Timeline of modern Greek history

Last updated

This is a timeline of modern Greek history.

Greek War of Independence (1821–1828)

First Hellenic Republic (1828–1832)

The First Hellenic Republic (Greek: Αʹ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is a historiographic term used for a series of councils and "Provisional Governments" during the Greek War of Independence. During the first stages of the rebellion, various areas elected their own regional governing councils. These were replaced by the united administration at the First National Assembly of Epidaurus during early 1822, which also adopted the first Greek Constitution. A series of National Assemblies ensued, while Greece was threatened with collapse due to civil war and the victories of Ibrahim Pasha. In 1827, the Third National Assembly at Troezen selected Count Ioannis Kapodistrias as Governor of Greece for seven years. He arrived in 1828 and established the Hellenic State, commanding with quasi-dictatorial powers. He was assassinated by political rivals in 1831 and was succeeded by his brother, Augustinos Kapodistrias until the Great Powers declared Greece a Kingdom and selected the Bavarian Prince Otto to be its king.


Kingdom of Greece (1832–1924)

Reign of King Otto (1832–1862)

Reign of King George I (1863–1913)

First Balkan War

Second Balkan War

National Schism

World War I

Greco-Turkish War

Restoration of stability

Second Hellenic Republic (1924–1935)

Kingdom of Greece restored (1935–1967)

4 August Regime (1936–1940)

World War II (1940–1944)

Greco-Italian War and Battle of Greece (1940–1941)

  • 1940, 28 October: After Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas rejects an Italian ultimatum demanding the occupation of Greek territory, Italian forces invade Greece. Beginning of the Greco-Italian War.
  • 1940, 13 November: The Battle of Pindus ends in a complete Greek victory.
  • 1940, 14 November: The Greek forces enter Albanian territory.
  • 1940, 24 December: The Greek army controls practically all of Northern Epirus.
  • 1941: Turkey mobilizes all Greeks between 18 and 45 years of age and deports them to labour battalions in central Anatolia.
  • 1941, 29 January: Ioannis Metaxas dies in Athens.
  • 1941, 1 March: Earthquake occurs in Larissa leaving 40 people dead and thousands homeless.
  • 1941, 9–20 March: The Italian Spring Offensive fails to dislocate the Greek forces.
  • 1941, 6 April: The German Army invades Greece.
  • 1941, 11–12 April: Battle of Vevi.
  • 1941, 18 April: The German Army advances towards Athens. Prime Minister Alexandros Koryzis commits suicide.
  • 1941, 20 April: The Greek First Army surrenders to the Germans.
  • 1941, 21 April: The German forces manage to go through the Metaxas Line.
  • 1941, 22 April: The King, the Royal family and the Government flee Athens and go to Crete.
  • 1941, 27 April: The German Army enters Athens. Greek writer Penelope Delta commits suicide. The Nazi flag is raised on Acropolis; Evzone soldier on guard duty jumps off the Acropolis wrapped in the Greek flag.
  • 1941, May: The Allied forces impose a naval blockade of Greece, ending off all imports, including foods.
  • 1941, 4 May: Out of respect for the Greek nation, Hitler orders the Wehrmacht not to take Greek war prisoners and allows them to carry weapons.
  • 1941, 20 May: Beginning of the Battle of Crete.
  • 1941, 22 May: The King, the Royal family and the Government are evacuated to Alexandria.
  • 1941, 1 June: The remaining defenders at Sphakia surrender to the German Army.

Axis occupation and Resistance (1941–1944)

  • 1941, 30 May: The first resistance act occur in Athens. Two law students tear down the Flag of Nazi Germany from the Acropolis.
  • 1941, 27 September: The National Liberation Front (EAM), the largest resistance group, is initiated.
  • 1941, 28–29 September: A spontaneous rebellion in Drama is repressed by the Bulgarian occupation forces with a death toll of 3,000.
  • 1941, 17 October: Executions of the male population and burning of the village Kerdyllia by the Nazis, with a death toll of 235. [19]
  • 1941, 23–28 October: Massive executions of the inhabitants of the villages Mesovouno, Cleisto, Kidonia and Ambelofito by the Nazis.
  • 1941–1942, Winter: The Great Famine. An estimated 300,000 Greeks perish during the period of occupation, with mortality reaching a maximum during that winter.
  • 1942: The Fortune Tax ( Varlık Vergisi ) is imposed on the Greeks in Turkey (as well as on others, mostly non-Muslims), resulting in their financial ruination.
  • 1942, June: The Greek People's Liberation Army begins operating in the mountains.
  • 1942, Summer: The great suffering and the pressure of the exiled Greek government eventually forces the British partially to lift the blockade. The International Red Cross is able to distribute food supplies in sufficient quantities.
  • 1942, 25 November: The Gorgopotamos bridge is blown up in a common operation between the Greek militants and British saboteurs (Operation Harling). This successful operation disrupted the German transportation of ammunition via Greece to the Nazi Africa Corps commanded by Rommel.
  • 1943, 27 February: Poet Kostis Palamas dies. His funeral becomes a public show of defiance to the occupation authorities.
  • 1943, March: The Germans began mass deportations of the Jews of Thessaloniki to Auschwitz. By the end of the war, an estimated 60,000 Greek Jews were murdered.
  • 1943, 16 August: 317 inhabitants of Kommeno are murdered and the village is burned by the Nazis.
  • 1943, September: The Nazi attempt to exterminate the Jews of Athens fails, thanks to the combined efforts of Archbishop Damaskinos, Greek resistance groups and some of the Greek people.
  • 1943, 13 September: More than 5,000 Italian soldiers are executed by the Nazis in Cephallonia or perish in the sea, during the German takeover of the Italian occupation areas.
  • 1943, 26 September-16 November: Battle of Leros, the culmination of the Dodecanese Campaign.
  • 1943, 13 December: The Massacre of Kalavryta occurs.
  • 1944, 10 March: the EAM-controlled Political Committee of National Liberation is established.
  • 1944, 10 June: The Distomo massacre. 218 civilians are murdered and the village is looted and burnt.

