid is a group, and is isomorphic to the group of h-cobordism classes of oriented homotopy n-spheres, which is finite and abelian. |

1965 | Dennis Barden | Completes the classification of simply connected, compact 5-manifolds, started by Smale in 1962. |

1967 | Friedhelm Waldhausen | Defines and classifies 3-dimensional graph manifolds. |

1968 | Robion Kirby and Laurent C. Siebenmann | In dimension at least five, the Kirby–Siebenmann class is the only obstruction to a topological manifold having a PL structure.^{ [38] } |

1969 | Laurent C. Siebenmann | Example of two homeomorphic PL manifolds that are not piecewise-linearly homeomorphic.^{ [39] }The maximal atlas approach to structures on manifolds had clarified the The "combinatorial triangulation conjecture" stated that the first case could not occur, for |

1970 | John Conway | Skein theory of knots: The computation of knot invariants by skein modules. Skein modules can be based on quantum invariants. |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1974 | Shiing-Shen Chern–James Simons | Chern–Simons theory: A particular TQFT which describe knot and manifold invariants, at that time only in 3D |

1978 | Francois Bayen–Moshe Flato–Chris Fronsdal–André Lichnerowicz–Daniel Sternheimer | Deformation quantization, later to be a part of categorical quantization |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

circa 1983 | Simon Donaldson | Simon Donaldson introduces self-dual connections into the theory of smooth 4-manifolds, revolutionizing the 4-dimensional geometry, and relating it to mathematical physics. Many of his results were later published in his joint monograph with Kronheimer in 1990. See more under the Donaldson theory. |

circa 1983 | William Thurston | William Thurston proves that all Haken 3-manifolds are hyperbolic, which gives a proof of the Thurston's Hyperbolization theorem, thus starting a revolution in the study of 3-manifolds. See also under Hyperbolization theorem, and Geometrization conjecture |

1984 | Vladimir Bazhanov–Razumov Stroganov | Bazhanov–Stroganov d-simplex equation generalizing the Yang–Baxter equation and the Zamolodchikov equation |

circa 1985 | Andrew Casson | Andrew Casson introduces the Casson invariant for homology 3-spheres, bringing the whole new set of ideas into the 3-dimensional topology, and relating the geometry of 3-manifolds with the geometry of representation spaces of the fundamental group of a 2-manifold. This leads to a direct connection with mathematical physics. See more under Casson invariant. |

1986 | Joachim Lambek–Phil Scott | So-called Fundamental theorem of topology: The section-functor Γ and the germ-functor Λ establish a dual adjunction between the category of presheaves and the category of bundles (over the same topological space) which restricts to a dual equivalence of categories (or duality) between corresponding full subcategories of sheaves and of étale bundles |

1986 | Peter Freyd–David Yetter | Constructs the (compact braided) monoidal category of tangles |

1986 | Vladimir Drinfel'd–Michio Jimbo | Quantum groups: In other words, quasitriangular Hopf algebras. The point is that the categories of representations of quantum groups are tensor categories with extra structure. They are used in construction of quantum invariants of knots and links and low dimensional manifolds, among other applications. |

1987 | Vladimir Turaev | Starts quantum topology by using quantum groups and R-matrices to giving an algebraic unification of most of the known knot polynomials. Especially important was Vaughan Jones and Edward Witten's work on the Jones polynomial. |

circa 1988 | Andreas Floer | Andreas Floer introduces instanton homology. |

1988 | Graeme Segal | Elliptic objects: A functor that is a categorified version of a vector bundle equipped with a connection, it is a 2D parallel transport for strings. |

1988 | Graeme Segal | Conformal field theory: A symmetric monoidal functor satisfying some axioms |

1988 | Edward Witten | Topological quantum field theory (TQFT): A monoidal functor satisfying some axioms |

1988 | Edward Witten | Topological string theory |

1989 | Edward Witten | Understanding of the Jones polynomial using Chern–Simons theory, leading to invariants for 3-manifolds |

1990 | Nicolai Reshetikhin–Vladimir Turaev–Edward Witten | Reshetikhin–Turaev-Witten invariants of knots from modular tensor categories of representations of quantum groups. |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

1991 | André Joyal–Ross Street | Formalization of Penrose string diagrams to calculate with abstract tensors in various monoidal categories with extra structure. The calculus now depends on the connection with low dimensional topology. |

