Timeline of the Qing dynasty

Last updated

The Qing Empire ca. 1820, marked the time when the Qing began to rule these areas. Qing Empire circa 1820 EN.svg
The Qing Empire ca. 1820, marked the time when the Qing began to rule these areas.
Qing Dynasty in 1820. Includes provincial boundaries and the boundaries of modern China for reference. Qing Dynasty 1820.png
Qing Dynasty in 1820. Includes provincial boundaries and the boundaries of modern China for reference.

This is a timeline of the Qing dynasty (1636–1912).



16th century


1583 Nurhaci becomes leader of the Jianzhou Left Branch [1]
1587 Nurhaci founds Fe Ala [2]


1592 Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) : Nurhaci offers to fight the Japanese but is refused; Ming reacts with alarm to the size and quality of Nurhaci's troops [3]
1593 Nurhaci defeats the Hulun Confederation and Khorchin Mongols [4]

17th century


1600 Nurhaci creates the Banner Army [5]
1601 Nurhaci subjugates the Hada [6]
1603 Nurhaci and Ming generals agree to delineate the boundary between their territories [7]
Nurhaci moves his capital to Hetu Ala due to water problems at Fe Ala [8]
1605 Gwanghaegun of Joseon sends an expedition north of the Tumen River to destroy the Jurchen Holjaon community [6]
1607 Nurhaci subjugates the Hoifa [6]


1611 Nurhaci subjugates the Wild Jurchens [9]
1613 Nurhaci incorporates the Ula into his confederation [10]
1615 Nurhaci increases the number of banners from four to eight [10]
Nurhaci sends his last tributary emissary to Beijing [11]
1616 Nurhaci declares the Later Jin, also known as the Amaga Aisin Gurun [12]
16189 May Battle of Fushun : Later Jin seizes Fushun [13]
summer Battle of Qinghe : Later Jin takes Qinghe [14]
161918 April Battle of Sarhū : Ming forces are annihilated by Later Jin [15]
26 July Battle of Kaiyuan : Later Jin takes Kaiyuan [16]
3 September Battle of Tieling : Later Jin takes Tieling [16]
September Battle of Xicheng : Later Jin annexes the Yihe Jurchens [17]
Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan attacks Guangning, a horse trading town under the protection of Nurhaci, but is defeated [18]


16214 May Battle of Shen-Liao : Later Jin seizes Shenyang [19]
December Battle of Fort Zhenjiang : Ming raids into Later Jin are repulsed [20]
162211 March Battle of Guangning : Later Jin seizes Guangning [20]
1625 Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan's attack is turned back by a combined Khorchin Jurchen force [21]
162610 February Battle of Ningyuan : A Later Jin attack on Ningyuan is repulsed and Nurhaci is wounded [22]
30 September Nurhaci succumbs to his wounds and dies [23]
1627January - March Later Jin invasion of Joseon : Hong Taiji is elected khan and subjugates Joseon [24]
spring Battle of Ning-Jin : Later Jin forces under Hong Taiji attack Jinzhou but are repelled [25]
1629winter Jisi Incident : Later Jin forces break through the Great Wall and loot the region around Beijing [26]


1630summer Jisi Incident : Later Jin forces retreat [26]
163121 November Battle of Dalinghe : Later Jin seizes Dalinghe [27]
1633April Wuqiao Mutiny : Shandong rebels defect to Later Jin [28]
summer Siege of Lüshun : Later Jin seizes Lüshun [29]
1634 Chahar-Jurchen War : Ligdan Khan of the Chahar Mongols is overthrown and displaced by Hong Taiji [30]
1635 Hong Taiji unites all Jurchen tribes under the name of Manchu; so ends the Jurchens [24]
Hong Taiji attacks the Hurha [31]

17th century


1636April Hong Taiji proclaims the Qing dynasty [32]
9 December Qing invasion of Joseon : Hong Taiji invades Joseon [33]
163730 January Qing invasion of Joseon : Joseon is defeated and becomes a Qing tributary [33]
1638 Qing dynasty conquers Shandong [34]
1639 Qing dynasty attacks the Daur and Solon people [31]