Restoration of the Greek Government

  • 1944, 14 October: Athens is liberated and the Greek government-in-exile returns, with George Papandreou as Premier.
  • 1944, 18 October: Premier George Papandreou and his national unity government repatriate.
  • 1944, 3 December: "Dekemvriana" (December events). 28 people are killed by British troops and policemen in Athens.
  • 1944, 4 December: George Papandreou attempts to resign.
  • 1944, 12 December: ELAS controls most of Athens and its environs.
  • 1945 12 February: EAM and the Greek Government sign a peace agreement to end fighting.
  • 1945, 16 June: Former ELAS leader Aris Velouchiotis is killed or commits suicide.
  • 1945, 17 October: Archbishop Damaskinos assumes as regent in an attempt to stabilize the country.
  • 1945, 24 October: Greece is one of the founding members of the United Nations.

Civil War (1946–1949)

Postwar Greece (1950–1967)

Military dictatorship (1967–1974)

Third Hellenic Republic (1974–today)

See also


  1. "Greek Independence Day". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2009-09-09. The Greek revolt was precipitated on March 25, 1821, when Bishop Germanos of Patras raised the flag of revolution over the Monastery of Agia Lavra in Peloponnesia. The cry "Freedom or Death" became the motto of the revolution. The Greeks experienced early successes on the battlefield, including the capture of Athens during June 1822, but infighting ensued.
  2. McManners, John (2001). The Oxford illustrated history of Christianity. Oxford University Press. pp. 521–524. ISBN   0-19-285439-9. The Greek uprising and the church. Bishop Germanos of old Patras blesses the Greek banner at the outset of the national revolt against the Turks on 25 March 1821. The solemnity of the scene was enhanced two decades later in this painting by T. Vryzakis…. The fact that one of the Greek bishops, Germanos of Old Patras, had enthusiastically blessed the Greek uprising at the onset (25 March 1821) and had thereby helped to unleash a holy war, was not to gain the church a satisfactory, let alone a dominant, role in the new order of things.
  3. "Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Gregory V". Ec-patr.org. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  4. "Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Cyril VI". Ec-patr.org. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  5. 1 2 3 "University of Athens, Επίτομο Λεξικό της Ελληνικής Ιστορίας". Phys.uoa.gr. 1960-09-16. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  6. Mazower, Mark, Salonica, City of Ghosts: Christians, Muslims and Jews, 1430–1950 (Vintage, 2006), p. 126–129
  7. http://www2.egiklopedia.gr/imeportal/forms/fLemmaBodyExtended.aspx?lemmaID=8747 [ dead link ]
  8. Dr. Detorakis, Theocharis "Brief Historical Review of the Holy Archdiocese of Crete"
  9. "Cyprus brief historical survey". Kypros.org. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  10. Claude Delaval Cobham, Exerpta Cypria , Cambridge University Press (1908) p. 453-454
  11. Claude Delaval Cobham, Exerpta Cypria , Cambridge University Press (1908) pp. 454–455
  12. Douglas Dakin, The Greek struggle for independence, 1821–1833, Batsford (1973) p. 66
  13. Paul D. Hellander, Greece, pg 530
  14. Brewer, D. The Greek War of Independence: The Struggle for Freedom from Ottoman Oppression and the Birth of the Modern Greek Nation. Overlook Press, 2001, ISBN   1-58567-172-X, pp. 235–236.
  15. La Grande Encyclopédie, s.v. Tripolis
  16. Alexander Kitroeff. The Story of Greek Migration to America. The Journey: The Greek American Dream (Documentary Film).
  17. 1 2 C. Moskos. "The Greeks in the United States." In: R. Clogg (cd.). The Greek Diaspora in the Twentieth Century. St. Martin's Press, New York, 1999. p.105.
  18. SAE World Council of Hellenes Abroad. Memorial for the Greek victims of Gulag in Siberia. SAE Former USSR Countries. Moscow, 28.01.2010. Retrieved: 2013-06-04.
  19. Modern and Contemporary Macedonia, vol 2, pg61-103
  20. "NATO Update 1974". Nato.int. 2001-10-26. Retrieved 2009-05-14.
  21. History, Editorial Consultant : Adam Hart-Davis, Dorling Kindersley Limited publisher, ISBN   9781856130622
  22. (in Greek) Archbishop Christodoulos of Athens. Για τον αείμνηστο φιλέλληνα Roger Milliex. Μηνύματα. ECCLESIA: ΔΙΑΔΙΚΤΥΑΚΟΣ ΟΙΚΟΣ ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΛΛΑΔΟΣ, 10/7/2006.
  23. Greece Travel Blog. Roger Milliex. 12 July 2006.
  24. Hellenic Republic – Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Speech of FM Ms. D. Bakoyannis at the presentation of the book "The Macedonian issue and Bulgaria – Classified documents 1950–1967". Athens, 29 April 2009. ISBN   9789604670925
  25. Niki Kitsantonis. Young Greeks Seek Options Elsewhere. NY Times. September 15, 2010. B1.

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