Cicadidae

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Cicadidae
Temporal range: Paleocene–Present
Annual cicada (Cicadidae, Neotibicen sp.) (28934344001).jpg
Neotibicen
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hemiptera
Suborder: Auchenorrhyncha
Superfamily: Cicadoidea
Family: Cicadidae
Latreille, 1802
Subfamilies

See text

Tibicen linnei Neotibicen linnei.jpg
Tibicen linnei

Cicadidae, the true cicadas, [1] is the largest family of cicadas, with more than 3,200 species worldwide. The oldest known definitive fossils are from the Paleocene, a nymph from the Cretaceous Burmese amber has been attributed to the family, but could also belong to the Tettigarctidae. [2]

Contents

Description

Cicadas are large insects characterized by their membranous wings, triangular-formation of three ocelli on the top of their heads, and their short, bristle-like antennae. [3]

Life cycle

Cicadas are generally separated into two categories based on their adult emergence pattern. Annual cicadas remain underground as nymphs for two or more years and the population is not locally synchronized in its development, so that some adults mature each year or in most years. Periodical cicadas also have multiple-year life cycles but emerge in synchrony or near synchrony in any one location and are absent as adults in the intervening years. The most well-known periodical cicadas, genus Magicicada , emerge as adults every 13 or 17 years. [4]

Ecology

Communication

Cicadas are known for the loud airborne sounds that males of most species make to attract mates. One member of this family, Brevisana brevis , the "shrill thorntree cicada", is the loudest insect in the world, able to produce a song that exceeds 100 decibels. [5] Male cicadas can produce four types of acoustic signals: songs, calls, low-amplitude songs, and disturbance sounds. [6] Unlike members of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids), who use stridulation to produce sounds, members of Cicadidae produce sounds using a pair of tymbals, which are modified membranes located on the abdomen. In order to produce sound, each tymbal is pulled inwards by a connected muscle, and the deformation of the stiff membrane produces a 'click.' [7]

Reproduction

Newly emerged cicadas climb up trees and molt into their adult stage, now equipped with wings. Males call to attract females, producing the distinct noisy songs cicadas are known for. Females respond to males with a 'click' made by flicking their wings. Once a male has found a female partner, his call changes to indicate that they are a mating pair. [8]

Classification

Cicadidae is one of two families within the superfamily Cicadoidea. This superfamily is in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, containing cicadas, hoppers, and relatives, within the order Hemiptera, the true bugs. There are five subfamilies within Cicadidae: Cicadettinae, Cicadinae, Tettigomyiinae, Tibicininae, [9] and Derotettiginae. [10]

Subfamily Cicadettinae Buckton, 1890

Subfamily Cicadinae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Tettigomyiinae Distant, 1905

Subfamily Tibicininae Distant, 1905

Subfamily Derotettiginae Moulds, 2019 [14]

Notes

  1. Synonomised with Tacuini Distant, 1904 by Marshall et al. (2018 p. 38). [9] Tacuini has date priority.
  2. Sinosenini Boulard, 1975, is now recognized as a subjective junior synonym of subtribe Dundubiina Distant, 1905. [11]
  3. Orapini Boulard, 1985, is now recognized as a subjective junior synonym of Platypleurini Schmidt, 1918. [12]
  4. Synonomised with Cryptotympanini Handlirsch, 1925 by Marshall et al. (2018 p. 38). [9] Tacuini has date priority.
  5. Lacetasini Moulds and Marshall, 2018, is now recognized as a subjective junior synonym of Iruanini Boulard, 1983. [13]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cicadinae</span> Subfamily of true bugs

The Cicadinae are a subfamily of cicadas, containing the translucent cicadas. They are robust cicadas and many have gaudy colors, but they generally lack the butterfly-like opaque wing markings found in many species of the related Tibiceninae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gaeanini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Gaeanini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the Palearctic and Indomalaya. There are about 10 genera and at least 50 described species in Gaeanini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tosenini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Tosenini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are at least 10 described species in Tosenini, found in the Palearctic and Indomalaya.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cryptotympanini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Cryptotympanini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. They are found in the Nearctic, Palearctic, Indomalaya, Oceania, and Afrotropics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Fidicinini</span> Tribe of true bugs

The Fidicinini are a tribe of cicadas. There are at least 20 genera and 250 described species in Fidicinini, found in the Nearctic and Palearctic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Zammarini</span> Tribe of true bugs

The Zammarini is a tribe of cicadas. They are native to the Americas, especially the Neotropics.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Platypleurini</span> Tribe of true bugs

The Platypleurini are a tribe of cicadas from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions There are at least 30 genera and 240 described species in Platypleurini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dundubiini</span> Tribe of true bugs

The Dundubiini are a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the Palearctic, Indomalaya, Australasia, and the Western Pacific. There are at least 180 described species in Dundubiini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cicadettinae</span> Subfamily of cicada insects

Cicadettinae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. About 230 genera and 1,200 described species are placed in the Cicadettinae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carinetini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Carinetini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in the neotropics. There are about 7 genera and at least 90 described species in Carinetini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tettigomyiinae</span> Subfamily of true bugs

Tettigomyiinae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in tropical Africa. There are about 16 genera and at least 100 described species in Tettigomyiinae.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tibicininae</span> Subfamily of true bugs

Tibicininae is a subfamily of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are 5 tribes and at least 140 described species in Tibicininae. They are found in the Neotropics, the Nearctic, and the Palearctic.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Cicadettini</span> Tribe of cicada insects

Cicadettini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are at least 110 genera and 520 described species in Cicadettini, found worldwide except for the Neotropics.

