Banksia attenuata

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Candlestick banksia or biara
Banksia attenuata Marg River email.jpg
B. attenuata, Margaret River
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
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Species:
B. attenuata
Binomial name
Banksia attenuata [1]
B attentuata dist map.png
distribution of Banksia attenuata
Synonyms

Banksia cylindrostachya Lindl.

Banksia attenuata, commonly known as the candlestick banksia, slender banksia or biara as known by the Noongar aboriginal people, is a species of plant in the family Proteaceae. Commonly a tree, it reaches 10 m (33 ft) high, but is often a shrub in drier areas 0.4 to 2 m (1.3 to 6.6 ft) high. It has long narrow serrated leaves and bright yellow inflorescences, or flower spikes, held above the foliage, which appear in spring and summer. The flower spikes age to grey and swell with the development of the woody follicles. It is found across much of the southwest of Western Australia, from north of Kalbarri National Park down to Cape Leeuwin and across to Fitzgerald River National Park.

Noongar an Indigenous Australian people who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast

The Noongar are a constellation of peoples of Indigenous Australian descent who live in the south-west corner of Western Australia, from Geraldton on the west coast to Esperance on the south coast. Noongar country is now understood as referring to the land occupied by 14 different groups: Amangu, Ballardong, Yued, Kaneang, Koreng, Mineng, Njakinjaki, Njunga, Pibelmen, Pindjarup, Wardandi, Whadjuk, Wiilman and Wudjari.

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

Plant multicellular eukaryote of the kingdom Plantae

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes. By one definition, plants form the clade Viridiplantae, a group that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns and their allies, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, but excludes the red and brown algae.

Contents

John Lindley had named material collected by James Drummond Banksia cylindrostachya in 1840, but this proved to be the same as the species named Banksia attenuata by Robert Brown 30 years earlier in 1810, and thus Brown's name took precedence. Within the genus Banksia , the close relationships and exact position of B. attenuata is unclear.

John Lindley English botanist, gardener and orchidologist (1799–1865)

John Lindley FRS was an English botanist, gardener and orchidologist.

James Drummond (botanist) Australian botanist

James Drummond was a botanist and naturalist who was an early settler in Western Australia.

Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773) Scottish botanist

Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope. His contributions include one of the earliest detailed descriptions of the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic streaming; the observation of Brownian motion; early work on plant pollination and fertilisation, including being the first to recognise the fundamental difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms; and some of the earliest studies in palynology. He also made numerous contributions to plant taxonomy, notably erecting a number of plant families that are still accepted today; and numerous Australian plant genera and species, the fruit of his exploration of that continent with Matthew Flinders.

The candlestick banksia is pollinated by and provides food for a wide array of animals in summer months. Several species of honeyeater visit the flower spikes, as does the honey possum, which has an important role as a pollinator. It regenerates from bushfire by regrowing from its woody base known as a lignotuber, or from epicormic buds within its trunk. Plants may have a lifespan of 300 years. It has been widely used as a street tree and for amenities planting in urban Western Australia, though its large size generally precludes use in small gardens. A dwarf form is commercially available in nurseries.

Pollination Biological processes occurring in plants

Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind. Pollinating agents are animals such as insects, birds, and bats; water; wind; and even plants themselves, when self-pollination occurs within a closed flower. Pollination often occurs within a species. When pollination occurs between species it can produce hybrid offspring in nature and in plant breeding work.

Herbivore Animal adapted to eating plant material

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage or marine algae, for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding. Horses and other herbivores have wide flat teeth that are adapted to grinding grass, tree bark, and other tough plant material.

Honeyeater family of birds

The honeyeaters are a large and diverse family, Meliphagidae, of small to medium-sized birds. The family includes the Australian chats, myzomelas, friarbirds, wattlebirds, miners and melidectes. They are most common in Australia and New Guinea, but also found in New Zealand, the Pacific islands as far east as Samoa and Tonga, and the islands to the north and west of New Guinea known as Wallacea. Bali, on the other side of the Wallace Line, has a single species.

