|1280 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1280 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2033|
|Balinese saka calendar||1201–1202|
|English Regnal year||8 Edw. 1 – 9 Edw. 1|
|Chinese calendar|| 己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)|
3976 or 3916
— to —
庚辰年 (Metal Dragon)
3977 or 3917
|- Vikram Samvat||1336–1337|
|- Shaka Samvat||1201–1202|
|- Kali Yuga||4380–4381|
|Japanese calendar|| Kōan 3|
|Minguo calendar||632 before ROC |
|Thai solar calendar||1822–1823|
1406 or 1025 or 253
— to —
1407 or 1026 or 254
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1280 .|
1280 ( MCCLXXX ) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) in the Julian calendar.
The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:
A leap year starting on Monday is any year with 366 days that begins on Monday, 1 January, and ends on Tuesday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are GF, such as the years 1912, 1940, 1968, 1996, 2024, 2052, 2080, and 2120 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2008, 2036, and 2064 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Monday, Wednesday or Thursday has two Friday the 13ths. This leap year contains two Friday the 13ths in September and December. Common years starting on Tuesday share this characteristic.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand. Māori originated with settlers from eastern Polynesia, who arrived in New Zealand in several waves of canoe voyages some time between 1250 and 1300. Over several centuries in isolation, the Polynesian settlers developed a unique culture, with their own language, a rich mythology, and distinctive crafts and performing arts. Early Māori formed tribal groups based on eastern Polynesian social customs and organisation. Horticulture flourished using plants they introduced; later, a prominent warrior culture emerged.
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of more than 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians, and share many similar traits including language family, culture, and beliefs. Historically, they had a strong tradition of sailing and using stars to navigate at night. The largest country in Polynesia is New Zealand.
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, and the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres (1,200 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal, and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington, while its most populous city is Auckland.
June 23 is the 174th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 191 days remaining until the end of the year.
The Reconquista is a name used in English to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1491. The completed conquest of Granada was the context of the Spanish voyages of discovery and conquest, and the Americas—the "New World"—ushered in the era of the Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires.
The Battle of Moclín, also known as the Disaster of Moclín, was a battle fought in the Granadian municipality of Moclín on June 23, 1280. The battle pitted the troops of the Emirate of Granada, commanded by Muhammad II, the Sultan of Granada, against those of the Kingdom of Castile and the Kingdom of Leon who were composed mainly of mercenaries and of members of the Order of Santiago, being commanded by the contemporary grand master of the order Gonzalo Ruiz Girón and by the infante Sancho, son of King Alfonso X of Castile.
Saint Anna of Kashin was a Russian princess from the Rurik Dynasty, who was canonized in 1650.
Year 1368 (MCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.
Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Islamic Mali Empire. At the time of Musa's rise to the throne, the Malian Empire consisted of territory formerly belonging to the Ghana Empire in present-day southern Mauritania and in Melle (Mali) and the immediate surrounding areas. Musa held many titles, including "Emir of Melle", "Lord of the Mines of Wangara", "Conqueror of Ghanata", and at least a dozen others. Mansa Musa conquered 24 cities, each with surrounding districts containing villages and estates. During his reign, Mali may have been the largest producer of gold in the world; it was at a point of exceptional demand for the commodity. One of the richest people in history, he is known to have been enormously wealthy; reported as being inconceivably rich by contemporaries, Time magazine reported: "There's really no way to put an accurate number on his wealth." In March 2019 the BBC described him as "the richest man of all time".
Birger was King of Sweden from 1290 to 1318.
Year 1321 (MCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.
Wu Zhen was a painter born in Jiaxing, Zhejiang Province, during the Yuan dynasty of China, one of the so-called Four Masters of the Yuan Dynasty. He followed the Dong Yuan school of painting. Following along with trends of the time, Wu's works tended less toward naturalism and more toward abstraction, focusing on dynamic balance of elements, and personifying nature. His painting The Central Mountain, dated 1336, is perhaps his greatest work and shows his style very clearly. It is a symmetrical image, with one large mountain in its center and others to each side. The mountains have rounded tops, and in fact all of Wu's lines in this painting are smooth, curved and flowing. The painting is a reinterpretation of traditional landscape paintings as it brings abstract style and brushwork to landscape, primarily to create a work focused on balance.