1992 | Vladimir Turaev | Modular tensor categories. Special tensor categories that arise in constructing knot invariants, in constructing TQFTs and CFTs, as truncation (semisimple quotient) of the category of representations of a quantum group (at roots of unity), as categories of representations of weak Hopf algebras, as category of representations of a RCFT. |

1992 | Vladimir Turaev–Oleg Viro | Turaev–Viro state sum models based on spherical categories (the first state sum models) and Turaev–Viro state sum invariants for 3-manifolds. |

1992 | Vladimir Turaev | Shadow world of links: Shadows of links give shadow invariants of links by shadow state sums. |

1993 | Ruth Lawrence | Extended TQFTs |

1993 | David Yetter–Louis Crane | Crane–Yetter state sum models based on ribbon categories and Crane–Yetter state sum invariants for 4-manifolds. |

1993 | Kenji Fukaya | A _{ ∞ } -categories and A _{ ∞ } -functors. A_{∞}-categories can also be viewed as noncommutative formal dg-manifolds with a closed marked subscheme of objects. |

1993 | John Barret-Bruce Westbury | Spherical categories: Monoidal categories with duals for diagrams on spheres instead for in the plane. |

1993 | Maxim Kontsevich | Kontsevich invariants for knots (are perturbation expansion Feynman integrals for the Witten functional integral) defined by the Kontsevich integral. They are the universal Vassiliev invariants for knots. |

1993 | Daniel Freed | A new view on TQFT using modular tensor categories that unifies 3 approaches to TQFT (modular tensor categories from path integrals). |

1994 | Peter Kronheimer, Tomasz Mrowka | Kronheimer and Mrowka introduce the idea of "canonical classes" in the cohomology of simple smooth 4-manifolds which hypothetically allow one to compute the Donaldson invariants of smooth 4-manifolds. See more under the Kronheimer–Mrowka basic class. |

1994 | Nathan Seiberg and Edward Witten | Nathan Seiberg and Edward Witten introduce new invariants for smooth oriented 4-manifolds. Like Donaldson, they are motivated by mathematical physics, but their invariants are easier to work with than the Donaldson invariants. See more under the Seiberg–Witten invariants and Seiberg–Witten theory. |

1994 | Maxim Kontsevich | Formulates homological mirror symmetry conjecture: X a compact symplectic manifold with first chern class c_{1}(X) = 0 and Y a compact Calabi–Yau manifold are mirror pairs if and only if D(Fuk_{X}) (the derived category of the Fukaya triangulated category of X concocted out of Lagrangian cycles with local systems) is equivalent to a subcategory of D^{b}(Coh_{Y}) (the bounded derived category of coherent sheaves on Y). |

1994 | Louis Crane–Igor Frenkel | Hopf categories and construction of 4D TQFTs by them. Identifies k-tuply monoidal n-categories. It mirrors the table of homotopy groups of the spheres. |

1995 | John Baez–James Dolan | Outline a program in which n-dimensional TQFTs are described as n-category representations. |

1995 | John Baez–James Dolan | Proposes n-dimensional deformation quantization. |

1995 | John Baez–James Dolan | Tangle hypothesis: The n-category of framed n-tangles in dimensions is -equivalent to the free weak k-tuply monoidal n-category with duals on one object. |

1995 | John Baez–James Dolan | Cobordism hypothesis (Extended TQFT hypothesis I): The n-category of which n-dimensional extended TQFTs are representations nCob is the free stable weak n-category with duals on one object. |

1995 | John Baez–James Dolan | Extended TQFT hypothesis II: An n-dimensional unitary extended TQFT is a weak n-functor, preserving all levels of duality, from the free stable weak n-category with duals on one object to nHilb. |

1995 | Valentin Lychagin | Categorical quantization |

1997 | Maxim Kontsevich | Formal deformation quantization theorem: Every Poisson manifold admits a differentiable star product and they are classified up to equivalence by formal deformations of the Poisson structure. |

1998 | Richard Thomas | Thomas, a student of Simon Donaldson, introduces Donaldson–Thomas invariants which are systems of numerical invariants of complex oriented 3-manifolds X, analogous to Donaldson invariants in the theory of 4-manifolds. |

1998 | Maxim Kontsevich | Calabi–Yau categories: A linear category with a trace map for each object of the category and an associated symmetric (with respects to objects) nondegenerate pairing to the trace map. If X is a smooth projective Calabi–Yau variety of dimension d then is a unital Calabi–Yau A _{ ∞ } -category of Calabi–Yau dimension d. A Calabi–Yau category with one object is a Frobenius algebra. |