Description

Banksia attenuata is generally encountered as a tree up to 10 m (30 ft) tall. In the north of its range as the climate becomes warmer and drier, it is often a stunted multistemmed shrub 0.4 to 2 m (1.3 to 6.6 ft) tall. Both forms occur in the vicinity of Hill River but there is otherwise a marked demarcation. [2]

Shrub type of plant

A shrub or bush is a small- to medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, less than 6 m-10 m (20 ft–33 ft) tall. Small shrubs, less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall are sometimes termed subshrubs.

Hill River (Western Australia) river in Western Australia, Australia

Hill River is a river in the Wheatbelt region of Western Australia.

A large tree in Bold Park, Perth. The trunk is characteristically wavy or bent. Banksia attenuata tree.JPG
A large tree in Bold Park, Perth. The trunk is characteristically wavy or bent.

In the Wheatbelt and east of the Stirling Range, it is a stunted tree. Tree forms have a solid trunk, generally wavy or bent, with 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) thick crumbly orange-grey bark which is a red-brown underneath. [3] It regenerates from fire via lignotuber or epicormic buds from its fire-tolerant trunk. It has long narrow shiny green linear leaves 4 to 27 cm (1.6 to 10.6 in) long and 0.5 to 1.6 cm (0.20 to 0.63 in) wide. [4] [5] The leaf margins have v- or u-shaped serrations along their length. The new growth is a pale grey-green, and occurs mainly in the late spring and summer, [6] often after flowering. The brilliant yellow inflorescences (flower spikes) occur from spring into summer and are up 5 cm (2.0 in) wide and up to 25–30 cm (9.8–11.8 in) tall. [3] They are made up of many small individual flowers; a study at Mount Adams 330 km (210 mi) north of Perth revealed a count of 1933 (± a standard error of 88) flowers per inflorescence, [7] and another in the Fitzgerald River National Park yielded a count of 1720 (± 76) flowers. Anthesis proceeds up the flower spike over about 10 to 20 days, and is asynchronous. That is, a plant produces flower spikes over a several week period and will thus have spikes at different stages of development over the flowering season. [8]

Wheatbelt (Western Australia) region in Western Australia

The Wheatbelt is one of nine regions of Western Australia defined as administrative areas for the state's regional development, and a vernacular term for the area converted to agriculture during colonisation. It partially surrounds the Perth metropolitan area, extending north from Perth to the Mid West region, and east to the Goldfields-Esperance region. It is bordered to the south by the South West and Great Southern regions, and to the west by the Indian Ocean, the Perth metropolitan area, and the Peel region. Altogether, it has an area of 154,862 square kilometres (59,793 sq mi).

Stirling Range mountain in Australia

The Stirling Range or Koikyennuruff is a range of mountains and hills in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 337 km south-east of Perth. It is over 60 km (37 mi) wide from west to east, stretching from the highway between Mount Barker and Cranbrook eastward past Gnowangerup. The Stirling Range is protected by the Stirling Range National Park, which was gazetted in 1913, and has an area of 1,159 km2 (447 sq mi).

Bark (botany) external parenchymal tissue, located just below the epidermis in the primary structure of the stem

Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines, and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner bark, which in older stems is living tissue, includes the innermost area of the periderm. The outer bark in older stems includes the dead tissue on the surface of the stems, along with parts of the innermost periderm and all the tissues on the outer side of the periderm. The outer bark on trees which lies external to the last formed periderm is also called the rhytidome.

Often bright green in bud stage, [9] they are terminal, occurring at the ends of one- to three-year-old branches, and displayed prominently above the foliage. [3] The smell of the open flowers has been likened to a peppery Shiraz wine. [9] Over time, the spikes fade to brown and then grey, [4] and the individual flowers shrivel and lie against the spikes. This coincides with the development of dark furry oval follicles, which measure 2–3.5 cm (0.79–1.38 in) long, 1–1.5 cm (0.39–0.59 in) high, and 1.4–2 cm (0.55–0.79 in) wide. [3] However, only a very small percentage (0.1%) of flowers develop into follicles; the field study at Mount Adams yielded a count of 3.6 ± 1.2 per cone. [7] The follicles develop and mature over seven to eight months, from February to December, while seed development occurs over four months from September to December. [10]

Bud Unmatured and embryonic shoot

In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.