1640May Qing dynasty captures the Evenk fortresses of Duochen, Asajin, Yakesa, and Duojin [31]
16428 April Battle of Song-Jin : Qing dynasty takes Jinzhou [35]
1643Northeastern natives submit to the Qing dynasty [36]
164427 May Battle of Shanhai Pass : Wu Sangui lets the Qing forces through the Great Wall and their forces defeat Li Zicheng in battle, after which Li retreats to Beijing [37]
5 June Qing dynasty takes Beijing and Li Zicheng flees [37]
1645January Qing forces capture Luoyang [38]
20 May Qing forces capture Yangzhou [38]
16 June Qing forces capture Nanjing and the Hongguang Emperor [39]
6 July Qing forces capture Hangzhou [39]
21 JulyAll nonclerical adult male citizens are ordered to adopt the Manchu queue to show their allegiance to the Qing dynasty [40]
1646FebruaryMing forces are defeated in Jiangnan [41]
10 July Qing forces defeat the Ming army at Tonglu [42]
30 September Qing forces capture Yanping [43]
6 OctoberThe Longwu Emperor is killed by Qing forces [43]
17 October Qing forces take Fuzhou [43]
16472 January Zhang Xianzhong is killed by Qing forces but his army occupies Chongqing and then occupies Sichuan under the leadership of Sun Kewang [44]
20 January Qing forces capture Guangzhou and the Shaowu Emperor [45]
5 March Qing forces conquer Guangdong, half of Guangxi, and Hainan [45]
March Qing forces take Changsha [46]
spring Qing forces raid Anping [47]
23 September Qing forces take Wugang [48]
164820 FebruaryMing loyalists rebel at Nanchang and Nanning [49]
14 April Qing forces fail to take Guilin [48]
164915 JanuaryMing loyalists rebel at Datong [50]
1 March Qing forces take Nanchang [51]
4 OctoberMing loyalists at Datong are defeated [50]
summer Qing forces conquer southern Huguang [52]
24 November Qing forces slaughter the population of Guangzhou [53]
27 November Qing forces capture Guilin [53]
2 December Qing forces capture Zhaoqing and the Yongli Emperor flees [53]


165115 October Qing forces capture Zhoushan and Zhu Yihai flees [54]
165224 March Qing attack on Achansk is defeated [55]
7 AugustRebel general Li Dingguo takes Guilin [56]
winterSun Kewang's army is routed by Qing forces [56]
1654July Battle of Hutong : Korean-Manchu army defeats a force of Russians [55]
Qing forces attack the Daur people [57]
1655March–April Qing forces fail to take Komar [55]
Li Dingguo's army is routed by Qing forces [56]
16569 May Qing forces try to invade Kinmen Island (Quemoy) but their fleet is destroyed in a storm [58]
Qing forces attack the Daur people [57]
1657FebruaryMing forces defeat a Qing army near the Changjiang River Delta [58]
DecemberSun Kewang surrenders to the Qing dynasty [59]
165810 June Battle of Hutong (1658) : Qing-Joseon forces defeat a Russian fleet on the Songhua River [55]
June Zheng Chenggong occupies Wenzhou [60]
16597 January Qing forces advance into Yunnan and the Yongli Emperor flees to Toungoo dynasty [61]
10 March Qing forces capture Yongchang and defeat Li Dingguo's army, securing Yunnan [61]
10 August Zheng Chenggong takes Zhenjiang [62]
24 August Zheng Chenggong lays siege to Nanjing [62]
9 September Zheng Chenggong's army is annihilated and he retreats to Xiamen [63]


1660February Qing forces launch an attack on Kinmen Island (Quemoy) and Xiamen but fail [63]
Upkeep for the Eight Banners exceeds the entire Qing dynasty's regular income [64]
166220 January Qing forces advance towards Inwa and force the return of the Yongli Emperor [65]
MayThe Yongli Emperor is executed in Yunnan; so ends the Southern Ming resistance on the mainland [65]
1664The Qing dynasty conquers Fujian and Zheng Jing retreats to Taiwan [66]


1674Poverty in the Eight Banners is noted to be caused by excessive and extravagant spending [67]


1683July Battle of Penghu: Qing dynasty defeats the Kingdom of Tungning and conquers the island of Taiwan, beginning the period of Taiwan under Qing rule [68]
1684The Han Chinese banners, "Hanjun", decline to uselessness [69]
1685May–July Siege of Albazin : Qing forces take Albazin [70]
1686July–October Siege of Albazin : The Russians return to Albazin but the Qing forces lay siege to it again until the Russians are forced to leave [70]
168927 August Treaty of Nerchinsk : The Tsardom of Russia abandons the Amur River region to the Qing in return for trading privileges [70]


