Ernst Weissert, born 20 July 1905 in Mannheim Germany and died 2 January 1981 in Stuttgart was a teacher, general secretary of the Anthroposophical Society in Germany and co-founder and director of the Bund der Freien Waldorfschulen (Federation of free Waldorf schools), the Hague Circle and the Friends of Waldorf Education.
Mannheim is a city in the southwestern part of Germany, the third-largest in the German state of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart and Karlsruhe with a 2015 population of approximately 305,000 inhabitants. The city is at the centre of the larger densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region which has a population of 2,400,000 and is Germany's eighth-largest metropolitan region.
Stuttgart is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. Stuttgart is located on the Neckar river in a fertile valley known locally as the "Stuttgart Cauldron." It lies an hour from the Swabian Jura and the Black Forest. Its urban area has a population of 609,219, making it the sixth largest city in Germany. 2.7 million people live in the city's administrative region and another 5.3 million people in its metropolitan area, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Germany. The city and metropolitan area are consistently ranked among the top 20 European metropolitan areas by GDP; Mercer listed Stuttgart as 21st on its 2015 list of cities by quality of living, innovation agency 2thinknow ranked the city 24th globally out of 442 cities and the Globalization and World Cities Research Network ranked the city as a Beta-status world city in their 2014 survey.
The General Anthroposophical Society is an "association of people whose will it is to nurture the life of the soul, both in the individual and in human society, on the basis of a true knowledge of the spiritual world." As an organization, it is dedicated to supporting the community of those interested in the inner path of schooling known as anthroposophy, developed by Rudolf Steiner.
Ernst Weissert was born in Mannheim and was strongly influenced by its architecture, theatre and the art prevailing there. His father was a teacher at the Mannheim Hilfsschule (Mannheim special school) as well as tutor to wealthy Jewish families. Ernst went to the local state school and later the Karl-Friedrich-Gymnasium. At the age of 13 he experienced the end of the First World War and the revolution that accompanied this event. As a result, he joined the liberal party. 1919/20 he began to take part in the events of the left wingers and the so-called “Wandervögel” (Birds of Passage) where he forged friendships with young people that would become decisive for his future as they were seeking a life of truth and spiritually aware community. He began to act in theatre, first as an extra at the national theatre, then in principal roles in productions of his high school, and was preparing himself for life as an actor.
Wandervogel is the name adopted by a popular movement of German youth groups from 1896 onward. The name can be translated as rambling, hiking, or wandering bird and the ethos is to shake off the restrictions of society and get back to nature and freedom. Soon the groups split and they originated ever more organisations, which still all called themselves Wandervogel, but were organisationally independent. Nonetheless the feeling was still of being a common movement, but split into several branches.
He met Rudolf Steiner, attending his lectures in Mannheim already at the age of 17 and, upon matriculating, he visited the second Teachers Conference of the Waldorf School in Stuttgart, where he encountered the educational impulse of Rudolf Steiner. Spontaneously, he decided upon a profession as a teacher. In 1924 he became a member of the Anthroposophical Society and of the pedagogical working group in Tübingen, in which students prepared themselves to teach at the Waldorf School. In the same year he took part in the three-week-long Drama Courseand the Karma lectures of Rudolf Steiner in Dornach.
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. Steiner gained initial recognition at the end of the nineteenth century as a literary critic and published philosophical works including The Philosophy of Freedom. At the beginning of the twentieth century he founded an esoteric spiritual movement, anthroposophy, with roots in German idealist philosophy and theosophy; other influences include Goethean science and Rosicrucianism.
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers. As of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen is a student.
In 1926 Ernst Weissert pursued studies in Philology, and Archaeology in Heidelberg, but interrupted these to accompany a German family to Athens as personal tutor. There he got to know the director of the German Archaeological Institute, Ernst Buschor, a decisive meeting for his life. After this period, in which he immersed himself in everything Greek, above all in classical sculpture, he returned home to the Archaeological Institute in Heidelberg. In 1928 he met and married there a woman of German and Greek origin and soon fathered his first son. In 1930, he completed his studies and separated from his wife.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is the intersection between textual criticism, literary criticism, history, and linguistics. Philology is more commonly defined as the study of literary texts as well as oral and written records, the establishment of their authenticity and their original form, and the determination of their meaning. A person who pursues this kind of study is known as a philologist.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines.
Heidelberg is a university town in Baden-Württemberg situated on the river Neckar in south-west Germany. In the 2016 census, its population was 159,914, with roughly a quarter of its population being students.
