|Family:|| Cicadidae |
Cicadidae, the true cicadas,is the largest family of cicadas, with more than 3,200 species worldwide. The oldest known definitive fossils are from the Paleocene, a nymph from the Cretaceous Burmese amber has been attributed to the family, but could also belong to the Tettigarctidae.
Cicadas are large insects characterized by their membranous wings, triangular-formation of three ocelli on the top of their heads, and their short, bristle-like antennae.
Cicadas are generally separated into two categories based on their adult emergence pattern. Annual cicadas remain underground as nymphs for two or more years and the population is not locally synchronized in its development, so that some adults mature each year or in most years. Periodical cicadas also have multiple-year life cycles but emerge in synchrony or near synchrony in any one location and are absent as adults in the intervening years. The most well-known periodical cicadas, genus Magicicada , emerge as adults every 13 or 17 years.
Cicadas are known for the loud airborne sounds that males of most species make to attract mates. One member of this family, Brevisana brevis , the "shrill thorntree cicada", is the loudest insect in the world, able to produce a song that exceeds 100 decibels.Male cicadas can produce four types of acoustic signals: songs, calls, low-amplitude songs, and disturbance sounds. Unlike members of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids), who use stridulation to produce sounds, members of Cicadidae produce sounds using a pair of tymbals, which are modified membranes located on the abdomen. In order to produce sound, each tymbal is pulled inwards by a connected muscle, and the deformation of the stiff membrane produces a 'click.'
Newly emerged cicadas climb up trees and molt into their adult stage, now equipped with wings. Males call to attract females, producing the distinct noisy songs cicadas are known for. Females respond to males with a 'click' made by flicking their wings. Once a male has found a female partner, his call changes to indicate that they are a mating pair.
Cicadidae is one of two families within the superfamily Cicadoidea. This superfamily is in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, containing cicadas, hoppers, and relatives, within the order Hemiptera, the true bugs. There are five subfamilies within Cicadidae: Cicadettinae, Cicadinae, Tettigomyiinae, Tibicininae,and Derotettiginae.
Subfamily Cicadettinae Buckton, 1890
Subfamily Cicadinae Latreille, 1802
Subfamily Tettigomyiinae Distant, 1905
Subfamily Tibicininae Distant, 1905
Subfamily Derotettiginae Moulds, 2019
The Cicadinae are a subfamily of cicadas, containing the translucent cicadas. They are robust cicadas and many have gaudy colors, but they generally lack the butterfly-like opaque wing markings found in many species of the related Tibiceninae.
Gaeanini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the Palearctic and Indomalaya. There are about 10 genera and at least 50 described species in Gaeanini.
Tosenini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are at least 10 described species in Tosenini, found in the Palearctic and Indomalaya.
Cryptotympanini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. They are found in the Nearctic, Palearctic, Indomalaya, Oceania, and Afrotropics.
The Fidicinini are a tribe of cicadas. There are at least 20 genera and 250 described species in Fidicinini, found in the Nearctic and Palearctic.
The Zammarini is a tribe of cicadas. They are native to the Americas, especially the Neotropics.
The Platypleurini are a tribe of cicadas from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions There are at least 30 genera and 240 described species in Platypleurini.
The Dundubiini are a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the Palearctic, Indomalaya, Australasia, and the Western Pacific. There are at least 180 described species in Dundubiini.
Cicadettinae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. About 230 genera and 1,200 described species are placed in the Cicadettinae.
Carinetini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the neotropics. There are about 7 genera and at least 90 described species in Carinetini.
Tettigomyiinae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in tropical Africa. There are about 16 genera and at least 100 described species in Tettigomyiinae.
Tibicininae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are 5 tribes and at least 140 described species in Tibicininae. They are found in the Neotropics, the Nearctic, and the Palearctic.
Cicadettini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are at least 110 genera and 520 described species in Cicadettini, found worldwide except for the Neotropics.
Pictilini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Australia. There are at least two genera and two described species in Pictilini.
Thophini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Australia. There are at least two genera and about nine described species in Thophini.
Tettigomyiini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Africa and Madagascar. There are about 8 genera and at least 60 described species in Tettigomyiini.
Tettigadini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are about 11 genera and at least 50 described species in Tettigadini, found in the Neotropics.