Timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties

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China in 460 AD Northern and Southern Dynasties 1.png
China in 460 AD

This is a timeline of the Northern and Southern dynasties in China.



386 Northern Wei : Tuoba Gui revives the Tuoba state [1]
Later Qin : Yao Chang declares himself emperor [1]
387 Later Liang : Lü Guang declares himself Duke of Jiuquan [1]


393 Wei : Conquered by Later Yan [2]
394 Later Qin : Conquers Former Qin [1]
Later Yan : Conquers Western Yan [1]
395 Northern Wei : Tuoba Gui defeats Later Yan at Canhepi (east-northeast of Liangcheng, Inner Mongolia) [1]
396 Northern Wei : Tuoba Gui takes Bingzhou from Later Yan [1]
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin dies and is succeeded by Sima Dezong (Emperor An of Jin) [1]
397 Southern Liang : Tufa Wugu declares himself Prince of Xiping [1]
Northern Liang : Duan Ye declares himself Duke of Jiankang in Zhangye [1]
398 Northern Wei : Tuoba Gui moves his capital to Pingcheng [1]
399 Northern Wei : Tuoba Gui declares himself emperor [1]
Sun En revolts [1]
Faxian leaves for India [1]


400 Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms) : Li Gao declares himself Duke of Liang in Dunhuang [1]
Western Qin : Submits to Southern Liang and then Later Qin [3]
Southern Yan : Murong De declares himself emperor in Guanggu [4]
401 Northern Liang : Juqu Mengxun kills Duan Ye and declares himself Duke of Zhangye [4]
402 Huan Xuan sacks Jiankang and Sun En dies, but his lieutenant Lu Xun takes over [4]
403 Later Liang : Surrenders to Later Qin [4]
404 Huan Xuan declares himself emperor and dies the same year [4]
405 Qiao Zong declares himself Prince of Chengdu [4]
407 Xia : Helian Bobo declares himself Heavenly King [4]
Northern Yan : Gao Yun is set up as heavenly king and replaces Later Yan [4]
409 Western Qin : Revived [3]


410 Liu Yu conquers Southern Yan [4]
411Rebel Lu Xun dies [4]
412 Faxian returns from India [4]
413Jin recovers Sichuan and Qiao Zong commits suicide [4]
414 Western Qin : Conquers Southern Liang [4]
416Jin takes Luoyang from Later Qin [4]
Huiyuan dies [4]
417Jin conquers Later Qin and Liu Yu takes Chang'an [4]
418Jin troops retreat from Chang'an [4]
Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms) : Helian Bobo takes Chang'an [4]
419 Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms) : Helian Bobo leaves Chang'an [4]


420Liu Yu (Emperor Wu of Liu Song) replaces the Jin dynasty with the Song dynasty [5]
421 Northern Liang : Juqu Mengxun conquers Western Liang (Sixteen Kingdoms) [6]
422 Emperor Wu of Liu Song dies and is succeeded by Liu Yifu, Emperor Shao of Liu Song [5]
423 Kou Qianzhi sets up the Celestial Master at Pingcheng [5]
424 Emperor Shao of Liu Song is deposed and succeeded by Liu Yilong (Emperor Wen of Liu Song) [5]
426 Northern Wei : Attacks Xia [5]
427 Northern Wei : Takes Chang'an and sacks the Xia capital, Tongwan [5]
428 Xia : Retakes Chang'an [5]


430 Northern Wei : Takes Luoyang from Liu Song
Western Qin : Abandons Yuanchuan and Fuhan to the Tuyuhun and relocates to Pingliang and Anding [5]
431 Xia : Conquers Western Qin and are in turn conquered by the Tuyuhun [5]
433 Xie Lingyun is killed [5]
434 Northern Wei : Enters a marriage alliance with the Rouran [5]
Song retakes Hanzhong from Chouchi [5]
435 Northern Wei : Attacks Northern Yan [5]
436 Northern Wei : Conquers Northern Yan, whose sovereign Feng Hong flees to Goguryeo [5]
439 Northern Wei : Conquers Northern Liang; so ends the Sixteen Kingdoms [5]


442 Northern Wei : Tuoba Tao takes part in a Daoist ritual to receive talisman registers [7]
445 Northern Wei : Ge Wu rebels in Guanzhong [7]
446 Northern Wei : Ge Wu dies [7]
Northern Wei : Cui Hao instigates proscription campaigns against Buddhism [7]
449 Northern Wei : Defeats the Rouran in battle [7]