Soon after this he moved to Berlin. There he got to know his second wife, Elisabeth Caspari, and over the years had nine sons and three daughters with her. At Easter 1931, he began to teach at the Rudolf Steiner School in Berlin – initially Greek, Latin, French and Gymnastics, later as a Class teacher. The political situation for Elisabeth and Ernst Weissert was becoming difficult, as Elisabeth came from a noted Jewish family. In summer of 1937, when all teachers at private schools were required to take an oath of allegiance to Hitler, the College of Teachers of the Rudolf Steiner School decided of themselves to close the school. Ernst Weissert gave 85 of the children, amongst them 30 Jewish children, an orientation course for their new situation and thereafter began to work as a private tutor. On charges of “continuing to practice a forbidden pedagogy”, he was arrested by the Gestapo, but was released after a few weeks. In 1943 his wife and children were evacuated and in 1944 he himself moved to Tübingen until he received his call-up orders, which he was able to change to service in the Medical Corps in Ulm.
The Geheime Staatspolizei, abbreviated Gestapo, was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Immediately after the War, Weissert took over the public school in Weilheim with 82 children, and after Easter 1946 joined the Waldorf school in Stuttgart-Uhlandshöhe as high school teacher for the subjects German, History and History of Art. For 19 years he lived with his family in one of the modest prefabricated buildings on the school grounds that had been donated by the United States Armed Forces, continuing to teach at the school until 1968.
He actively participated in the rebuilding of the Anthroposophical Society in Germany from 1946 onwards, being elected onto its executive in 1959 and acting as one of its General Secretaries from 1961 to 1978.
This German federation of schools had been hurriedly organised in 1933 to act as negotiating partner for the nine Waldorf schools in their dealings with the German authorities in Berlin at the time. It was now reconstituted by Ernst Weissert and Erich Schwebsch, who took on the leadership until his death in 1953. After this, the leadership was taken on by Ernst Weissert, and from 1969 onwards, he worked for the Federation on a full-time basis. At that time, there were 29 member schools. When the 1970s brought with them the rapid increase in new schools all over the world, he called on the School’s movement to “leave behind us everything that is dated and wakefully grasp what is of the future.”
In his article “Pädagogische Religion” (Educational Religion), he describes how the capacity for creative teaching can begin to grow: “The teacher must always ask himself how he can develop a sense of closeness to the child.” He has to “strive to develop a spiritual-educational sense of touch”. “This sense of touch, or child-sense gradually opens an attitude of soul that is full of devotion, love, commitment.” And this “devotion in the face of the Young, the Growing, turns into the art of dealing with human beings as a spiritual task of the twentieth century.
The initiatives founded by Ernst Weissert were far-reaching. With the annual Teacher’s Conferences he tried to bring progress to the school movement and at the same time to connect it with its origin. Starting in 1950, the first public Summer Conferences were organised, which became the Parent-Teacher Conferences as of 1956. In these the entire aspect of the school movement could be experienced – something he knew how to portray in an inspiring manner.
The Newsletter for Teachers (Lehrerrundbrief); the Educational Research Unit (Pädagogische Forschungsstelle); the “Gründunswilligen-Treffen”, a meeting of all new initiatives desiring to found a Waldorf school, are all to be led back to his initiative. For the international schools movement he suggested the Hague Circle and, in order to serve as an international perceptive and support organisation, he founded the Friends of Waldorf Education in 1971
Professor Hellmut Becker, erstwhile director of the Max-Planck-Institut für Bildungsforschung in Berlin, refers to him as the “father of the Steiner/Waldorf schools” in his obituary in “Die Zeit”: .””
“In the Third Reich the Steiner schools – just as they are today in the DDR – were forbidden. After 1945, Erich Schwebsch and Ernst Weissert together with many other friends rebuilt the movement once again. By 1968 there were already 29 schools, from 1971 until today (1981) the number has risen from 35 to 70. (…) The father of seventy schools not only affected the course of these schools right up to the year 1981, when the light of his eyes had already nearly dimmed, with unbroken vitality and inspiration; he at the same time raised his own 13 highly gifted children, who today all stand successfully in professional life. When I advised him 15 years ago to devote himself exclusively to his leadership function within the Bund der Freien Waldorfschulen and to, at least stop teaching, he answered me, “If I only organise, I stop living. I have to be able to look into the eyes of the children. I have to teach – then I can also organise the teaching of others.”
‘Many Germans regard the Waldorf school as a sectarian school. One should know that the large mass of Waldorf parents – presumably around 90% - are non-anthroposophists who entrust their children to this school movement because they are enthusiastic about the educational work done and because their children are happy there. It has not been easy for the school movement. Because of its fundamental attitude against educational selection – children in Waldorf schools are promoted according to their age – it was difficult to fit them into the state examination system.
Professor Becker describes how in negotiations with the different educational departments, Ernst Weissert and his colleagues achieved that through a bridging class at the end of a Waldorf schooling, students would be able to enter the state matriculation, in which they performed with better than average results.