16903 September Battle of Ulan Butung : Galdan Boshugtu Khan leads 20,000 troops into battle with a Qing army 300 km north of Beijing, ending with Dzungar withdrawal [71]
1691The Khalkha Mongols submit to the Qing dynasty [72]
1696 Battle of Jao Modo : The Qing dynasty invades Mongolia with 100,000 troops in three columns. Galdan Boshugtu Khan suffers defeat against the Western Route Army but manages to escape. [71] The Qing dynasty takes all of Mongolia from the Dzungar Khanate [72]
1698 Dzungar–Qing Wars : Qing dynasty occupies Hami [73]

18th century


1720 Chinese expedition to Tibet (1720) : The Qing dynasty expels the Dzungars from Tibet, beginning the period of Tibet under Qing rule [74]
Dzungar–Qing Wars : Amin Khoja leads a rebellion in Turpan against the Dzungar Khanate and defects to the Qing dynasty [73]
Zhu Yigui rebels in Taiwan and is defeated [75]
1723 Plains aborigines living in Dajiaxi village along the central coastal plain of Taiwan rebel; the aborigines are defeated but Han Chinese settlers continue to rebel [76]
The government starts investing in the Eight Banners' livelihoods to reduce their reliance on state subsidies [77]
1727The government orders the comprehensive collection of genealogical tables for the Eight Banners [78]
172825 June Treaty of Kyakhta (1727) : The Mongolian border of the Qing dynasty and Empire of Russia is delineated [79]


1732 Dzungar–Qing Wars : The Dzungars attack Amin Khoja, who takes his people to settle in Guazhou [73]
Han Chinese rebels in Taiwan are defeated [76]
1735 Miao Rebellion : Qing forces defeat and massacre 28,900 Miao and Kam people in Rongjiang [80]
Military upkeep reaches 32 million taels, a bit more than half of the empire's budget [81]
1737 Dzungar–Qing Wars : Abuse by the Dzungars cause residents of the Tarim Basin to flee to the Qing dynasty [82]


1742 Bannermen of Chinese origin who joined after 1644 are allowed to leave the banner system [83]


1754 Dzungar–Qing Wars : The Dörbet and Amursana defect to the Qing dynasty [84]
State investment programs for the Eight Banners end [85]
Chinese bannermen at the Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, and Jingkou garrisons are "let go" and "excused" from their duties [83]
1755 Dzungar–Qing Wars : The Qing dynasty sends 50,000 troops in two columns against the Dzungars, meeting little resistance, and complete the destruction of the khanate in just 100 days, however Amursana revolts in the aftermath [73]
1756All secondary status households in the Eight Banners are ordered to register as civilians [86]
1757 Dzungar–Qing Wars : Amursana flees the Qing dynasty, dying in Tobolsk [84]
Chinese bannermen in Beijing who are too old, maimed, or incompetent are let go [87]


1760The government spends 4 million taels buying back land from Han owners for the Eight Banners [88]
1761Chinese bannermen at Suiyuan are replaced by Mongols and Manchus [87]
1762All Chinese bannermen are given the choice of leaving the banner system [87]
1763Chinese bannermen at Liangzhou and Zhuanglang are let go [87]


1779Chinese bannermen at Xi'an are let go [87]


1786 Lin Shuangwen rebellion : Lin Shuangwen rebels in Taiwan [89]
1788 Lin Shuangwen rebellion : Lin Shuangwen is defeated [89]

19th century


1820Poverty becomes endemic in the Eight Banners [90]


1841Ding Gongchen builds China's first steam engine [91]
184229 AugustThe Treaty of Nanking is signed between Britain and China, to come into effect on 26 June 1843.