Syrah Dark-skinned grape variety

Syrah, also known as Shiraz, is a dark-skinned grape variety grown throughout the world and used primarily to produce red wine. In 1999, Syrah was found to be the offspring of two obscure grapes from southeastern France, Dureza and Mondeuse Blanche. Syrah should not be confused with Petite Sirah, a cross of Syrah with Peloursin dating from 1880.

Follicle (fruit) dehiscing by a suture in order to release seeds

In botany, a follicle is a dry unilocular fruit formed from one carpel, containing two or more seeds. It is usually defined as dehiscing by a suture in order to release seeds, for example in Consolida, peony and milkweed (Asclepias).

Taxonomy

A flower spike in early bud stage Banksia attenuata gnangarra 08.jpg
A flower spike in early bud stage

Banksia attenuata was first collected by Robert Brown from King George Sound in December 1801, and published by him in 1810. The specific epithet is the Latin adjective attenuatus "narrowed", and refers to the leaves narrowing towards the base. [4] The species has had a fairly uneventful taxonomic history. It has only two synonyms, and no subspecies or varieties have been published; [1] Australian botanist Alex George reviewed the variation in form in the species, and felt that the tree and shrub forms differed only in size and hence were not distinct enough to represent separate taxa. [3] In 1840, John Lindley published a putative new species, Banksia cylindrostachya, in his A Sketch of the Vegetation of the Swan River Colony ; this has now be shown to be a taxonomic synonym of B. attenuata. [11] In 1891, Otto Kuntze made a failed attempt to transfer Banksia to the new generic name Sirmuellera. In the process he published the name Sirmuellera attenuata, which is now considered a nomenclatural synonym of B. attenuata. [12] Common names include slender banksia, candle banksia and candlestick banksia. Piara (alternately spelled biara) is an aboriginal name from the Melville region of Perth.

The relationships of Banksia attenuata within the genus are unclear. When Carl Meissner published his infrageneric arrangement of Banksia in 1856, he placed B. attenuata in section Eubanksia because its inflorescence is a spike rather than a domed head, and in series Salicinae, [13] a large series that is now considered quite heterogeneous. [3] This series was discarded in the 1870 arrangement of George Bentham; instead, B. attenuata was placed in section Cyrtostylis, a group of species which did not fit easily into one of the other sections. [14]

In 1981, George published a revised arrangement that placed B. attenuata in the subgenus Banksia because of its flower spike, section Banksia because its styles are straight rather than hooked, and the series Cyrtostylis, a large and rather heterogenous series of twelve species. He conceded its large emarginate cotyledons (having a notch in their apex) were quite different from other members, and that it had similarities in flower architecture to another anomalous member B. elegans . He felt B. attenuata to have affinities to B. lindleyana and B. media . [3]

An inflorescence halfway through anthesis as the flowers open upwards up the spike Banksia attenuata gnangarra 04.jpg
An inflorescence halfway through anthesis as the flowers open upwards up the spike
The ageing flowers remain curled against the spike, as the furry follicles develop. Banksia attenuata infructescences.JPG
The ageing flowers remain curled against the spike, as the furry follicles develop.

George's arrangement remained current until 1996, when Kevin Thiele and Pauline Ladiges published an arrangement informed by a cladistic analysis of morphological characteristics. They calculated B. attenuata to lie at the base of a large B. attenuataB.ashbyi clade, but conceded further work was needed before its relationships could be determined, and left it as incertae sedis (i.e. Its exact placement is unclear.). [15] Questioning the emphasis on cladistics in Thiele and Ladiges' arrangement, George published a slightly modified version of his 1981 arrangement in his 1999 treatment of Banksia for the Flora of Australia series of monographs. To date, this remains the most recent comprehensive arrangement. The placement of B. attenuata in George's 1999 arrangement may be summarised as follows: [5]