450 Northern Wei : Cui Hao is killed [7]
Liu Song launches a campaign against Northern Wei [7]
451 Northern Wei : Tuoba Tao leads his army south to Guabu (southeast of Luhe, Jiangsu) [7]
Pei Songzhi dies [7]
453 Emperor Wen of Liu Song is killed by Liu Shao, who is killed Liu Jun (Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song) [7]
Northern Wei : Construction of the Yungang Caves begin [7]
458 Liu Song launches a campaign against Buddhism [7]


464 Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song dies and is succeeded by Liu Ziye (Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song) [7]
465 Northern Wei : Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei dies and is succeeded by Tuaba Hong (Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei) [7]
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song dies [7]
466Liu Yu (Emperor Ming of Liu Song) takes power [7]
Bao Zhao is killed [7]
467 Northern Wei : Conquers territory north and west of the Huai River [7]
469 Northern Wei : Takes Qingzhou and Jizhou (冀州) (north Jiangsu) [7]


471 Northern Wei : Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei abdicates in favor of Yuan Hong (Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei) [7]
472 Emperor Ming of Liu Song dies and is succeeded by Liu Yu (Emperor Houfei of Liu Song) [8]
477 Emperor Houfei of Liu Song is killed by Xiao Daocheng and is succeeded by Liu Zhun (Emperor Shun of Liu Song) [8]
479Xiao Daocheng (Emperor Gao of Southern Qi) replaces Liu Song with the Southern Qi [8]


482 Emperor Gao of Southern Qi dies and is succeeded by Xiao Ze (Emperor Wu of Southern Qi) [8]
485 Northern Wei : The equal-field system is implemented [8]
486 Northern Wei : The Three Chiefs system is implemented [8]


493 Emperor Wu of Southern Qi dies and is succeeded by Xiao Zhaoye [8]
Northern Wei : Li Chong starts constructions in Luoyang [8]
494 Northern Wei : Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei moves to Luoyang [8]
Northern Wei : Construction on the Longmen Caves begin [8]
495 Northern Wei : Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei bans Xianbei language in court [8]
498 Emperor Ming of Southern Qi dies and is succeeded by Xiao Baojuan [8]
499 Northern Wei : Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei dies and is succeeded by Yuan Ke (Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei) [8]


500 Northern Wei : Conquers territory south of the Huai River [8]
501 Emperor He of Southern Qi is enthroned in Jiangling as a rival to Xiao Baojuan [8]
502 Xiao Baojuan is killed in Jiankang and Xiao Yan kills Emperor He of Southern Qi, founding his own Liang dynasty [8]
504 Northern Wei : Conquers Yiyang [8]
506 Northern Wei : Annexes Chouchi [9]
507 Northern Wei : Is defeated by Liang dynasty at Zhongli (northeast of Fengyang, Anhui) [8]


512 Northern Wei : Loses Qushan (southwest of Lianyungang, Jiangsu) to Liang dynasty [10]
518 Northern Wei : Song Yun departs for the Western Regions [10]


520 Northern Wei : Yujiulü Anagui takes shelter [10]
522 Northern Wei : Song Yun returns from India with 170 Buddhist sutras [10]
523 Northern Wei : The Six Frontier Towns rebel under Poliuhan Baling [10]
525 Northern Wei : Yujiulü Anagui defeats Poliuhan Baling [10]
Northern Wei : Du Luozhou rebels in north Hebei [10]
526 Northern Wei : Ge Rong rebels in north Hebei [10]
527 Northern Wei : Xiao Baoyin rebels in Guanzhong and kills Li Daoyuan [10]
528 Northern Wei : Erzhu Rong kills Yuan Zhao and enthrones Yuan Ziyou (Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei) [10]
Northern Wei : Ge Rong is defeated [10]
529 Emperor Wu of Liang enters the Tongtai Monastery [10]


530 Northern Wei : Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei kills Erzhu Rong but is killed by Erzhu Zhao [10]
532 Northern Wei : Gao Huan enthrones Yuan Xiu (Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei) [10]
533 Northern Wei : Erzhu Zhao kills himself [10]
534 Northern Wei : Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei escapes to Chang'an [10]
Eastern Wei : Gao Huan sets up Yuan Shanjian as Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei [10]
535 Western Wei : Yuwen Tai kills Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei and enthrones Yuan Baoju (Emperor Wen of Western Wei) [11]
536 Tao Hongjing dies [11]
Eastern Wei : Chan Buddhism founder Bodhidharma dies [11]
537 Battle of Shayuan : Yuwen Tai defeats Gao Huan [11]


