Sanjak of Ioannina

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Sanjak of Ioannina
Sanjak of the Ottoman Empire
1430–1913
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg
Flag
Sanjak of Ioannina, Ottoman Balkans (late 19th century).png
Sanjak of Ioannina, Ottoman Balkans (late 19th century)
Capital Ioannina
History 
 Ottoman capture of Ioannina
1430
1913
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Tocco stemma.svg Despotate of Epirus
Kingdom of Greece Kingdom of Greece Flag.svg
Principality of Albania Albania 1914 Flag.svg
Today part ofFlag of Albania.svg  Albania
Flag of Greece.svg  Greece

The Sanjak of Ioannina (variously also Janina or Yanina, Ottoman Turkish : Sanjak-i Yanya) was a sanjak (second-level province) of the Ottoman Empire whose capital was Ioannina in Epirus.

Contents

Administration

The Sanjak of Ioannina consisted of the following kazas: the central kaza of Ioannina, Aydonat (modern-day Paramythia in Greece), Filat (modern-day Filiates in Greece), Megva (modern-day Metsovo), Leshovik (modern-day Leskovik in Albania), Konice (modern-day Konitsa), Pogon (modern-day Pogon/Pogoni on the present Greek-Albanian border), and Permedi (modern-day Përmet in Albania). [1] [2]

Ottoman Greece with the Sanjak of Ioannina in the early 19th century SDUK - Turkey II. Containing the Northern Part of Greece.jpg
Ottoman Greece with the Sanjak of Ioannina in the early 19th century

From 1430 to 1670 the sanjak of Janina was part of Rumelia Eyalet. [3] From 1670 to 1787 the Sanjak of Ioannina was part of the Ioannina Eyalet.[ citation needed ] In 1788 Ali Pasha gained control of Ioannina and merged it with Sanjak of Trikala into the Pashalik of Yanina. [4] Ali Pasha was killed in 1822. In 1834 Mahmood Hamdi pasha was appointed to govern the Sanjak of Delvina, Ioannina and Avlona. [5] In 1867 the Sanjak of Ioannina was merged with Berat, Gjirokastër, Preveza and Kastoria into the Vilayet of Ioannina. Kesriye was later demoted to kaza and bounded to Monastir Vilayet.

During the reign of Bayazid II (1481–1512) the sanjakbey of Ioannina was Dâvud Pasha-zâde Mustafa Bey. [6]

At the elections of 1908 the region elected two representatives for the Ottoman parliament, both of them Greeks: Dimitraki Kingos Efendi and Konstantin Surla Efendi. [7]

The area was occupied by Greek troops during the First Balkan War, and was ceded to Greece in the London peace conference in 1913.

Demography

From 1520 to 1538, according to the Ottoman census, the Sanjak of Ioannina was populated with 32,097 Christian families and 613 Moslem families. [8]

Related Research Articles

Ali Pasha of Ioannina Ottoman Albanian ruler

Ali Pasha, variously referred to as of Tepelena or of Janina/Yannina/Ioannina, or the Lion of Yannina, was an Ottoman Albanian ruler who served as pasha of a large part of western Rumelia, the Ottoman Empire's European territories, which was referred to as the Pashalik of Yanina. His court was in Ioannina, and the territory he governed incorporated most of Epirus and the western parts of Thessaly and Greek Macedonia. Ali had three sons: Muhtar Pasha, who served in the 1809 war against the Russians, Veli Pasha, who became Pasha of the Morea Eyalet and Salih Pasha, governor of Vlorë.

Metsovo Place in Greece

Metsovo is a town in Epirus, in the mountains of Pindus in northern Greece, between Ioannina to the west and Meteora to the east.

Konitsa Place in Greece

Konitsa is a town of Ioannina in Epirus, Greece. It is located north of the capital Ioannina and near the Albanian border. Northeast of Konitsa lies a group of villages known as the Zagorochoria. The town was built amphitheatrically-shaped on a mountain slope of the Pindos mountain range from where it overlooks the valley where the river Aoos meets the river Voidomatis.

Chameria Designation of a historical region located in Epirus which was mostly inhabited by Cham Albanians.