1999 | Joseph Bernstein–Igor Frenkel–Mikhail Khovanov | Temperley–Lieb categories: Objects are enumerated by nonnegative integers. The set of homomorphisms from object n to object m is a free R-module with a basis over a ring , where is given by the isotopy classes of systems of simple pairwise disjoint arcs inside a horizontal strip on the plane that connect in pairs |n| points on the bottom and |m| points on the top in some order. Morphisms are composed by concatenating their diagrams. Temperley–Lieb categories are categorized Temperley–Lieb algebras. |

1999 | Moira Chas–Dennis Sullivan | Constructs string topology by cohomology. This is string theory on general topological manifolds. |

1999 | Mikhail Khovanov | Khovanov homology: A homology theory for knots such that the dimensions of the homology groups are the coefficients of the Jones polynomial of the knot. |

1999 | Vladimir Turaev | Homotopy quantum field theory (HQFT) |

1999 | Ronald Brown–George Janelidze | 2-dimensional Galois theory. |

2000 | Yakov Eliashberg–Alexander Givental–Helmut Hofer | Symplectic field theory SFT: A functor from a geometric category of framed Hamiltonian structures and framed cobordisms between them to an algebraic category of certain differential D-modules and Fourier integral operators between them and satisfying some axioms. |

Year | Contributors | Event |
---|---|---|

2003 | Grigori Perelman | Perelman's proof of the Poincaré conjecture in dimension 3 using Ricci flow. The proof is more general.^{ [41] } |

2004 | Stephen Stolz–Peter Teichner | Definition of nD quantum field theory of degree p parametrized by a manifold. |

2004 | Stephen Stolz–Peter Teichner | Program to construct Topological modular forms as a moduli space of supersymmetric Euclidean field theories. They conjectured a Stolz–Teichner picture (analogy) between classifying spaces of cohomology theories in the chromatic filtration (de Rham cohomology, K-theory, Morava K-theories) and moduli spaces of supersymmetric QFTs parametrized by a manifold (proved in 0D and 1D). |

2005 | Peter Ozsváth–Zoltán Szabó | Knot Floer homology |

2008 | Bruce Bartlett | Primacy of the point hypothesis: An n-dimensional unitary extended TQFT is completely described by the n-Hilbert space it assigns to a point. This is a reformulation of the cobordism hypothesis. |

2008 | Michael Hopkins–Jacob Lurie | Sketch of proof of the Baez–Dolan tangle hypothesis and the Baez–Dolan cobordism hypothesis, which classify extended TQFT in all dimensions. |

2016 | Ciprian Manolescu | Refutation of the "triangulation conjecture", with the proof that in dimension at least five, there exists a compact topological manifold not homeomorphic to a simplicial complex.^{ [42] } |