Banksia
B. subg. Banksia
B. sect. Banksia
B. ser. Cyrtostylis
B. media
B. praemorsa
B. epica
B. pilostylis
B. attenuata
B. ashbyi
B. benthamiana
B. audax
B. lullfitzii
B. elderiana
B. laevigata
B. laevigata subsp. laevigata
B. laevigata subsp. fuscolutea
B. elegans
B. lindleyana

Since 1998, American botanist Austin Mast and co-authors have been publishing results of ongoing cladistic analyses of DNA sequence data for the subtribe Banksiinae, which then comprised genera Banksia and Dryandra . Their analyses suggest a phylogeny that differs greatly from George's taxonomic arrangement. Banksia attenuata resolves as a basal member of and next closest relative, or 'sister', to a clade containing B. elegans and, within that, a monophyletic B. subg. Isostylis. [16] [17] [18] An Eocene fossil cone named Banksia archaeocarpa , around 50 million years old, resembles that of B. attenuata. [19]

Early in 2007, Mast and Thiele rearranged the genus Banksia by merging Dryandra into it, and published B. subg. Spathulatae for the taxa having spoon-shaped cotyledons; thus B. subg. Banksia was redefined as encompassing taxa lacking spoon-shaped cotyledons. They foreshadowed publishing a full arrangement once DNA sampling of Dryandra was complete; in the meantime, if Mast and Thiele's nomenclatural changes are taken as an interim arrangement, then B. attenuata is placed in B. subg. Banksia. [20]

Distribution and habitat

Distribution of B. attentuata across the southwest of Western Australia B attentuata dist map.png
Distribution of B. attentuata across the southwest of Western Australia

The most widely distributed of all western banksias, Banksia attenuata occurs across a broad swathe of southwest of Western Australia, from Kalbarri National Park and the Murchison River (with an outlying population in Zuytdorp National Park) southwards right to the southwestern corner of the state at Augusta and Cape Leeuwin, and then eastwards across the south to the western edge of Fitzgerald River National Park. Along the eastern border northwards it is found at Lake Grace, Lake Magenta north of Jerramungup, and the Wongan Hills. It is restricted to various sandy soils, including white, yellow or brown sands, and sand over either laterite or limestone. It forms an important component of open Eucalyptus woodland as a dominant or understory tree or tall shrub. To the north, it is a shrubby component of shrubland. It does not grow on heavy (clay-based) soils, and is hence only found in sandy pockets. [6] Within open woodland, it is found alongside B. menziesii , B. ilicifolia , B. prionotes , Allocasuarina fraseriana , Eucalyptus marginata , or E. gomphocephala . [3] The annual rainfall within its distribution varies from 300 to 900 mm (12 to 35 in). [9]

Ecology

A tree with new growth resprouting from epicormic buds after fire Banksia attenuata resprouter.jpg
A tree with new growth resprouting from epicormic buds after fire

Like many plants in south-west Western Australia, B. attenuata is adapted to an environment in which bushfire events are relatively frequent. Most Banksia species can be placed in one of two broad groups according to their response to fire: reseeders are killed by fire, but fire also triggers the release of their canopy seed bank, thus promoting recruitment of the next generation; resprouters survive fire, resprouting from a lignotuber or, more rarely, epicormic buds protected by thick bark. [21] Bearing epicormic buds and a lignotuber, B. attenuata is one of the latter group, with follicles that may open spontaneously or by fire. [3]

It is moderately serotinous, storing only one tenth the number of seeds in its seed bank as the reseeding B. hookeriana with which it coexists on sand dunes in scrub at Eneabba north of Perth. Even then, many of its follicles do not release seed after a fire, but instead after successive autumn rains. [22] An experiment simulating wet weather following a fire saw a series of Banksia attenuata cones with follicles subjected to twice weekly immersions in water after being heated in a ring Bunsen flame to around 500–600 °C (932–1,112 °F) for two minutes. Cones that had been exposed to water for more weeks had more seed released from follicles over time; around 40% released at three weeks, increasing steadily to almost 90% at ten weeks, compared with a series of controls (which were kept dry) of which fewer than 10% of seed released. Thus, the seed remains in the follicles until successive rains result in seed dispersal in the wetter winter (instead of dryer summer), increasing the chance of survival. After the follicle is split, the seed and separator are exposed to the elements. The wings of the woody separator are hygroscopic, and move together when wet, and spread and curl apart when dry. The seed is gradually drawn out by the movement with each wetting. [23]

