Govardhan

Last updated

Govardhan
India Uttar Pradesh location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Govardhan
Location in Uttar Pradesh, India
Coordinates: 27°30′N77°28′E / 27.5°N 77.47°E / 27.5; 77.47 Coordinates: 27°30′N77°28′E / 27.5°N 77.47°E / 27.5; 77.47
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Uttar Pradesh
District Mathura
Elevation
179 m (587 ft)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total22,576
Languages
  Official Hindi
  Native Braj Bhasha dialect
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
281502 [2]
Vehicle registration UP-85

Govardhan also called Giriraj, is a key pilgrimage centre in India and a municipal town; a nagar panchayat; seat of a MLA Member of Legislative Assembly of Uttar Pradesh; a Tehsil, in Mathura district in the India in state of Uttar Pradesh. About 23 kilometres from Mathura, the town is on the road link between Mathura and Deeg. [3]

Contents

Geography

Govardhana is located at 27°30′N77°28′E / 27.5°N 77.47°E / 27.5; 77.47 . [4] It has an average elevation of 179 metres (587 feet). Govardhana has been made Tehsil in Mathura District by the Uttar Pradesh government.

Demographics

In the 2011 Indian Census, Govardhana had a population of 22,576. Males constituted 55% of the population and females 45%. Govardhana has an average literacy rate of 62%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 52%. In Govardhana, 17% of the population is under 6 years of age. [1]

Govardhan Hill

Govardhan hill, Govardhan. Govardhan hill, Govardhan.jpg
Govardhan hill, Govardhan.
Krishna lifting the Govardhan Hill Shahadin 001.jpg
Krishna lifting the Govardhan Hill

Pilgrimage

Each year Hindus and other people make pilgrimage to Govardhan, and its sacred Govardhan Hill, from different places in India and other parts of the world. They circumambulate Govardhan and offer their obeisances to Krishna and Radha, key deities in Hinduism. One of the main festivals celebrated at Govardhan is Govardhan Puja, that commemorates the lifting of Govardhan Hill (Giriraj Parvat) to protect the villagers of Braj from the flood caused by the Lord of thunder and rain, Indra. [5] [3] One of the most important day celebrated at Govardhan is Guru Poornima (also called "Mudia Poono").[ citation needed ] Following the festival of lights, or Diwali, the previous day, devotees come to Govardhan for parikrama. [5]

Historic religious sites

Sites on the hill include Kusum Sarovar, Haridev Temple, [3] and other temples like Daan-Ghati Temple and Mukharbind Temple. The town is also famous for its 21 kilometers long Parikrama of the famous Govardhan Hill.

Shri Govardhan Giriraj Ji Temple, dedicated to Lord Krishna. aashiiss(tm) govrdhn.jpg
Shri Govardhan Giriraj Ji Temple, dedicated to Lord Krishna.
Shri Govardhan Giriraj Ji Temple, Govardhan Hill, Mathura aashiiss(tm) govrdhn 0119.jpg
Shri Govardhan Giriraj Ji Temple, Govardhan Hill, Mathura

Mansi Ganga sacred lake

Mansi Ganga Mansi Ganga near shri Girraj Mandir ,Mathura - panoramio.jpg
Mansi Ganga

The town also houses Mansi Ganga, a close-ended lake. [3] On the banks of this sacred lake, there are quite a few temples, prominent among them the Mukharbind temple.[ citation needed ]

Kusum sarovar and Samadhi of Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal

On the Govardhan Parikrama path on the western bank of 130 sqm sacred artificial lake Kusum Sarovar (Kusum kund) there are three Chhatris housing the samadhis of Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal (r. 1755 – 25 December 1763) and 2 his wives, all of these memorials were built by his son and successor Maharaja Jawahar Singh. [6] [7] The architecture and carving is in the pierced stone style and the ceiling of cenotaphs are adorned with the beautiful painting of life of lord Krishna and Maharajs Suraj Mal's court. [6] [7] Most imposing chattri is of Mahara Suraj Mal, flanked on either side by two smaller chattris of his two wives, "Maharani Hansiya" and "Maharani Kishori". [7] Maharaj Suraj Mal is well known for capturing Red Fort in 1754 CE after defetaing the forces of Mughal king Ahmad Shah Bahadur. [8] [9]

Transportation

Govardhan is located about 150 kilometres (93 mi) from Delhi, where the airport is located. A railway station is located at Mathura, where taxis can be hired to reach the town, [5] which is about 23 kilometres (14 mi) away. There are also tourist buses [3] and a single line electric train for the journey from Mathura. [10]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mathura</span> Town in Uttar Pradesh, India

Mathura is a city and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located approximately 57.6 kilometres (35.8 mi) north of Agra, and 166 kilometres (103 mi) south-east of Delhi; about 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) from the town of Vrindavan, and 22 kilometres (14 mi) from Govardhan. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes. The 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura at 441,894.