- ↑ Coxeter, H. S. M. (2012-12-06).
*The Real Projective Plane*. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9781461227342 . Retrieved 16 January 2018. - ↑ Buekenhout, Francis; Cohen, Arjeh M. (2013-01-26).
*Diagram Geometry: Related to Classical Groups and Buildings*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 366. ISBN 9783642344534 . Retrieved 16 January 2018. - ↑ García, Emilio Bujalance; Costa, A. F.; Martínez, E. (2001-06-14).
*Topics on Riemann Surfaces and Fuchsian Groups*. Cambridge University Press. p. ix. ISBN 9780521003506 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ Platonov, Vladimir P. (2001) [1994], "Lie group",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - ↑ James, Ioan M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 31. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 30 June 2018. - ↑ Stein, Erwin (2013-12-04).
*The History of Theoretical, Material and Computational Mechanics - Mathematics Meets Mechanics and Engineering*. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 70–1. ISBN 9783642399053 . Retrieved 6 January 2018. - ↑ Dieudonné, Jean (2009-09-01).
*A History of Algebraic and Differential Topology, 1900 - 1960*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 7. ISBN 9780817649074 . Retrieved 4 January 2018. - 1 2 James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 47. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ Effenberger, Felix (2011).
*Hamiltonian Submanifolds of Regular Polytopes*. Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH. p. 20. ISBN 9783832527587 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Dehn, Max; Heegaard, Poul (1907). "Analysis situs".
*Enzyklop. d. math. Wissensch*. Vol. III. pp. 153–220. JFM 38.0510.14. - 1 2 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Timeline of manifolds",
*MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive*, University of St Andrews - ↑ Peifer, David (2015). "Max Dehn and the Origins of Topology and Infinite Group Theory" (PDF).
*The American Mathematical Monthly*.**122**(3): 217. doi:10.4169/amer.math.monthly.122.03.217. S2CID 20858144. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-06-15. - 1 2 James, Ioan M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Killy, Walther; Vierhaus, Rudolf (2011-11-30).
*Thibaut - Zycha*. Walter de Gruyter. p. 43. ISBN 9783110961164 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Freudenthal, Hans (2014-05-12).
*L. E. J. Brouwer Collected Works: Geometry, Analysis, Topology and Mechanics*. Elsevier Science. p. 435. ISBN 9781483257549 . Retrieved 6 January 2018. - ↑ Dalen, Dirk van (2012-12-04).
*L.E.J. Brouwer – Topologist, Intuitionist, Philosopher: How Mathematics Is Rooted in Life*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 147. ISBN 9781447146162 . Retrieved 30 June 2018. - ↑ Mawhin, Jean (2001) [1994], "Brouwer degree",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - ↑ Dalen, Dirk van (2012-12-04).
*L.E.J. Brouwer – Topologist, Intuitionist, Philosopher: How Mathematics Is Rooted in Life*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 171. ISBN 9781447146162 . Retrieved 30 June 2018. - ↑ Gallier, Jean; Xu, Dianna (2013).
*A Guide to the Classification Theorem for Compact Surfaces*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 156. ISBN 9783642343643. - ↑ James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. pp. 52–3. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 56. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ Bourbaki, N. (2013-12-01).
*Elements of the History of Mathematics*. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 264 note 20. ISBN 9783642616938 . Retrieved 30 June 2018. - 1 2 James, I. M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Fulton, W. (2013-06-29).
*Intersection Theory*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 128. ISBN 9783662024218 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 54. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ "De Rham theorem",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press, 2001 [1994] - ↑ James, I. M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 56. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ Wall, C. T. C. (2016-07-04).
*Differential Topology*. Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN 9781107153523 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 495. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 17 January 2018. - ↑ Postnikov, M. M.; Rudyak, Yu. B. (2001) [1994], "Morse theory",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - ↑ Basener, William F. (2013-06-12).
*Topology and Its Applications*. John Wiley & Sons. p. 95. ISBN 9781118626221 . Retrieved 1 January 2018. - ↑
*Canadian Mathematical Bulletin*. Canadian Mathematical Society. 1971. p. 289. Retrieved 6 July 2018. - ↑ James, I.M. (1999-08-24).
*History of Topology*. Elsevier. p. 55. ISBN 9780080534077 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Milnor, John Willard; McCleary, John (2009).
*Homotopy, Homology, and Manifolds*. American Mathematical Society. p. 6. ISBN 9780821844755 . Retrieved 15 June 2018. - ↑ Rudyak, Yu. B. (2001) [1994], "Steenrod problem",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - ↑ Sklyarenko, E. G. (2001) [1994], "Poincaré duality",
*Encyclopedia of Mathematics*, EMS Press - ↑ Spreer, Jonathan (2011).
*Blowups, Slicings and Permutation Groups in Combinatorial Topology*. Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH. p. 39. ISBN 9783832529833 . Retrieved 2 July 2018. - ↑ Freed, Daniel S.; Uhlenbeck, Karen K. (2012-12-06).
*Instantons and Four-Manifolds*. Springer. p. 1. ISBN 9781461397038 . Retrieved 6 July 2018. - ↑ Rudyak, Yuli (2015-12-28).
*Piecewise Linear Structures On Topological Manifolds*. World Scientific. p. 81. ISBN 9789814733809 . Retrieved 6 July 2018. - ↑ Ranicki, Andrew A.; Casson, Andrew J.; Sullivan, Dennis P.; Armstrong, M.A.; Rourke, Colin P.; Cooke, G.E. (2013-03-09).
*The Hauptvermutung Book: A Collection of Papers on the Topology of Manifolds*. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 5. ISBN 9789401733434 . Retrieved 7 July 2018. - ↑ Morgan, John W.; Tian, Gang (2007).
*Ricci Flow and the Poincaré Conjecture*. American Mathematical Society. p. ix. ISBN 9780821843284. - ↑ Manolescu, Ciprian (2016), "Pin(2)-equivariant Seiberg–Witten Floer homology and the Triangulation Conjecture",
*Journal of the American Mathematical Society*,**29**: 147–176, arXiv: 1303.2354 , doi:10.1090/jams829, S2CID 16403004

**Brouwer's fixed-point theorem** is a fixed-point theorem in topology, named after L. E. J. (Bertus) Brouwer. It states that for any continuous function mapping a nonempty compact convex set to itself, there is a point such that . The simplest forms of Brouwer's theorem are for continuous functions from a closed interval in the real numbers to itself or from a closed disk to itself. A more general form than the latter is for continuous functions from a nonempty convex compact subset of Euclidean space to itself.