Once released, seed germinates at temperatures between 15 and 20 °C (59 and 68 °F) to optimise timing with autumn and winter rains and hence maximise chance of survival. Still, many seedlings die off in the hot and dry summer months. [24] Seedling survival for the species is lower than for banksias which regenerate by seeding over time. Despite this, the longevity of mature plants allows for maintenance of population until favourable years enable better survival of young plants. As they mature, plants are less likely to perish, and estimated to live for 300 years or more. [25] Analyzing the seed bank and longitudinal results over fifteen years on the Eneabba sandplain showed that B. attenuata would become more abundant over time with fire intervals averaging between 6 and 20 years, peaking with intervals around 10 to 12 years, compared with longer intervals for the reseeders B. hookeriana and B. prionotes. Placed against its rivals, B. attenuata would be dominant between 8 and 10 or 11 years, but at longer intervals is outcompeted by B. hookeriana. Variability in the timing between fires allows all three species to coexist. Exaggerated good and bad weather conditions favours B. attenuata over the reseeding species, which suffer more. [26]

Despite having relatively heavy seed, seed from Banksia attenuata has a high rate of long distance dispersal. A genetic study of populations in Eneabba showed that over 5% of plants had originated up to 2.6 km (1.6 mi) away (similar rates to Banksia hookeriana, the seed of which only weighs half as much). The mechanism for this is unclear, although Byron Lamont has proposed the short-billed black cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus latirostris) as a vector; the species seeks out Banksia attenuata cones after bushfire, possibly because the large seeds and greater chance of grubs in the cone make them more nutritious. [27] Flowering has been recorded one to two years after a bushfire. [6] Flower spikes in late bud are used in the cut flower industry, [9] primarily in Western Australia. [28]

Aboriginal people, particularly the Nyoongar and Yamatji, placed the flower spike in a paperbark-lined hole filled with water to make a sweet drink. Both this species and B. aemula have been credited with the inspiration behind May Gibbs' Big Bad Banksia Men; this species was familiar to Gibbs in her childhood and likely gave her the initial inspiration, although the depictions resemble the latter species. [9] Artist Marianne North produced a highly regarded painting of B. attenuata during her stay in Australia in 1880–1881. [9] [29]

Related Research Articles

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<i>Banksia petiolaris</i> A flowering plant of the family Proteaceae native to Western Australia

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<i>Banksia burdettii</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia native to Western Australia

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Banksia speciosa, commonly known as the showy banksia, is a species of large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. It occurs on the south coast of Western Australia between Hopetoun (33°57′ S) and the Great Australian Bight, growing on white or grey sand in shrubland. Reaching up to 8 m (26 ft) in height, it is a single-stemmed plant that has thin leaves with prominent triangular "teeth" along each margin, which are 20–45 cm (7.9–17.7 in) long and 2–4 cm (0.8–1.6 in) wide. The prominent cream-yellow flower spikes known as inflorescences appear throughout the year. As they age they develop up to 20 follicles each that store seeds until opened by fire. Banksia speciosa. Though widely occurring, it is highly sensitive to dieback and large populations of plants have succumbed to the disease.

<i>Banksia telmatiaea</i> A shrub in the family Proteaceae that grows in marshes and swamps along the lower west coast of Australia

Banksia telmatiaea, commonly known as swamp fox banksia or rarely marsh banksia, is a shrub that grows in marshes and swamps along the lower west coast of Australia. It grows as an upright bush up to 2 metres tall, with narrow leaves and a pale brown flower spike, which can produce profuse quantities of nectar. First collected in the 1840s, it was not published as a separate species until 1981; as with several other similar species it was previously included in B. sphaerocarpa.