Braj Region in India

Braj, also known as Vraj, Vraja, Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in India on both sides of the Yamuna river with its centre at Mathura-Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh state encompassing the area which also includes Palwal and Ballabhgarh in Haryana state, Bharatpur district in Rajasthan state and Morena District in Madhya Pradesh. Within Uttar Pradesh it is very well demarcated culturally, the area stretches from the Mathura, Aligarh, Agra, Hathras and districts up to the Farrukhabad, Mainpuri and Etah districts. Braj region is associated with Radha and Krishna who according to scriptures were born in Barsana and Mathura respectively. It is the main centre of Krishna circuit of Hindu pilgrimage.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vrindavan</span> City in Uttar Pradesh, India

Vrindavan, also spelt Vrindaban and Brindaban, is a historical city in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is located in the Braj Bhoomi region, and holds religious importance in Hinduism as god Krishna spent most of his childhood days in this city. Vrindavan has about 5500 temples dedicated to the worship of Krishna and his divine consort Radha.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Suraj Mal</span> Maharaja of Bharatpur from 1755–1763

Suraj Mal or Sujan Singh, was a Jat ruler of Bharatpur in present-day state of Rajasthan. Under him, the Jat rule covered the present-day districts of Agra, Aligarh, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Etawa, Hathras, Mainpuri, Mathura, and Rohtak.

<i>Chhatri</i> Elevated, dome-shaped pavilions in Indian architecture

Chhatri are elevated, dome-shaped pavilions used as an element in Indo-Islamic architecture and Indian architecture. Originating as a canopy above tombs, they serve as decorative elements. The earliest example of chhatri being used in the Indian Subcontinent were found in the Shrine of Ibrahim in Bhadreswar, constructed between 1159 and 1175 AD.

Deeg Town in Rajasthan, India

Deeg is a historical town and a municipality in Bharatpur district in the state of Rajasthan, India. It is situated 32 kilometres (20 mi) north of Bharatpur and 98 kilometres (61 mi) northwest of Agra.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mathura district</span> District of Uttar Pradesh in India

Mathura district situated along the banks of the river Yamuna is a district of Uttar Pradesh state of north-central India. The historic city of Mathura is the district headquarters. Mathura district is home to many important sites associated with goddess Radha and Krishna, who is believed to be born in Mathura and grew up in the nearby town of Vrindavan. Both cities are some of the most sacred sites in the Vaishnava tradition, making Mathura district an important Hindu pilgrimage centre.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Govardhan Hill</span> Sacred Hindu site in Uttar Pradesh, India

Govardhan Hill, also called Mount Govardhana and Giriraj, is a sacred Hindu site in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India on an 8 km long hill located in the area of Govardhan and Radha Kund, which is about 21 kilometres (13 mi) from Vrindavan. It is the sacred centre of Braj and is identified as a natural form of Krishna.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barsana</span> Historical Town in Mathura

Barsana is a historical town and nagar panchayat in the Mathura district of the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. Barsana is believed to be the birthplace and home of the Hindu goddess Radha, the consort of Krishna. It is in the Braj region. The main attraction of the town is Radha Rani Temple.

Parikrama Religious practice

Parikrama or Pradakshina is clockwise circumambulation of sacred entities, and the path along which this is performed, as practiced in the Indic religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. In Buddhism, it refers only to the path along which this is performed. Typically, in Indic-religions the parikrama is done after completion of traditional worship and after paying homage to the deity. Parikrama must be done with dhyāna.

Radha Kund Pilgrimage site dedicated to Goddess Radha

Radha Kund is a town and nagar panchayat in Vrindavan in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is also one of the pilgrimage sites dedicated to Hindu goddess Radha.