**Algebraic topology** is a branch of mathematics that uses tools from abstract algebra to study topological spaces. The basic goal is to find algebraic invariants that classify topological spaces up to homeomorphism, though usually most classify up to homotopy equivalence.

**Invariance of domain** is a theorem in topology about homeomorphic subsets of Euclidean space . It states:

In mathematics, **Thurston's geometrization conjecture** states that each of certain three-dimensional topological spaces has a unique geometric structure that can be associated with it. It is an analogue of the uniformization theorem for two-dimensional surfaces, which states that every simply connected Riemann surface can be given one of three geometries.

**Heinz Hopf** was a German mathematician who worked on the fields of dynamical systems, topology and geometry.

**Max Wilhelm Dehn** was a German mathematician most famous for his work in geometry, topology and geometric group theory. Dehn's early life and career took place in Germany. However, he was forced to retire in 1935 and eventually fled Germany in 1939 and emigrated to the United States.

In algebraic topology, a **homology sphere** is an *n*-manifold *X* having the homology groups of an *n*-sphere, for some integer . That is,

In mathematics, in the subfield of geometric topology, the **mapping class group** is an important algebraic invariant of a topological space. Briefly, the mapping class group is a certain discrete group corresponding to symmetries of the space.

In mathematics, a **3-manifold** is a topological space that locally looks like a three-dimensional Euclidean space. A 3-manifold can be thought of as a possible shape of the universe. Just as a sphere looks like a plane to a small and close enough observer, all 3-manifolds look like our universe does to a small enough observer. This is made more precise in the definition below.

**Poul Heegaard** was a Danish mathematician active in the field of topology. His 1898 thesis introduced a concept now called the Heegaard splitting of a 3-manifold. Heegaard's ideas allowed him to make a careful critique of work of Henri Poincaré. Poincaré had overlooked the possibility of the appearance of torsion in the homology groups of a space.

**Algorithmic topology**, or **computational topology**, is a subfield of topology with an overlap with areas of computer science, in particular, computational geometry and computational complexity theory.

In mathematics, a **4-manifold** is a 4-dimensional topological manifold. A **smooth 4-manifold** is a 4-manifold with a smooth structure. In dimension four, in marked contrast with lower dimensions, topological and smooth manifolds are quite different. There exist some topological 4-manifolds which admit no smooth structure, and even if there exists a smooth structure, it need not be unique.

In mathematics, a **manifold** is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an -dimensional manifold, or *-manifold* for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of -dimensional Euclidean space.

In mathematics, **Lefschetz duality** is a version of Poincaré duality in geometric topology, applying to a manifold with boundary. Such a formulation was introduced by Solomon Lefschetz, at the same time introducing relative homology, for application to the Lefschetz fixed-point theorem. There are now numerous formulations of Lefschetz duality or **Poincaré–Lefschetz duality**, or **Alexander–Lefschetz duality**.

In algebraic topology, a **Poincaré space** is an *n*-dimensional topological space with a distinguished element *μ* of its *n*th homology group such that taking the cap product with an element of the *k*th cohomology group yields an isomorphism to the (*n* − *k*)th homology group. The space is essentially one for which Poincaré duality is valid; more precisely, one whose singular chain complex forms a Poincaré complex with respect to the distinguished element *μ*.

**Geometry** is a branch of mathematics concerned with properties of space such as the distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. Geometry is, along with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a *geometer*. Until the 19th century, geometry was almost exclusively devoted to Euclidean geometry, which includes the notions of point, line, plane, distance, angle, surface, and curve, as fundamental concepts.

In mathematics, and especially topology, a **Poincaré complex** is an abstraction of the singular chain complex of a closed, orientable manifold.

This is a **timeline of bordism**, a topological theory based on the concept of the boundary of a manifold. For context see timeline of manifolds. Jean Dieudonné wrote that cobordism returns to the attempt in 1895 to define homology theory using only (smooth) manifolds.

This page is based on this Wikipedia article

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.

Text is available under the CC BY-SA 4.0 license; additional terms may apply.

Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.