Chameria is a term used today mostly by Albanians for parts of the coastal region of Epirus in southern Albania and Greece, traditionally associated with an Albanian speaking population called Chams. For a brief period (1909-1912), three kazas were combined by the Ottomans into an administrative district called Çamlak sancak. Apart from geographical usages, in contemporary times within Albania the toponym has also acquired irredentist connotations. During the interwar period, the toponym was in common use and the official name of the area above the Acheron river in all Greek state documents. Today it is obsolete in Greek, surviving in some old folk songs. Most of what is called Chameria is divided between parts of the Greek regional units of Thesprotia, Preveza, and Ioannina ; and the municipality of Konispol at the southernmost extremity of Albania. As the wider Greek toponyms Epirus has existed since antiquity and the narrower Thesprotia also reflects an ancient name, and given the negative sentiments towards Albanian irredentism, the term is not used by the locals on the Greek side of the border.

Kosovo Vilayet Administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire from 1877 to 1913

The Vilayet of Kosovo was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula which included the current territory of Kosovo and the north-western part of the Republic of North Macedonia. The areas today comprising Sandžak (Raška) region of Serbia and Montenegro, although de jure under Ottoman control, were in fact under Austro-Hungarian occupation from 1878 until 1909, as provided under Article 25 of the Treaty of Berlin. Uskub (Skopje) functioned as the capital of the province and the midway point between Istanbul and its European provinces. Uskub's population of 32,000 made it the largest city in the province, followed by Prizren, also numbering at 30,000.

Paramythia Place in Greece

Paramythia is a town and a former municipality in Thesprotia, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Souli, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. The municipal unit has an area of 342.197 km2. The town's population is 2,730 as of the 2011 census.

Filiates Place in Greece

Filiates is a town and a municipality in Thesprotia, Greece. It is located in the northernmost part of the regional unit, bordering western Ioannina regional unit and southern Albania.

Leskovik Municipal unit in Korçë, Albania

Leskovik is a town and a former municipality in the Korçë County, southeastern Albania. At the 2015 local government reform it became a subdivision of the municipality Kolonjë. It is located right at the Greek-Albanian border. The population at the 2011 census was 1,525.

Pashalik of Yanina Subdivision of the Ottomon Empire

The Pashalik of Yanina, Ioanina, or Janina (1787–1822) was an autonomous and de facto independent Pashalik within the Ottoman Empire covering large areas of Albania, Greece, and North Macedonia. The Pashalik acquired a high degree of autonomy under the Ottoman Albanian ruler Ali Pasha, though this was never officially recognized by the Ottoman Empire. Its core was the Ioannina Eyalet, centred on the city of Ioannina in Epirus. At its peak, Ali Pasha and his sons ruled over Southern and Central Albania; the majority of mainland Greece: Epirus, Thessaly, West Macedonia, western Central Macedonia, Continental Greece, and the Peloponnese; and parts of south-western North Macedonia around Ohrid and Bitola.

The Massacre of the Albanian beys occurred on 9 August 1830, when around 500 Albanian leaders (beys) and their personal guards were killed by Ottoman forces in the town of Manastir. The massacre led to the weakening of the power of the beys of southern Albania and also set the basis for the destruction of the powerful northern Albanian Pashalik of Scutari.

Janina Vilayet

The Vilayet of Janina, Yanya or Ioannina was a first-level administrative division (vilayet) of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867. In the late 19th century, it reportedly had an area of 18,320 square kilometres (7,070 sq mi). It was created by merging the Pashalik of Yanina and the Pashalik of Berat with the sanjaks of Janina, Berat, Ergiri, Preveze, Tırhala and Kesriye. Kesriye was later demoted to kaza and bounded to Monastir Vilayet and Tırhala was given to Greece in 1881.

Ioannina Eyalet

The Ioannina Eyalet was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire located in the territory of present-day southern Albania, central and northern Greece. It was formed in 1670 and its administrative centre was Ioannina. In period 1788—1822 Ali Pasha, the sanjakbey of Trikala, seized control over Ioannina and after enlisting most of the local brigands under his own banner took advantage of a weak Ottoman government to gain control over the Ioannina Eyalet and most of Albania and continental Greece, transforming it into the semi-autonomous Pashalik of Yanina. After he was killed in 1822 the Ottoman Empire reestablished the Ioannina Eyalet which existed until establishment of the Janina Vilayet in 1867.