1863Restrictions on banner occupations are officially lifted to no effect [92]


1871December Mudan incident : A Ryukyuan tributary ship crashes off the southern coast of Taiwan [93]
1872July Mudan incident : The survivors of the Ryukyuan shipwreck who survive a massacre by Taiwanese indigenous peoples find shelter among Han Chinese locals and are shipped home from mainland China [94]
1874 Japanese invasion of Taiwan (1874) : Japanese forces invade aboriginal territory in southern Taiwan using the Mudan incident as pretext and retreat after forcing the Qing to pay an indemnity [95]


189517 April First Sino-Japanese War : The Qing cede the Penghu islands and Taiwan to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki [96]
189811 JuneThe Guangxu Emperor begins the Hundred Days' Reform [97]
5 SeptemberZhang Yuanji recommends ending Manchu-Han differences and dissolving the Eight Banners system [98]
21 September Empress Dowager Cixi puts the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest [99]
22 September Empress Dowager Cixi comes to power [100]

20th century


1900June Boxer Rebellion : Empress Dowager Cixi declares war on foreign powers [100]
14 August Boxer Rebellion : Foreign troops enter Beijing [101]
7 September Boxer Rebellion : The Boxer Protocol is signed [102]
17 September Boxer Rebellion : Foreign troops leave Beijing [102]
1901JulyThe Zongli Yamen is replaced with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs [103]
19027 January Empress Dowager Cixi returns to Beijing [102]
1 FebruaryBan on intermarriage between Manchus and Han Chinese is lifted [104]
190329 December Manchu monopoly on posts in the Eight Banners is abolished [104]
190516 JulyThe government issues an edict proclaiming the need for leading officials to investigate new ways of government from abroad [105]
24 SeptemberAnti-Manchu proponent Wu Yue fails to assassinate the constitutional study commissioners [106]
The prohibition on transfer of property from the Eight Banners to civilians is lifted [103]
19061 September Empress Dowager Cixi promises to form a constitutional government with no specified date [107]
1907AprilThe territories of Manchuria are reorganized into provinces [103]
6 July Anhui governor Enming is assassinated by the anti-Manchu Xu Xilin [108]
20 September Empress Dowager Cixi declares her intention to create "a bicameral deliberative body" [109]
27 SeptemberAn edict is passed to disband provincial banner garrisons over a 10-year period [110]
9 OctoberAn edict is passed to create a set of codes which apply uniformly to Manchus and Han Chinese [109]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Manchuria</span> Geographical region in Northeast Asia

Manchuria refers to a region in Northeast Asia encompassing the entirety of present-day Northeast China or, historically, those areas combined with parts of the Russian Far East. Its definition may refer to varying geographical extents as following: the Chinese provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning but broadly also including the eastern Inner Mongolian prefectures of Hulunbuir, Hinggan, Tongliao, and Chifeng, collectively known as Northeast China. Historically included homeland of the Jurchens and later their descendants Manchus, which was controlled in whole by Qing China prior to the Amur Annexation in 1858–1860, when parts of the historical region were ceded to the Russian Empire. The two areas involved are Priamurye between the Amur River and the Stanovoy Range to the north, and Primorskaya which runs down the Pacific coast from the Amur mouth to the Korean border, sometimes including the island of Sakhalin- collectively known as Outer Manchuria or Russian Manchuria.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Guozijian</span> National academy of east Asian empires

The Guozijian, sometimes translated as the Imperial College, Imperial Academy, Imperial University, National Academy, or National University, was the national central institution of higher learning in Chinese dynasties after the Sui dynasty. It was the highest institution of academic research and learning in China's traditional educational system, with the function of administration of education.

The Cambridge History of China is a series of books published by the Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982 AD. The series was conceived by British historian Denis C. Twitchett and American historian John K. Fairbank in the late 1960s, and publication began in 1978. The complete History will contain 15 volumes made up of 17 books with volumes 5 and 9 consisting of two books each.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Northern Yuan</span> Former empire in East Asia

The Northern Yuan was a dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau. It existed as a rump state after the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368 and lasted until its conquest by the Jurchen-led Later Jin dynasty in 1635. The Northern Yuan dynasty began with the retreat of the Yuan imperial court led by Toghon Temür to the Mongolian steppe. This period featured factional struggles and the often only nominal role of the Great Khan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Military of the Ming dynasty</span> Imperial Chinese army

The military of the Ming dynasty was the military apparatus of China from 1368 to 1644. It was founded in 1368 during the Red Turban Rebellion by Zhu Yuanzhang. The military was initially organised along largely hereditary lines and soldiers were meant to serve in self-sufficient agricultural communities. They were grouped into guards (wei) and battalions (suo), otherwise known as the wei-suo system. This hereditary guard battalion system went into decline around 1450 and was discarded in favor of mercenaries a century later.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chinese archery</span>