February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 324 days remaining until the end of the year.
Margaret, often called Margaret of Constantinople, ruled as Countess of Flanders during 1244–1278 and Countess of Hainaut during 1244–1253 and 1257–1280. She was the younger daughter of Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders and Hainaut, and Marie of Champagne.
Year 1202 (MCCII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.
Andronikos III Palaiologos, commonly Latinized as Andronicus III Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 1328 to 1341. Born Andronikos Doukas Angelos Komnenos Palaiologos, he was the son of Michael IX Palaiologos and Rita of Armenia. He was proclaimed co-emperor in his youth, before 1313, and in April 1321 he rebelled in opposition to his grandfather, Andronikos II Palaiologos. He was formally crowned co-emperor in February 1325, before ousting his grandfather outright and becoming sole emperor on 24 May 1328.
Roger Bacon, also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was a medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and particularly famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head. He is sometimes credited as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method inspired by Aristotle and by the Arab scientist Alhazen.
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was the century which lasted from January 1, 1201 through December 31, 1300 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era. In the history of European culture, this period is considered part of the High Middle Ages, and after its conquests in Asia the Mongol Empire stretched from Eastern Asia to Eastern Europe.
The 1230s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1230, and ended on December 31, 1239.
The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.
Year 1296 (MCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.
Year 1270 (MCCLXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.
Boniface of Savoy was a medieval Bishop of Belley in France and Archbishop of Canterbury in England. He was the son of Thomas, Count of Savoy, and owed his initial ecclesiastical posts to his father. Other members of his family were also clergymen, and a brother succeeded his father as count. One niece was married to King Henry III of England and another was married to King Louis IX of France. It was Henry who secured Boniface's election as Archbishop, and throughout his tenure of that office he spent much time on the continent. He clashed with his bishops, with his nephew-by-marriage, and with the papacy, but managed to eliminate the archiepiscopal debt which he had inherited on taking office. During Simon de Montfort's struggle with King Henry, Boniface initially helped Montfort's cause, but later supported the king. After his death in Savoy, his tomb became the object of a cult, and he was eventually beatified in 1839.
Robert Grosseteste was an English statesman, scholastic philosopher, theologian, scientist and Bishop of Lincoln. He was born of humble parents at Stradbroke in Suffolk. Upon his death, he was almost universally revered as a saint in England, but attempts to procure a formal canonization failed. A. C. Crombie calls him "the real founder of the tradition of scientific thought in medieval Oxford, and in some ways, of the modern English intellectual tradition".
The Asen dynasty founded and ruled a medieval Bulgarian state, called in modern historiography the Second Bulgarian Empire, between 1187 and 1256.
Kaliman Asen I, also known as Coloman Asen I or Koloman was emperor of Bulgaria from 1241 to 1246. He was the son of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and Anna Maria of Hungary. He was only seven when he succeeded his father in 1241. In the following years, the Mongols invaded Bulgaria and imposed a yearly tax on the country. He may have been poisoned, according to contemporaneous rumors about his death.
Michael II Asen was emperor of Bulgaria from 1246 to 1256 or 1257. He was the son of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria and Irene Komnene Doukaina. He succeeded his half-brother, Kaliman I Asen. His mother or other relative must have ruled Bulgaria during his minority.
In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire, wherein it acted as a key regional power occurred in two distinct periods: between the seventh and eleventh centuries, and again between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. The two "Bulgarian Empires" are not treated as separate entities, but rather as one state restored after a period of Byzantine rule over its territory. Bulgaria is one of the few historic states and nations whose economy and society were never based on slavery, and slavery never played an important role in Bulgarian statehood development and wealth.
Nicholas Farnham was a medieval Bishop of Durham.
Robert Passelewe was a medieval Bishop of Chichester elect as well as being a royal clerk and Archdeacon of Lewes.
Roger Weseham was an English medieval Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield.
Henry of Lexington was a medieval Bishop of Lincoln.
John Crakehall was an English clergyman and Treasurer of England from 1258 to 1260.
Peter was a Bulgarian nobleman who held the high title of sevastokrator around 1253. He married a daughter of Ivan Asen II of Bulgaria. He ruled significant territories in Bulgaria during the reign of his brother-in-law, Michael II Asen.