<i>Banksia violacea</i> A shrub or tree in the family Proteaceae found in low shrubland in southern regions of Western Australia

Banksia violacea, commonly known as violet banksia, is a species of shrub or tree in the plant genus Banksia. It generally grows as a small shrub to 1.5 m (5 ft) high with fine narrow leaves, and is best known for its unusually coloured dark purple-violet inflorescences. The colour of the inflorescences, short leaves, and flattened follicles which are sticky when young, help identify this species from others in the field. It is found in low shrubland in southern regions of Western Australia from Esperance in the east to Narrogin in the west, growing exclusively in sandy soils.

<i>Banksia blechnifolia</i> Species of shrub in the genus Banksia

Banksia blechnifolia is a species of flowering plant in the genus Banksia. It was first described by Victorian state botanist Ferdinand von Mueller in 1864, and no subspecies are recognised. It gained its specific name as its leaves are reminiscent of a fern (Blechnum). B. blechnifolia is one of several closely related species that grow as prostrate shrubs, with horizontal stems and thick, leathery upright leaves. The red-brown flower spikes, known as inflorescences, are up to 20 centimetres (8 in) high and appear from September to November. As the spikes age, each turns grey and develops as many as 25 woody seed pods, known as follicles.

<i>Banksia aquilonia</i> A tree in the family Proteaceae native to north Queensland

Banksia aquilonia, commonly known as the northern banksia, is a tree in the family Proteaceae native to north Queensland on Australia's northeastern coastline. With an average height of 8 m (26 ft), it has narrow glossy green leaves up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and 6 to 10 cm high pale yellow flower spikes, known as inflorescences, appearing in autumn. As the spikes age, their flowers fall off and they develop up to 50 follicles, each of which contains two seeds.

<i>Banksia</i> ser. <i>Cyrtostylis</i> Series of Banksia

Banksia ser. Cyrtostylis is a taxonomic series within the plant genus Banksia. First published at sectional rank by George Bentham in 1870, it was demoted to a series by Alex George in 1981. The name has had three circumscriptions.

<i>Banksia</i> subser. <i>Cratistylis</i> Subseries of Banksia

Banksia subser. Cratistylis is a valid botanic name for a subseries of Banksia. It was first published by Kevin Thiele in 1996, but discarded by Alex George in 1999.