Vraja Mandal Parikrama, also called Braj Yatra, is a Hindu pilgrimage related to Krishna with the circumambulation of 84 kos Vraja region (Braj) which takes 1 to 2 months depending on the route and speed of travel on foot. The Nimbarka Sampradaya tradition Vaishnava Nagaji Maharaj only performed 84 crore Vraja Parikrama 530 years ago. Since this is a site associated with the vedic era Lord Krishna and mahabharata, it is an important place of pilgrimage for Hindus. It is one of 3 main pilgrimage sites related to "Krishna" circuit, namely "48 kos parikrama of Kurukshetra" in Haryana state, "Braj parikarma" in Mathura in Uttar Pradesh state and "Dwarka parkarma" at Dwarkadhish Temple in Gujarat state.

<i>Yatra</i> Pilgrimage in Indian religions

Yātrā, in Indian-origin religions, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, generally means a pilgrimage to holy places such as confluences of sacred rivers, sacred mountains, places associated with Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana, and other sacred pilgrimage sites. Visiting a sacred place is believed by the pilgrim to purify the self and bring one closer to the divine. The journey itself is as important as the destination, and the hardships of travel serve as an act of devotion in themselves.

Govardhana Shila

The Govardhana Shila is a rock from the Govardhan Hill in Braj, Uttar Pradesh,India. Govardhan Hill holds a unique position in Hindu scriptures related to Krishna, the land called Vrij where He was born. Known as Govardhan or Giriraj and being the sacred center of Braj, it is identified as a natural form of Krishna. Indian art overwhelmingly prefers the iconic image, but some aniconism does occur in folk worship, early Buddhism, Shiva's Banalinga, and Vishnu's Shaligrama). They have solar significance, and their use in worship predates the Hindu period in India. The stone is usually brown in color.

Bharatpur State Hindu Jat Kingdom

Bharatpur State, which is also known as the Jat State of Bharatpur historically known as the Kingdom of Bharatpur, was a Hindu Kingdom in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. It was ruled by the Sinsinwar clan of the Hindu Jats. At the time of reign of king Suraj Mal (1755–1763) revenue of the state was 17,500,000 rupees per annual.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">48 kos parikrama</span> Hindu Pilgrimage

The 48 kos parikrama is a parikrama of various Mahabharata-related and other Vedic-era tirthas around the holy city of Kurukshetra in the state of Haryana, India.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kusum Sarovar</span> Historic and sacred site in Vrindavan, Uttar Pradesh

Kusum Sarovar is a sacred water reservoir with a historic sand monument in its backdrop. It is situated on the holy Govardhan Hill between Manasi Ganga and Radha Kund in Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. Kusum Sarovar is considered one of the sacred spots that witnessed the pastimes of Hindu deities Radha and Krishna. It is also the place of Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal's memorial chhatri. Kusum Sarovar has Narada Kund, where Bhakti Sutra verses were written by Narada and the Shri Radha Vana Bihari Temple in the vicinity.

Kotwan is a village in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the site where according to Hinduism, Krishna spent his childhood and is one of the main places in the Braj Bhoomi region. The Village is about 100 km away from Agra.

Radha Damodar Temple, Vrindavan Hindu Temple dedicated to Radha Krishna in Vrindavan

Shri Radha Damodar Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to Hindu deities Radha and Krishna. The temple is situated in Vrindavan of Indian state Uttar Pradesh. In the temple, Krishna is worshiped in the form of Damodar with his consort Radha. It is one of the main seven Goswami temples of Vrindavan.

Adeeng, Ading is a town and a Gram panchayat in the Mathura district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

References

  1. 1 2 "Govardhana (Mathura in Uttar Pradesh)". City Population. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  2. "Goverdhana, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh". pincode.net.in. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 "Travel to Goverdhan". Maps of India. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  4. Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Govardhana
  5. 1 2 3 Amit Sengupta (16 June 2015). "Spiritual Soujourn (sic) in Govardhan" . Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  6. 1 2 Madan Prasad Bezbaruah, Dr. Krishna Gopal, Phal S. Girota, 2003, Fairs and Festivals of India: Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, p. 480-494.
  7. 1 2 3 D. Anand, 1992, Krishna: The Living God of Braj, Page 56.
  8. Jat Kingdom of Bharatpur
  9. "Haryana Revenue Gazeteer of Gurgaon 1910, Section B - History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 October 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  10. "Departures from Goverdhan (GDO)". indiarailinfo.com. Retrieved 7 April 2017.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Govardhan at Wikimedia Commons