“But Ernst Weissert also contradicted the accusation of sectarianism in another manner. While still working together with Erich Schwebsch, he led the schools movement into a working community with Jesuits and Moravians, with private boarding schools and Montessori schools. The Association of Free Schools (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Freier Schulen) that all the private schools belong to today, is indicative of the overcoming of the concept of sectarianism.” He saw to it that the Waldorf schools did not remain in a ghetto of the like-minded but exercised their influence beyond the borders of their own schools. He was also the central contact “for the international Waldorf schools, from Scotland to New York, from Stockholm to South Africa.” .””
Anthroposophy is a philosophy founded by the 19th century esotericist Rudolf Steiner that postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world, accessible to human experience. Followers of anthroposophy aim to develop mental faculties of spiritual discovery through a mode of thought independent of sensory experience. They also aim to present their ideas in a manner verifiable by rational discourse and specifically seek a precision and clarity in studying the spiritual world mirroring that obtained by natural historians in investigations of the physical world.
Eugen Kolisko was an Austrian-German physician and educator who was born in Vienna. He studied medicine at the University of Vienna, and in 1917 became a lecturer of medical chemistry. He was the son of pathologist Alexander Kolisko (1857-1918).
Ernst Lehrs was a German anthroposophist, Waldorf teacher, lecturer and writer.
Friedrich Hiebel was an Austrian anthroposophist, journalist and writer.
'Herbert Hahn' was a German teacher and Anthroposophist
Francis Edmunds was an educator and Anthroposophist and the founder of Emerson College, Forest Row.
Thomas Weihs was a doctor, farmer and special needs educator, one of the founders and leading co-workers of the Camphill Movement and a pioneer of Anthroposophical curative education.
Alfred Cecil Harwood *05.01.1898 London (UK) †22.12.1975 Forest Row Sussex was a lecturer, Waldorf teacher, writer, editor and anthroposophist.
Wilhelm Ernst Barkhoff was a German solicitor, founder of anthroposophically oriented alternative banking, the GLS Bank, reformer of the German welfare system and inspirer of the movement for Ethical banking.
John Davy was a British journalist and science editor for The Observer, lecturer, vice-principal of Emerson College and Anthroposophist.
The Friends of Waldorf Education, referred to as the “Friends” below, is a charity association founded in 1971 registered in Stuttgart, Germany. The association fosters initiatives all over the world for a free education and organisations that work on the basis of Waldorf education.
Alfred Rexroth, who lived from 1899 to 1978, was a German Engineer, Entrepreneur and Anthroposophist. He was the director of several business enterprises including the companies Neuguss, Rhinow and his family concern Rexroth, today Alfred Rexroth. Through the donation of his fortune the GLS Bank was able to begin much of its work.
Margaret Cross was a British educator and school principal, a pioneer of Co-education and of Steiner Waldorf education in Britain as well as of Biodynamic agriculture. Together with Hannah Clark she founded the Kings Langley Priory School, today the Rudolf Steiner School Kings Langley
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm "Fried" Geuter, born 27th June 1892 in Darmstadt Germany and died on 14 February 1960 in Ravenswood United Kingdom, was a pioneer of anthroposophical Special Needs education, the co-founder of Sunfield Children's Home and founder of the Ravenswood Village Settlement near Crowthorne in Berkshire.
Wynstones School is a Steiner Waldorf school in Gloucestershire, set on 11 acres in the Cotswolds. It takes pupils from pre-school through to university entrance and has an enrolment of around 275 students.
Eileen Morley Hutchins, born 28 June 1902 in Hay-on-Wye, Herefordshire and died 9 October 1987 in Stourbridge was a Steiner school teacher, author and founder of the Elmfield Rudolf Steiner School in Stourbridge.
Eleanor Merry, was an English poet, artist, musician and anthroposophist with a strong Celtic impulse and interest in esoteric wisdom. She studied in Vienna and met Rudolf Steiner in 1922 after becoming interested in his teachings. She went on to organize Summer Schools at which Steiner gave important lectures, and was secretary for the World Conference on Spiritual Science in London in 1928.
Violetta Elsa Plincke was a Waldorf teacher and lecturer on education who contributed much to the establishment of Steiner education in Britain.
Johannes Tautz (30 September 1914 in Koblenz am Rhein to 13 March 2008 in Dortmund, was a Historian, Religious scholar, Anthroposophist, Author and Waldorf teacher. He concerned himself with a better understanding of National Socialism and with questions of education in the twentieth century.
Ernst Robert Fiechter was a Swiss architect and archaeologist. He is remembered for his research of ancient Greek temple and theatre architecture. He was a cousin to psychologist Carl Gustav Jung.