References

  1. 1 2 "Banksia attenuata R.Br". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
  2. Cowling, Richard M.; Lamont, Byron B. (1985). "Variation in serotiny of three Banksia species along a climatic gradient". Australian Journal of Ecology. 10 (3): 345–50. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1985.tb00895.x.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 George, Alex S. (1981). "The Genus Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Nuytsia . 3 (3): 239–473.
  4. 1 2 3 George, Alex S. (1996). The Banksia Book (3rd ed.). Kenthurst, New South Wales: Kangaroo Press. p. 133. ISBN   0-86417-818-2.
  5. 1 2 George, Alex S. (1999). Wilson, Annette (ed.). Flora of Australia . 17B. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. pp. 175–251. ISBN   0-643-06454-0.
  6. 1 2 3 Taylor, Anne; Hopper, Stephen (1988). The Banksia Atlas (Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 8). Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. ISBN   0-644-07124-9., pp. 54–55
  7. 1 2 Cowling, Richard M.; Lamont, Byron B. (1987). "Seed bank dynamics in four co-occurring Banksia species". Journal of Ecology. 75 (2): 289–302. doi:10.2307/2260419. JSTOR   2260419.(subscription required)
  8. Wooller, Sue J.; Wooller, Ronald D (2001). "Seed set in two sympatric banksias, Banksia attenuata and B. baxteri". Australian Journal of Botany. 49 (5): 597–602. doi:10.1071/BT00084.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Collins, Kevin; Collins, Kathy; George, Alex S. (2008). Banksias. Melbourne, Victoria: Bloomings Books. pp. 68, 150–51. ISBN   1-876473-68-1.
  10. Stock, W.D.; Pate, J.S.; Rasins, E. (1991). "Seed developmental patterns in Banksia attenuata R.Br. and B. laricina C. Gardner in relation to mechanical defence costs". New Phytologist. 117 (1): 109–14. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1991.tb00950.x.
  11. "Banksia cylindrostachya Lindl". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
  12. "Sirmuellera attenuata (R.Br.) Kuntze". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
  13. Meissner, Carl (1856). "Proteaceae". In de Candolle, A. P (ed.). Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis . 14. Paris: Sumptibus Sociorum Treuttel et Wurtz.
  14. Bentham, George (1870). "Banksia". Flora Australiensis . 5. London: L. Reeve & Co. pp. 541–62.
  15. Thiele, Kevin; Ladiges, Pauline Y. (1996). "A cladistic analysis of Banksia (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany . 9 (5): 661–733. doi:10.1071/SB9960661.
  16. Mast, Austin R. (1998). "Molecular systematics of subtribe Banksiinae (Banksia and Dryandra; Proteaceae) based on cpDNA and nrDNA sequence data: implications for taxonomy and biogeography". Australian Systematic Botany. 11 (3–4): 321–42. doi:10.1071/SB97026.
  17. Mast, Austin R.; Givnish, Thomas J. (2002). "Historical biogeography and the origin of stomatal distributions in Banksia and Dryandra (Proteaceae) based on their cpDNA phylogeny". American Journal of Botany . 89 (8): 1311–23. doi:10.3732/ajb.89.8.1311. ISSN   0002-9122. PMID   21665734 . Retrieved 2 July 2006.
  18. Mast, Austin R.; Jones, Eric H.; Havery, Shawn P. (2005). "An assessment of old and new DNA sequence evidence for the paraphyly of Banksia with respect to Dryandra (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Systematic Botany Society. 18 (1): 75–88. doi:10.1071/SB04015.
  19. Wrigley, John; Fagg, Murray (1991). Banksias, Waratahs and Grevilleas. Sydney: Angus & Robertson. pp. 17, 88. ISBN   0-207-17277-3.
  20. Mast, Austin R.; Thiele, Kevin (2007). "The transfer of Dryandra R.Br. to Banksia L.f. (Proteaceae)". Australian Systematic Botany. 20 (1): 63–71. doi:10.1071/SB06016.
  21. Lamont, Byron B.; Markey, Adrienne (1995). "Biogeography of fire-killed and resprouting Banksia species in South-western Australia". Australian Journal of Botany. 43 (3): 283–303. doi:10.1071/BT9950283.
  22. Enright, N.J.; Lamont, B.B. (1989). "Seed banks, fire season, safe sites and seedling recruitment in five co-occurring Banksia species". Journal of Ecology. 77 (4): 1111–22. doi:10.2307/2260826. JSTOR   2260826.(subscription required)
  23. Cowling, Richard M.; Lamont, Byron B. (1985). "Seed release in Banksia: the role of wet-dry cycles". Australian Journal of Ecology. 10 (2): 169–71. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.1985.tb00878.x.
  24. Cowling, R. M.; Lamont, B. B. (1985). "Post-fire recruitment of four co-occurring Banksia species". Journal of Applied Ecology. 24 (2): 645–58. doi:10.2307/2403899. JSTOR   2403899.(subscription required)
  25. Enright, N. J.; Lamont, B. B. (1992). "Recruitment variability in the resprouting shrub Banksia attenuata and non-sprouting congeners in the northern sandplain heaths of southwestern Australia". Acta Oecologica. 13 (6): 727–41.
  26. Groeneveld, J.; Enright, N.J.; Lamont, B.B.; Wissel, C. (2002). "A spatial model of coexistence among three Banksia species along a topographic gradient in fire-prone shrublands". Journal of Ecology. 90 (5): 762–74. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2745.2002.00712.x. JSTOR   3072246.(subscription required)
  27. He, Tianhua; Lamont, Byron B.; Krauss, Siegfried L.; Enright, Neal J.; Miller Ben P. (2009). "Long-distance dispersal of seeds in the fire-tolerant shrub Banksia attenuata". Ecography. 32 (4): 571–80. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2008.05689.x.
  28. Matthews, Lewis J. (2002). The Protea Book: A Guide to Cultivated Proteaceae. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. p. 39. ISBN   0-88192-553-5.
  29. "A West Australian Banksia". Kew Gardens website. Richmond, Surrey: Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 27 November 2010.

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