541 Lý Bôn rebels and attacks Liang officials [12]
543 Eastern Wei : Gao Huan defeats Yuwen Tai at Luoyang [11]
544 Lý Bôn establishes the Early Lý dynasty and becomes Lý Nam Đế (Southern Emperor) [12]
545 Chen Baxian drives Lý Nam Đế into the mountains, where he is eventually killed, but resistance continues under Lý Thiên Bảo [12]
547 Eastern Wei : Gao Huan dies and Hou Jing defects to Liang dynasty [11]
548 Hou Jing rebels in Shouyang and lays siege to Jiankang [11]
549 Hou Jing seizes Taicheng [11]
Emperor Wu of Liang dies and is succeeded by Xiao Gang (Emperor Jianwen of Liang) [11]
Xiao Cha defects to Western Wei [11]
Eastern Wei : Conquers area south of the Huai River [11]


550 Western Wei : Conquers area east of the Han River (Hubei) [11]
Northern Qi : Gao Yang (Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi) replaces Eastern Wei with Northern Qi and conquers areas east of Luoyang [11]
The fubing system is introduced [11]
551 Hou Jing kills Emperor Jianwen of Liang and declares himself emperor [11]
552 Wang Sengbian and Chen Baxian take Jiankang [13]
Hou Jing is killed [13]
Xiao Ji declares himself emperor in Jiangling [13]
553 Xiao Ji is killed by Emperor Yuan of Liang's generals [13]
Western Wei : Conquers Sichuan [13]
Northern Qi : Rouran submit after behind being defeated by Turks [13]
554 Emperor Yuan of Liang is captured by Western Wei and killed [13]
555 Western Liang : Xiao Cha declares himself emperor in Jiangling [13]
Wang Sengbian sets up Xiao Yuanming but Chen Baxian kills Sengbian and sets up Xiao Fangzhi (Emperor Jing of Liang) [13]
556 Northern Qi : Attack on Jiankang fails [13]
Western Wei : Yuwen Tai dies [13]
557 Northern Zhou : Yuwen Hu replaces Western Wei with Northern Zhou [13]
Chen Baxian replaces the Liang dynasty with the Chen dynasty [13]
558 Western Liang : Takes Changsha and Wuling [13]
559 Chen Baxian dies and is succeeded by Chen Qian (Emperor Wen of Chen) [13]


560 Northern Zhou : Yuwen Hu kills Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou and sets up Yuwen Yong (Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou) [13]
Northern Qi : Gao Yan (Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi) ousts Emperor Fei of Northern Qi and sets himself up as emperor [13]
561 Northern Zhou : North Hubei is lost to the Chen dynasty [13]
Northern Qi : Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi dies and is succeeded by Gao Zhan (Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi) [13]
565 Northern Qi : An attack by Northern Zhou is repulsed [14]
Northern Qi : Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi abdicates to Gao Wei [14]
566 Emperor Wen of Chen dies and is succeeded by Chen Bozong (Emperor Fei of Chen) [14]
568 Emperor Fei of Chen is deposed [14]
569Chen Xu (Emperor Xuan of Chen) takes power [14]


570 Chen dynasty establishes trade relations with the Early Lý dynasty [12]
572 Northern Zhou : Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou kills Yuwen Hu [14]
573 Northern Qi : Loses areas north of the Changjiang to the Chen dynasty, including the Huai River valley [14]
574 Northern Zhou : Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou launches proscription against Buddhism [14]
575 Northern Qi : Forces are defeated by Chen dynasty at Lüliang [14]
Northern Zhou : Attacks Northern Qi [14]
576 Northern Zhou : Takes Jinyang [14]
577 Northern Zhou : Annexes Northern Qi [14]
578 Northern Zhou : Repulses a Chen attack on Pengcheng and captures Wu Mingche [14]
Northern Zhou : Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou dies and is succeeded by Yuwen Yun (Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou) [14]
579 Northern Zhou : Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou abdicates to Yuwen Chan (Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou) [14]


580 Northern Zhou : Seizes area north of the Changjiang [14]
Northern Zhou : Yang Jian becomes de facto holder of power [14]
Northern Zhou : Yuchi Jiong and Wang Qian rebel but fail [14]
581 Sui dynasty : Yang Jian (Emperor Wen of Sui) replaces the Northern Zhou with the Sui dynasty [15]
582 Emperor Xuan of Chen dies and is succeeded by Chen Shubao [15]
583 Sui dynasty : Emperor Wen of Sui moves into Daxingcheng (Xi'an, Shaanxi) and abolishes the commanderies while promulgating the Kaihuang Code [15]
584 Sui dynasty : Digs the Guangtong Canal [14]
587 Sui dynasty : Annexes Western Liang [15]
588 Sui dynasty : Launches expedition against the Chen dynasty [15]
589 Sui dynasty : Takes Jiankang and annexes the Chen dynasty; so ends the Northern and Southern dynasties [15]

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