1961 in science

Last updated
List of years in science (table)

The year 1961 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.


Astronomy and space exploration




Computer science












Related Research Articles

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors. Its name signifies that transistors perform both the logic function and the amplifying function, as opposed to resistor–transistor logic (RTL) or diode–transistor logic (DTL).

Paracetamol Common medication for pain and fever

Paracetamol, also known as acetaminophen, is a medication used to treat fever and mild to moderate pain. At a standard dose, paracetamol only slightly decreases body temperature; it is inferior to ibuprofen in that respect, and the benefits of its use for fever are unclear. Paracetamol significantly relieves pain in acute migraine but only slightly in episodic tension headache. However, the aspirin/paracetamol/caffeine combination helps with both conditions and is recommended as a first-line treatment for them. Paracetamol is effective for post-surgical pain, but it is inferior to ibuprofen. The paracetamol/ibuprofen combination provides further increase in potency and is superior to either drug alone. The pain relief paracetamol provides in osteoarthritis is small and clinically insignificant. The evidence in its favor for the use in low back pain, cancer pain and neuropathic pain is insufficient.

Ibuprofen Medication used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation

Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation. This includes painful menstrual periods, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis. It may also be used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in a premature baby. It can be used by mouth or intravenously. It typically begins working within an hour.

The year 1959 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

The year 1969 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.

Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a very small bacterium in the class Mollicutes. It is a human pathogen that causes the disease mycoplasma pneumonia, a form of atypical bacterial pneumonia related to cold agglutinin disease. M. pneumoniae is characterized by the absence of a peptidoglycan cell wall and resulting resistance to many antibacterial agents. The persistence of M. pneumoniae infections even after treatment is associated with its ability to mimic host cell surface composition.

Gel electrophoresis of proteins

Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting medium: SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, free-flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual advantages and limitations. Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. Because of practical limitations, protein electrophoresis is generally not suited as a preparative method.

The year 1965 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below.


The cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".

Tonsillitis Inflammation of the tonsils

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils in the upper part of the throat. Tonsillitis is a type of pharyngitis that typically comes on fast. Symptoms may include sore throat, fever, enlargement of the tonsils, trouble swallowing, and large lymph nodes around the neck. Complications include peritonsillar abscess.

Edward Abraham

Sir Edward Penley Abraham, was an English biochemist instrumental in the development of the first antibiotics penicillin and cephalosporin.

Arne Tiselius

Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius was a Swedish biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1948 "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins."

Hayflick limit Number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops

The Hayflick limit, or Hayflick phenomenon, is the number of times a normal human cell population will divide before cell division stops.


Cefaclor, sold under the trade name Ceclor among others, is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic used to treat certain bacterial infections such as pneumonia and infections of the ear, lung, skin, throat, and urinary tract. It is also available from other manufacturers as a generic.


Cefprozil is a second-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. It can be used to treat ear infections, skin infections, and other bacterial infections. It comes as a tablet and as a liquid suspension.

Francis Birch (geophysicist) American geophysicist

Francis Birch was an American geophysicist. He is considered one of the founders of solid Earth geophysics. He is also known for his part in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Mineral physics is the science of materials that compose the interior of planets, particularly the Earth. It overlaps with petrophysics, which focuses on whole-rock properties. It provides information that allows interpretation of surface measurements of seismic waves, gravity anomalies, geomagnetic fields and electromagnetic fields in terms of properties in the deep interior of the Earth. This information can be used to provide insights into plate tectonics, mantle convection, the geodynamo and related phenomena.

James L. Buie

James L. Buie was an American scientist and inventor who worked for TRW Inc. He refined and developed electronic circuitry to the integrated circuit level. This led to the beginning of the integrated circuit industry.

Discontinuous electrophoresis Type of laboratory technique

Discontinuous electrophoresis is a type of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was developed by Ornstein and Davis. This method produces high resolution and good band definition. It is widely used technique for separating proteins according to size and charge.

SDS-PAGE biochemical technique

SDS-PAGE, is a discontinuous electrophoretic system developed by Ulrich K. Laemmli which is commonly used as a method to separate proteins with molecular masses between 5 and 250 kDa. The combined use of sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyacrylamide gel allows to eliminate the influence of structure and charge, and proteins are separated solely on the basis of differences in their molecular weight.


  1. Abraham, E. P.; Newton, G. G. F. (May 1961). "Structure of cephalosporin C". Biochemical Journal . 79 (2): 377–393. doi:10.1042/bj0790377. PMC   1205850 . PMID   13681080.
  2. Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg (2001). Experimentalsysteme Eine Geschichte der Proteinsynthese im Reagenzglas. Wallstein. ISBN   978-3-89244-454-1.
  3. Hayflick, L.; Moorhead, P. S. (1961). "The serial cultivation of human diploid cell strains". Experimental Cell Research . 25 (3): 585–621. doi:10.1016/0014-4827(61)90192-6. PMID   13905658.
  4. "Disc Electrophoresis". Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2011-10-16.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. Ornstein, Leonard (1964). "Disc Electrophoresis". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences . 121 (2): 321–349. Bibcode:1964NYASA.121..321O. CiteSeerX . doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1964.tb14207.x. PMID   14240533.
  6. Landauer, R. (1961). "Irreversibility and Heat Generation in the Computing Process" (PDF). IBM Journal of Research and Development. 5 (3): 183–191. doi:10.1147/rd.53.0183 . Retrieved 2015-10-15.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. Birch, Francis (1961). "The velocity of compressional waves in rocks to 10 kilobars. Part 2" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research . 66 (7): 2199–2224. Bibcode:1961JGR....66.2199B. doi:10.1029/JZ066i007p02199.
  8. Birch, Francis (1961). "Composition of the Earth's mantle". Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society . 4: 295–311. Bibcode:1961GeoJ....4..295B. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1961.tb06821.x .
  9. Crilly, Tony (2007). 50 Mathematical Ideas you really need to know. London: Quercus. p. 93. ISBN   978-1-84724-008-8.
  10. "1960s". NHS Timeline. Nuffield Trust. Retrieved 2018-08-14.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  11. Lenhoff, Howard M.; Teele, Rita L.; Clarkson, Patricia M.; Berdon, Walter E. (2010). "John C. P. Williams of Williams-Beuren syndrome". Pediatric Radiology. 41 (2): 267–269. doi:10.1007/s00247-010-1909-y. ISSN   0301-0449. PMID   21107555.
  12. Adams, S. S. (1992). "The propionic acids: A personal perspective". The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology . 32 (4): 317–323. doi:10.1002/j.1552-4604.1992.tb03842.x. PMID   1569234.
  13. "The story of Ibuprofen". Nottingham: BBC. 2009-07-22. Retrieved 2012-08-13.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  14. Lee, J. A. N. (2013). "Computer Pioneers". James L. Buie. IEEE Computer Society. Retrieved 2015-11-14. While working for TRW, Inc., Los Angeles, in the early 1960s, Buie developed and patented TTL circuitry, which became the dominant IC technology in the 1970s and early 1980s.CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  15. Duk, Wierd (2013-08-24). "Hoe Lou Ottens de wereld veranderde" (PDF). The Twentsche Courant Tubantia (in Dutch). Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  16. Butler, J.; Lowe, R. (1961). "Beam forming matrix simplifiers design of electrically scanned antennas". Electronic Design.