|Augustus of the Western Roman Empire|
Siliqua of Constans II
| Emperor of the Roman Empire |
(With Constantine III)
|Reign||407–409 ( Caesar under Constantine III)|
409–411 ( Augustus with Constantine III, against Honorius)
|Died||c. 18 September 411|
Constans II : Custennin) was the eldest son of the Western Roman Emperor Constantine III and was appointed co-emperor by him from 409 to 411. He was killed during the revolts and fighting that ended his father’s reign.(Welsh
Elder son of Claudius Constantine and brother of Julian, [ citation needed ] In the summer of 408, his father, who had proclaimed himself Emperor the previous year in Britain and then crossed over into Gaul, proclaimed him Caesar , and sent him with the general Gerontius and the prefect Apollinaris into Hispania, to rule the province and fight members of the House of Theodosius (four cousins of Honorius – Theodosiolus, Lagodius, Didymus and Verenianus) who had not recognised Constantine and had stayed loyal to the Emperor. After some initial defeats, Constans captured two of his enemies (Didymus and Verenianus), while the other two (Lagodius and Theodosiolus) fled to Constantinople. He left his wife and household at Zaragoza under the care of Gerontius to return to report to Arles, where the two prisoners were put to death .in his youth Constans was a monk.
In Autumn 409, barbarian invaders plundered Gaul, reached the Pyrenees, swept away Roman defences and entered into Hispania. [ citation needed ] Constans was to go to Hispania to settle the matter, but before leaving news came that Gerontius had stopped the invaders, had rebelled from Constantine, and had proclaimed Emperor one of his own men, Maximus of Hispania. With the support of the barbarians, Gerontius took over Constantine's territory; in 411, he captured the city of Vienne and put Constans to death.Constantine, without the approval of the Emperor Honorius, elevated Constans to the rank of Augustus ;
Whether Constans II was a usurper is open to debate: he was crowned after Constantine III had been recognised as co-emperor by Honorius. However, this recognition would not have included the right to extend the imperial power to Constantine's family.
British legend, aided by Geoffrey of Monmouth, states that Constans was elected by the Britons as king after Constantine's death. This contradicts the known history of Constans, as does the remainder of his British story. The legend claims Constans, older brother to Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon,spent his early life studying at a monastery. During the succession crisis following Constantine's murder, Vortigern, leader of the Gewissei tribe, convinced Constans to leave the religious life and become king. The weak and unpopular former monk became a puppet, putting all but the title of his office into the hands of Vortigern. Vortigern eventually disposed of him by tricking some Picts, liaisons in his employ, into murdering him in his sleep. The treacherous Vortigern took the throne for himself.
Ambrosius Aurelianus was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. He also appeared independently in the legends of the Britons, beginning with the 9th-century Historia Brittonum. Eventually he was transformed into the uncle of King Arthur, the brother of Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, as a ruler who precedes and predeceases them both. He also appears as a young prophet who meets the tyrant Vortigern; in this guise, he was later transformed into the wizard Merlin.
Honorius was Western Roman Emperor from 395 to 423. He was the younger son of emperor Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Arcadius, who was the Eastern Emperor from 395 until his death in 408. In 410, during his reign, Rome was sacked for the first time in almost 800 years.
Year 408 (CDVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Bassus and Philippus. The denomination 408 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Year 409 (CDIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Honorius and Theodosius. The denomination 409 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
The 410s decade ran from January 1, 410, to December 31, 419.
Year 411 (CDXI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Theodosius without colleague. The denomination 411 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
Constantius I, posthumously known after the sixth century as Constantius Chlorus, was a Roman Emperor. He ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305 and as Augustus from 305 to 306. He was the junior colleague of the Augustus Maximian under the Tetrarchy and succeeded him as senior co-emperor of the western part of the empire. Constantius ruled the West while Galerius was Augustus in the East. He was the father of Constantine the Great and founder of the Constantinian dynasty.
Uther Pendragon, also known as King Uther, is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. A few minor references to Uther appear in Old Welsh poems, but his biography was first written down by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae, and Geoffrey's account of the character was used in most later versions. He is a fairly ambiguous individual throughout the literature, but is described as a strong king and a defender of the people.
Constantius III was Western Roman Emperor in 421, from 8 February until his death on 2 September. He earned his position as Emperor due to his capability as a general under Honorius, achieving the rank of Magister militum by 411. That same year, he was sent to suppress the revolt of Constantine III, a Roman general who declared himself emperor. Constantius led his army to Arles in Gaul, the capital of Constantine III, and defeated Gerontius, a general rebelling against Constantine, before himself besieging Arles. After defeating a relief force led by Edobichus, Constantius convinced Constantine to surrender, promising safe retirement, but betrayed and beheaded him as soon as he surrendered. Constantius then went on to lead campaigns against various barbarian groups in Hispania and Gaul, recovering much of both for the Western Roman Empire. Constantius was proclaimed Western Roman Emperor by Honorius on 8 February 421. He reigned for seven months before dying on 2 September 421.
Flavius Claudius Constantinus, known in English as Constantine III was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in Britannia in 407 and established himself in Gaul. He was co-emperor from 409 until 411.
Jovinus was a Gallo-Roman senator and claimed to be Roman Emperor.
In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used to describe the period from 395 to 476, where there were separate coequal courts dividing the governance of the empire in the Western and the Eastern provinces, with a distinct imperial succession in the separate courts. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire were coined in modern times to describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, and the Western imperial court in Ravenna was formally dissolved by Justinian in 554. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453.
Historia regum Britanniae, originally called De gestis Britonum, is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136 by Geoffrey of Monmouth. It chronicles the lives of the kings of the Britons over the course of two thousand years, beginning with the Trojans founding the British nation and continuing until the Anglo-Saxons assumed control of much of Britain around the 7th century. It is one of the central pieces of the Matter of Britain.
Marcus was a Roman usurper who was proclaimed emperor in 406 in Roman Britain. He was killed later that same year in a subsequent mutiny.
Gratian or Gratianus was a Roman usurper in Roman Britain from 406-407.
Lucius Tiberius is a Roman Procurator from Arthurian legend, appearing first in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, though there are passages in Geoffrey's work that give him the title "Emperor". He is apparently acting for Emperor Leo, though in most Post-Geoffrey versions Lucius is Emperor and Leo is omitted. The legendary Lucius appears in later, particularly English literature such as the Alliterative Morte Arthure and Thomas Malory's Le Morte Darthur. Roman Emperors defeated by King Arthur appear in the Old French Arthurian literature as well, notably in the Vulgate Cycle.
Maximus, also called Maximus Tyrannus, was a Roman usurper in Hispania. He had been elected by general Gerontius, who might have been his father.
Edobichus was a general of the Roman usurper Constantine III. Although he was a native of Britain, according to Zosimus his ancestors were Franks.
Gerontius was a general of the Western Roman Empire, who initially supported the usurper Constantine III but later opposed him in favour of another usurper, Maximus of Hispania.
The Battle of Guoloph took place in the 5th century. Various dates have been put forward: 440 AD by Alfred Anscombe, 437 AD according to John Morris, and 458 by Nikolai Tolstoy. It took place at what is now Nether Wallop, 15 kilometers southeast of Amesbury, in the district of Test Valley, northeastern Hampshire. The battle pitted a Britonnic alliance against invading Jutes and Saxons. The Britons were victorious.
| King of Britain |