For millennia, Chinese archery has played a pivotal role in Chinese society. In particular, archery featured prominently in ancient Chinese culture and philosophy: archery was one of the Six Noble Arts of the Zhou dynasty ; archery skill was a virtue for Chinese emperors; Confucius himself was an archery teacher; and Lie Zi was an avid archer. Because the cultures associated with Chinese society spanned a wide geography and time range, the techniques and equipment associated with Chinese archery are diverse. The improvement of firearms and other circumstances of 20th century China led to the demise of archery as a military and ritual practice, and for much of the 20th century only one traditional bow and arrow workshop remained. However, at the beginning of the 21st century, there has been a revival in interest among craftsmen looking to construct bows and arrows, as well as a practice technique in the traditional Chinese style.

The Imperial Clan Court or Court of the Imperial Clan was an institution responsible for all matters pertaining to the imperial family under the Ming and Qing dynasties of imperial China. This institution also existed under the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam where it managed matters pertaining to the Nguyễn Phúc clan.

A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, the purview of the office under the two dynasties differed markedly. Under the Ming dynasty, the post originated around 1430 as a kind of inspector-general and ad hoc provincial-level administrator; such a xunfu is usually translated as a grand coordinator. However, since the mid-17th century, xunfu became the title of a regular provincial governor overseeing civil administration in the Qing dynasty.

The Peking Field Force was a modern-armed military unit that defended the Chinese imperial capital Beijing in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).

The siege of Lüshun was a military conflict between the Later Jin and Ming dynasty. In the summer of 1634 the Jin attacked and conquered the port city of Lüshun from Ming.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Jurchens</span> Timeline of notable events in the history of Manchuria

This is a timeline of the Jurchens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Chagatai Khanate</span>

This is a timeline of the Chagatai Khanate (1226–1348) and its successor states, Moghulistan (1347–1462), Yarkent Khanate (1514–1696), and the Turpan Khanate (1462–1680).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Ming dynasty</span>

A timeline of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) from the rise of the Hongwu Emperor to the rise and establishment of the Qing dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Yunnan under Ming rule</span>

Yunnan under Ming rule saw the continuation of the tusi system instituted during the Yuan dynasty, increasing centralization, and Han migration into Yunnan.

This is a timeline of Yunnan and Guizhou.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jurchen unification</span> 1583–1619 unification of the Jurchen tribes under Nurhaci, founder of the Later Jin dynasty

The Jurchen unification were a series of events in the late 16th and early 17th centuries that led to the unification of the Jurchen tribes under the Jianzhou Jurchen leader Nurhaci. While Nurhaci was originally a vassal of the Ming dynasty who considered himself a local representative of imperial Ming power, he also had a somewhat antagonistic relationship with the Ming due to Ming's involvement in events early on in his life that led to the death of his father and grandfather combined with his own increasing ambition. From 1583 to the early 1600s, Nurhaci led a series of military and influence campaigns that led to the unification of the majority of the Jurchen tribes. In 1616, Nurhaci established the Later Jin dynasty and ruled as its founding khan, and he renounced Ming overlordship with the Seven Grievances in 1618. After his death in 1626 his son Hong Taiji proclaimed the Qing dynasty by renaming the dynasty "Great Qing".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of the Northern Yuan</span> Mongol history

This is a timeline of the Northern Yuan dynasty.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Xinjiang under Qing rule</span>

This is a timeline of the Xinjiang under the rule of the Qing dynasty.

This is a timeline of the Oirats, also known as the Kalmyks or Dzungars.

This is a timeline of the Uzbeks.