Pictilini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Australia. There are at least two genera and two described species in Pictilini.

Thophini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Australia. There are at least two genera and about nine described species in Thophini.

Tettigomyiini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae, found in Africa and Madagascar. There are about 8 genera and at least 60 described species in Tettigomyiini.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tettigadini</span> Tribe of true bugs

Tettigadini is a tribe of cicadas in the family Cicadidae. There are about 11 genera and at least 50 described species in Tettigadini, found in the Neotropics.

References

  1. Pons, Pere (December 2020). "True cicadas (Cicadidae) as prey for the birds of the Western Palearctic: a review". Avian Research. 11 (1): 14. doi:10.1186/s40657-020-00200-1. S2CID   218593305.
  2. Moulds, M. S. (22 June 2018). "Cicada fossils (Cicadoidea: Tettigarctidae and Cicadidae) with a review of the named fossilised Cicadidae". Zootaxa. 4438 (3): 443–470. doi: 10.11646/zootaxa.4438.3.2 . PMID   30313130.
  3. "Family Cicadidae".
  4. "Periodical Cicadas".
  5. "Loudest | Science Literacy and Outreach | Nebraska".
  6. Cocroft, Reginald B.; Pogue, Michael (1996). "Social Behavior and Communication in the Neotropical Cicada Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius) (Homoptera: Cicadidae)". Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. 69 (4): 85–97. JSTOR   25085708.
  7. Young, D; Bennet-Clark, H (1 April 1995). "The role of the tymbal in cicada sound production". Journal of Experimental Biology. 198 (4): 1001–1020. doi:10.1242/jeb.198.4.1001. PMID   9318802.
  8. "Amazing Cicada Life Cycle."Youtube, uploaded by BBC Studios, 24 Oct. 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjLiWy2nT7U
  9. 1 2 3 Marshall, David C.; Moulds, Max; Hill, Kathy B. R.; Price, Benjamin W.; Wade, Elizabeth J.; Owen, Christopher L.; Goemans, Geert; Marathe, Kiran; Sarkar, Vivek; Cooley, John R.; Sanborn, Allen F.; Kunte, Krushnamegh; Villet, Martin H.; Simon, Chris (28 May 2018). "A molecular phylogeny of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) with a review of tribe and subfamily classification". Zootaxa. 4424 (1): 1–64. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4424.1.1. PMID   30313477. S2CID   52976455.
  10. Simon, Chris; Gordon, Eric R L; Moulds, M S; Cole, Jeffrey A; Haji, Diler; Lemmon, Alan R; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Kortyna, Michelle; Nazario, Katherine; Wade, Elizabeth J; Meister, Russell C; Goemans, Geert; Chiswell, Stephen M; Pessacq, Pablo; Veloso, Claudio; McCutcheon, John P; Łukasik, Piotr (6 December 2019). "Off-target capture data, endosymbiont genes and morphology reveal a relict lineage that is sister to all other singing cicadas". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 128 (4): 865–886. doi:10.1093/biolinnean/blz120.
  11. Hill, Kathy B. R.; Marshall, David C.; Marathe, Kiran; Moulds, Maxwell S.; Lee, Young June; Pham, Thai-Hong; Mohagan, Alma B.; Sarkar, Vivek; Price, Benjamin W.; Duffels, J. P.; Schouten, Marieke A.; de Boer, Arnold J.; Kunte, Krushnamegh; Simon, Chris (2021). "The molecular systematics and diversification of a taxonomically unstable group of Asian cicada tribes related to Cicadini Latreille, 1802 (Hemiptera : Cicadidae)". Invertebrate Systematics. 35 (5): 570. doi:10.1071/IS20079. S2CID   237857963.
  12. Price, Benjamin W.; Marshall, David C.; Barker, Nigel P.; Simon, Chris; Villet, Martin H. (October 2019). "Out of Africa? A dated molecular phylogeny of the cicada tribe Platypleurini Schmidt (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with a focus on African genera and the genus Platypleura Amyot & Audinet‐Serville". Systematic Entomology. 44 (4): 842–861. doi:10.1111/syen.12360. S2CID   133591262.
  13. Sanborn, Allen F.; Marshall, David C.; Moulds, Maxwell S.; Puissant, Stéphane; Simon, Chris (2 March 2020). "Redefinition of the cicada tribe Hemidictyini Distant, 1905, status of the tribe Iruanini Boulard, 1993 rev. stat., and the establishment of Hovanini n. tribe and Sapantangini n. tribe (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)". Zootaxa. 4747 (1): 133–155. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.4747.1.5. PMID   32230121. S2CID   214750328.
  14. Simon, Chris; Gordon, Eric R. L.; Moulds, Max S.; Cole, Jerrrey A.; Haji, Diler; Lemmon, Alan R.; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Kortyna, Michelle; Nazario, Kathrine; Wade, Elizabeth J.; Meister, Russell C.; Goemans, Geert; Chiswell, Stephen M.; Pessacq, Pablo; Veloso, Claudio; McCutcheon, John P.; Lukasik, Piotr (2019). "Off-target capture data, endosymbiont genes and morphology reveal a relict lineage that is sister to all other singing cicadas". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. Oxford University Press. 128 (4): 865–886. doi: 10.1093/biolinnean/blz120 .