Rumelia Eyalet

The Eyalet of Rumeli or Rumelia, also known as the Beylerbeylik of Rumeli, was a first-level province of the Ottoman Empire encompassing most of the Balkans ("Rumelia"). For the most part of its history, it was the largest and most important province of the Empire, containing key cities such as Edirne, Yanina (Ioannina), Sofia, Plovdiv, Manastır/Monastir (Bitola), Üsküp (Skopje), and the major seaport of Selanik/Salonica (Thessaloniki).

Sanjak of Elbasan

The Sanjak of Elbasan was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire. Its county town was Elbasan in Albania.

Sanjak of Delvina

The Sanjak of Delvina was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Delvinë but during the 18th century became Gjirokastër, Albania. It was created in the middle of 16th century and disestablished after the Balkan Wars in 1913. Its territory was divided among newly established short lived states: the Principality of Albania and Autonomous Republic of Northern Epirus.

Sanjak of Avlona

The Sanjak of Avlona was one of the sanjaks of the Ottoman Empire which county town was Berat in Albania. It was established in 1466, after the construction of the Elbasan Castle of the territory that belonged to the preceding Ottoman sanjak, Sanjak of Albania.

Sanjak of Tirhala

The Sanjak of Tirhala or Trikala was second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Thessaly. Its name derives from the Turkish version of the name of the town of Trikala. It was established after the conquest of Thessaly by the Ottomans led by Turahan Bey, a process which began at the end of the 14th century and ended in the mid-15th century.

Sanjak of Salonica

The Sanjak of Salonica or Selanik was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the environs of the city of Thessalonica and the Chalcidice peninsula.

Veli Pasha was the son of Ali Pasha, the Ottoman governor (pasha) of the Pashalik of Yanina in Epirus. An Ottoman commander, he commanded forces against the Souliotes, the Septinsular Republic, and the Serbian rebels.

Battle of Driskos

The Battle of Driskos, took place on 26–28 November (O.S.), 1912. It was a battle fought between Greek forces under Alexandros Romas and Ottoman forces under General Esad Pasha during the First Balkan War. The battle began when the Hellenic Army attacked the Ottoman defensive line at the Hani of Kamber Aga.

References

  1. H. Karpat, Kemal (1985). Ottoman population, 1830-1914: demographic and social characteristics. p. 146. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  2. Motika, Raoul (1995). Türkische Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte (1071-1920). p. 297. ISBN   9783447036832 . Retrieved 22 September 2011. Sancaks Yanya (Kazas: Yanya, Aydonat (Paramythia), Filat (Philiates), Meçova (Metsovo), Leskovik (war kurzzeitig Sancak) und Koniçe (Konitsa)
  3. Haim, Abraham (1991). חברה וקהילה. p. 31. ISBN   9789652960177 . Retrieved 22 September 2011. large districts and sanjaks in Rumeli: Jannina Naupaktos Egripoz (Euboea) Sanjak of Jannina ...
  4. The biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Volume 2, Issue 1. UK. 1843. p. 141. Retrieved 22 September 2011. To reward his services he was appointed Pasha of Trikala... At the close of the year 1788 he succeeded in obtaining the Sanjak of Janina
  5. sir Grenville Temple Temple (10th bart.) (1836). Excursions in the Mediterranean. p. 277. Retrieved 23 July 2013. Mahmood Hamdi pasha confirmed to the sanjaks of Yanina, Delvina, and Avlonia
  6. Prilozi za Orijentalnu Filologiju. 1962. p. 339. Retrieved 20 September 2011. Poznato nam je da je u doba Bajazita II njen sandžak-beg bio Davudpašazade Mustafa-beg
  7. Öztürk, Kâzım (1997). Türk parlamento tarihi : TBMM - III. dönem, 1927 - 1931. Ankara: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Vakfı. ISBN   978-975-7291-00-8.
  8. A. Mikropoulos, Tassos (2008). Elevating and Safeguarding Culture Using Tools of the Information Society. Ioannina: University of Ioannina. p. 310. ISBN   978-960-233-187-3 . Retrieved 20 September 2011.

Further reading