  1. Elliott 2001, p. 52.
  2. Elliott 2001, p. 54.
  3. Twitchett 1998, p. 576.
  4. Narangoa 2014, p. 24.
  5. Swope 2014, p. 19.
  6. 1 2 3 Narangoa 2014, p. 25.
  7. Twitchett 1998, p. 570.
  8. Crossley 1997, p. 65-77.
  9. Elliott 2001, p. 56.
  10. 1 2 Narangoa 2014, p. 28.
  11. Twitchett 1998, p. 558.
  12. Twitchett 1998b, p. 271.
  13. Twitchett 1998, p. 577.
  14. Swope 2014, p. 14.
  15. Twitchett 1998, p. 579.
  16. 1 2 Wakeman 1985, p. 63.
  17. Swope 2014, p. 24.
  18. Narangoa 2014, p. 30.
  19. Twitchett 1998, p. 600.
  20. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 601.
  21. Narangoa 2014, p. 34.
  22. Twitchett 1998, p. 602.
  23. Crossley 1997, p. 74.
  24. 1 2 Elliott 2001, p. 63.
  25. Swope 2014, p. 79.
  26. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 616.
  27. Twitchett 1998, p. 617.
  28. Twitchett 1998, p. 618.
  29. Swope 2014, p. 102.
  30. Crossley 1997, p. 77.
  31. 1 2 3 Narangoa 2014, p. 37.
  32. Twitchett 1998, p. 629.
  33. 1 2 Swope 2014, p. 115.
  34. Twitchett 1998, p. 630.
  35. Twitchett 1998, p. 636.
  36. Narangoa 2014, p. 41.
  37. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 639.
  38. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 656.
  39. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 660.
  40. Twitchett 1998, p. 662.
  41. Twitchett 1998, p. 673.
  42. Twitchett 1998, p. 675.
  43. 1 2 3 Twitchett 1998, p. 676.
  44. Twitchett 1998, p. 702.
  45. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 679.
  46. Twitchett 1998, p. 682.
  47. Twitchett 1998, p. 712.
  48. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 683.
  49. Twitchett 1998, p. 684.
  50. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 691.
  51. Twitchett 1998, p. 686.
  52. Twitchett 1998, p. 690.
  53. 1 2 3 Twitchett 1998, p. 692.
  54. Twitchett 1998, p. 698.
  55. 1 2 3 4 Narangoa 2014, p. 46.
  56. 1 2 3 Twitchett 1998, p. 704.
  57. 1 2 Narangoa 2014, p. 47.
  58. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 718.
  59. Twitchett 1998, p. 706.
  60. Twitchett 1998, p. 719.
  61. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 707.
  62. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 720.
  63. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 721.
  64. Elliott 2001, p. 307.
  65. 1 2 Twitchett 1998, p. 710.
  66. Twitchett 1998, p. 725.
  67. Elliott 2001, p. 315.
  68. Narangoa 2014.
  69. Elliott 2001, p. 335.
  70. 1 2 3 Narangoa 2014, p. 56.
  71. 1 2 Adle 2003, p. 148.
  72. 1 2 Adle 2003, p. 219.
  73. 1 2 3 4 Adle 2003, p. 200.
  74. Adle 2003, p. 149.
  75. Li 2019, p. 82-83.
  76. 1 2 Twitchett 2002, p. 228.
  77. Elliott 2001, p. 318.
  78. Elliott 2001, p. 326.
  79. Christian 2018, p. 182.
  80. Geary 2003, p. 13.
  81. Elliott 2001, p. 309.
  82. Adle 2003, p. 199.
  83. 1 2 Elliott 2001, p. 340.
  84. 1 2 Adle 2003, p. 150.
  85. Elliott 2001, p. 321.
  86. Elliott 2001, p. 333.
  87. 1 2 3 4 5 Elliott 2001, p. 341.
  88. Elliott 2001, p. 316.
  89. 1 2 Standaert 2022, p. 225.
  90. Elliott 2001, p. 322.
  91. Andrade 2016, p. 264.
  92. Elliott 2001, p. 311.
  93. Barclay 2018, p. 50.
  94. Barclay 2018, p. 51-52.
  95. Wong 2022, p. 124-126.
  96. Zhang (1998), p. 514.
  97. Rhoads 2000, p. 63.
  98. Rhoads 2000, p. 65.
  99. Rhoads 2000, p. 67.
  100. 1 2 Rhoads 2000, p. 71.
  101. Rhoads 2000, p. 72.
  102. 1 2 3 Rhoads 2000, p. 73.
  103. 1 2 3 Rhoads 2000, p. 77.
  104. 1 2 Rhoads 2000, p. 76.
  105. Rhoads 2000, p. 96.
  106. Rhoads 2000, p. 97.
  107. Rhoads 2000, p. 100.
  108. Rhoads 2000, p. 104.
  109. 1 2 Rhoads 2000, p. 118.
  110. Rhoads 2000, p. 117.